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Printed  and  Published  for  Proprietors  of  the  "  Newcastle  Weekly  Chronicle  "  by 



Lord  Armstrong.    By  Major  Evan  R.  Jones  ............      1 

Candyman.     By  R.  Oliver  Heslop  ...........................      6 

Stokoe  :  — 

By  John 

•'Whittingharn  Fair,"  7;    "The  De'il   Stick   the 
Minister,"  78;    "Captain    Bover,"135;    "The 
Quayside     Shaver,"      175;     "The      Outlandish 
Knight."   198;    "Bob  Cranky's     Adieu,"    252; 
"X.    Y.    Z.  at  Newcastle  Races,"  323;    "Bin-, 
norie,  or  the  Cruel  Sister,"  374  ;    "The   Horrid 
War  i'  Sangyet,"  398;    "The  Fair    Flower    of 
Northumberland,"     462;     "  Newcaasel     is     My 
Native     Place,"      and     "Bobby    Nunn,"    485; 
"  Sandgate    Lassie's    Lament  for   the  Death   of 
Bobby  Nunn,"    486;    "Christmas    Day  in  the 
Morning,"  546. 
Halton  Castle  ..................................................  8 

Thirlwall  Castle  ....................................................      9 

MKN   OF   MARK    TWIXT   TYNE   AND   TWEED.     By 
Richard  Welford  :— 

Sir  Henry  Brabant,  10:  the  Rev.  John  Brand, 
M.A.,  11  ;  George  Brewis,  the  Rev.  Wm, 
Brewis,  13  ;  John  Trotter  Brockett,  14  ;  Sir 
Robert  Brandling,  66;  Robert  Brandling,  67; 
Charles  John  Brandling,  68;  .John  Brown,  D.D., 
122  ;  Lancelot  Brown,  124  ;  Michael  Bryan,  125  ; 
John  Bruce,  126  ;  John  Buddie,  162  ;  William 
Buhner,  164  ;  Sir  Thomas  Burdon,  210  ;  William 
Burdon,  212;  George  Carleton,  213;  Robert 
Carey,  Earl  of  Monmouth,  266  ;  Rev.  J.  D. 
Carlyle,  B.D.,  268;  Rev.  James  Chadwick, 
D.D.,  269;  George  Carr,  306;  Cuthbert  Carr, 
307  ;  John  Carr,  the  Rev.  George  Carr,  309  ; 
William  Carr,  310  ;  Leonard  Carr,  354  ;  Ralph 
Carr,  355;  Ralph  Carr-Ellison,  385;  Sir  Robert 
Chambers,  387  ;  William  Chapman,  388  ;  Henry 
Chapman,  442:  Edward  Charlton,  443;  Edward 
Chicken,  445;  John  Clark,  M.D.,  506;  Joseph 
Clark.  507  ;  Sir  John  Clavering.  509  ;  James 
Clavering,  509  ;  Clayton,  the  Rev.  Richard,  538  ; 
Cock,  William,  540  ;  Ralph  Cole  and  Sir  Nicholas 
Cole,  541. 

The  Sunderland  Babbies  ...................................  16 

The  Wreck  of  the  Stanley....  17 

The  Hedley  Kow  ...................................................     19 


Grey  Street,  21  ;  Grainger  Street,  79  ;  Blackett 
Street  and  New  Bridge  Street,  102  ;  Northum- 
berland Street  and  its  Offshoots,  158  ;  Newgate 
Street,  214  ;  Gallowgate  and  Percy  Street,  270  ; 
The  Side,  311  ;  The  Close,  350  ;  St.  Nicholas' 
Churchyard  and  St.  Nicholas'  Square  399  ;  The 
Quayside,  453  ;  Neville  Street  and  Scotswood 
Road.  510  ;  Elswick  Road  District,  551. 

Early    Wars   of    Northumbria  :—  26,   59,    106,   171,    227, 
258,  298,  347,  414,  450,  490,  532 

The  Stote  Manby  Case  ........                                         .  30 

The  Robin  ............................................................  31 

Langdale  Pikes  ......................................................  32 

Wallace's  Raids  in  Northumberland  .........................  34 

The  Sleuth  or  Blood  Hound.     By  the  late  James 

Clephan  .................................................  36 

Our  Roman  Roads.     By  William  Brockie  ......  38,  51,  114 

A  Gateshead  Prodigy  .............................................  40 

Allom's  View  of  Durham  ........................................  40 

King  Arthur  and  Arthur's  Hill  ...............................  41 

The  Lion  Bridge,  Alnwick  ......................................  41 


Burying  the  Colours  of  a  Regiment  in  Newcastle 

— A  Yorkshire  Robberv  and  its  Detection..         42 
The  Margetts  Mystery— The    Inventor    of    the 

Steam  Plough— A  Highwayman  Tragedy   .     90 
ihe    Greenhow    and    Martineau   Families— The 

Watchman's  Rattle— Alnwick  Corporation       138 
Lieutenant  Aclamson,  R.N.— The  Helm-Wind— 

Pudding  Chare— A  Long  Word 186 

A  Hartlepool  Ginevra— St.  Nicholas'  Church  and 
the  Scottish  Prisoners— A  Sunderland  Hero- 
General  Monk  in  Newcastlt — Ridley  Villas      235 
John  Barksby— The  Nest  on  the  Tomb— A  Les- 

bury  Epitaph 282 

Edward  Jennings,  V.C.— William  Surtees^  a 
Corbndge  Veteran— Kirby  Fight  — Henry 

Russell  in  Newcastle  330 

Alderman   Thomas  Forster — Newcastle  Pants — 

.Mrs.  Barrett  Brownintr— Oalaly  Castle  378 

Head   of  the  Side— The    Biddick  Pitman— The 

Wedderstone 425 

The  Bell  Tower  at  Morpeth— Algernon  Charles 
Swinburne— An  Ancient  Doorway— Starlings 
at  Alston— The  Petting  Stone  at'Holy  Island 

-Barnum  in  Newcastle 474 

A  Northumbrian  Bake-Stick— A  Clown  and  his 

Geese  on  the  Tyne 522 

Sir  John  Femvick— A  Prince's  Nurse  —  Charles 

Avison,  organist— The  Side,  Newcastle    570 

North-Country  Wit  and  Humour  :— 42,  91    139   187   236 
283,  331,  379,  427,  476,  523,  571 

North-Country  Obituaries  :— 43,  92,  139,  188,  236,  283  331 

3SO,  427,  477,  523,  572 

Record  of  Events :— 45,  93,  140,  189,  237,  285,  332,  381, 

423.  473,  524,  573 

Extinct  Wild  Animals  in  the  North 49 

Ghosts  at  Tudhoe 52 

Football  in  the  North 54 

Swallowship  55 

Charles  Dickens  in  the  North .     57 

The  Uaudy  Loup 63 

Two  Famous  Waterfalls  :  Lodore  and  Colwith 64 

Chollerford 71 

Barnard  Castle 74 

Lartington 75  _ 

Cotherstone  76 

Barnard  Castle  Tragedies 76 

A  Roxburghshire  Poet.    By  Sir  George  Douglas,  Bart.     79 

The  Miser  of  Ketton  84 

A  Cumberland  Worthy  :  Mr.  George  Routledge  85 

The  House  Sparrow  and  the  Hedge  Sparrow 86 

Uncle  Tob.y's  Exhibition  of  Toys    87 

The  Academy  of  Arts 90 

The  Victoria  Hall  Disaster,  Sunderland  97 

Lottery  Offices  in  Newcastle 101 

Mr.  Sims  Reeves's  Early  Career 110 

Middlesbrough  New  Town  Hall,  <tc 110 

The  Prince  of  Wales  and  the  Chilling-ham  Bull 113 

A  Fatal  Balloon  Ascent  from  Newcastle 117 

Langley  Castle 117 

Chipchase  Castle 119 

BleaTarn  128 

The  Skylark    129 

Garibaldi's  Sword    130 

Charms  for  Venom 132 

The  Delaval  Papers 133 

Whitton  Tower,  Rothbury    136 

Rector  Gray:  A  Sunderland  Worthy   137 

The  Pitman  of  Biddick  and  the  Earldom  of  Perth    ...  145 

A  Chartist  Spear 148 

The  Grand  Duke  Nicholas  at  Wallsend    150 

The  Reedwater  Witches 151 




Norham  Castle 151 

Thomas  Sopwith  154 

William  Veitch,  Covenanter  and  Farmer 155 

Dinsdale  Spa 157 

Lambton  Castle    161 

Morpeth 166 

Cost  of  Newcastle  Mayoralty  a  Century  Ap;o 174 

Trinity  House,  Newcastle 176 

Football  at  Chester-le-Street    180 

The  Cuckoo    181 

A  North-Country  Mystery    181 

"Canny"  183 

Wastwater  and  The  Screes    184 

The  Bewick  Club  ami  its  Founders    193 

A  Letter  of  the  Poet  of  the  Seasons  199 

Cumberland  and  the  Scottish  Kings 199 

Duddo  Tower  and  Stones  200 

Cartington  Castle 201 

.Scenes  and  Characters  iu  "  Guy  Mannering  " 202 

Miss  or  Mistress  205 

Sir  Bevis  Buhner,  Knight  of  tlie  Golden  Mine   ..... 205 

John  Bright's  Connection  with  the  North    206 

Kirkstall  Abl>ey    209 

The  Coming  ami  Going  of  tlie  Judges 222 

The  Rook  and  the  Jackdaw 231 

"Wandering  Willie" 235 

The  Miller's  Cottaffe,  Ban-as  Bridge.  Newcastle 234 

Mr.  .lames  K.  Anderson  in  Newcastle  241 

Marshall  Wade's  Koad 245 

The  Pardoned  Mutineer 247 

Kiver  Police  Station  and  Dead  House,  Newcastle 248 

" The  Quicks'  Buring  Has  in  Sidgate " 249 

Freemen's  Well  Day  at  Alnwick 253 

Wearmouth  Bridge  Lottery 254 

Staward  Peel  and  Dickey  of  Kingswood  255 

Bothal  Castle 257 

Illustration!*  of  Kail  way  Development  262 

Kn-suth's  Visits  to  Newcastle 276 

The  Magpie 277 

Crowd  y 278 

Gas  Lighting  in  the  North  279 

AV'  Hartlepool 279 

Sanctuary  at  Durliam  Cathedral 289 

Northern  Sun  Dials 292 

John  the  Pieman  :  A  Snnilerland  Character 295 

Calaly  Castle,  Northumberland 295 

Help,  the  liailway  Dog 297 

The  Wags  of  Durham 301 

Mrs.  Browning's  Birthplace 303 

The  Threepwood  Case 315 

Leopold  Martin's  Recollections 318 

Old  Newcastle  on  the  Tuthill  Stairs 319 

Lewis  Thompson 322 

The  Chaffinch 324 

St.  Helen's  Auckland  Hall 325 

Richard  Ayre 326 

Mercenaries  in  Northumberland 326 

Ttie  Roxbya  and  Beverleys 327 

Aske  Hall.  Yorkshire 329 

Thomas  Wilson,  Author  of  "The  Pitman's  Pay  " 337 

The  Lumley  Ghost  Story 339 

The  Marquis  of  Londonderry 341 

Hareshaw  Linn 343 

St.  John's  Church,  Gateshead  Fell 344 

Norton  Church 345 

The  Greenfinch 358 

Bishop  Butler  at  Stanhope 358 

The  Author  of  "  The  Tales  of  the  Border  " 363 

Bull-Baiting  in  the  North 365 

The  Salters' Track  ...  366 


Ponteland  Tower 367 

Fox  How,  Arnbleside 368 

Katy's  Coffee  House,  Newcastle 369 

The  Muggleswiek  Conspirators  370 

Clifford,  the  Shepherd  Lord 373 

North-Country  Sailors  and  Pompey's  Pillar    375 

Kepier  Grammar  School 375 

Cross  House,  Westgate  Road,  Newcastle 377 

Gibside  and  its  Owners 390 

The  Village  of  Alnmouth 392 

Racing  in  the  Northern  Counties   394 

A  Mysterious  Mail  Coach  Robbery   402 

The  Chiff-Chaff    404 

A  Blind  Scholar  :  Laurence  Goodchild 405 

Bear  Baitine 406 

The  Castle  Garth,  Newcastle    406 

St.  Nicholas' Cathedral,  Newcastle   408 

J.  W.  Carmichael,  Artist 412 

Windy  Monday 418 

Robert  Bolron,  the  Spy 420 

Sir  George  Bowes,  Defender  of  Barnard  Castle 421 

Durham  University 422 

Millet's  "Angelus'1 432 

Baron  Brown,  the  Durham  Poet 433 

Newcastle  Apprentices  435 

The  Cut-Purse  Ordeal    439 

St.  Mary's  Island,  Northumberland   441 

Thomas  Dixon,  Corkcutter    447 

St.  Giles's  Church,  Durham 448 

Rob  Roy  in  Northumberland    459 

The  Central  Station  Hotel,  Newcastle  464 

Mr.  Walter  Scott 464 

Leprosy  in  the  Northern  Counties  465 

Sherburn  Hospital   468 

The  Swallow  and  the  Swift  469 

Christopher  North  at  Klleray  471 

Sir  John  Fenwick,  Jacobite 481 

Ralph  Gardner,  of  Chirton    487 

Rock  Hall,  Northumberland    490 

The  .Story  of  a  BorderTrance  494 

Ralph  Waldo  Emerson  iu  Newcastle 495 

Old  House  at  Hexliam    496 

Haltwhistle  Church     497 

The  Floating  Island  in  Derwentwater  ..  ...  500 

Blanchland 500 

The  House  Martin  and  Sand  Martin 514 

The  British  Association  in  Newcastle 515 

Willimoteswick  Castle  517 

The  Sockburn  Worm 518 

Wmdermere  Lake 521 

The  Luck  of  Edeuhall 529 

Kepier  Hospital,  Durham  535 

Bothal  Village,    Northumberland 537 

Newcastle  Jesters 543 

Bolton-on-the-Aln   544 

A  Tyneside  Hero ; 545 

Captain  Wiggins 547 

North-Country  Fairies  548 

Football  at  Workington  ..  ...  550 

The  Pollard  Worm 556 

The  Great  Riot  at  Hexham,  1761 557 

Mark   Littlefair  Howarth 559 

Rydal  Water  and  Rydal  Mount 560 

Fairy  Pipes    561 

Hermitage  Castle 562 

The  Wagtails 564 

"Tommy  on  the  Bridge  " 566 

Sir  Thomas  Riddell  and  Sir  John  Lesley 566 

Sir  Daniel  Gooch 568 

PhiueasT.  Barnum....  569 

Hermitage  Castle  (Frontispiece)  Page 

Armstrong  Park,  Heaton  Section,  Newcastle 1 

Residence  of  Lord  Armstrong,  Jesmond 4 

Banqueting  HalL  Jesmond  Dene 5 

Halton  Castle 8 

Thirlwall  Castle .    9 


J.  T.  Brokett's  Book  Plate 15 

The  Sunderland  Babbies 16 

The  Wreck  of  the  Stanley 17 

Grey  Street,  Newcastle 24 

Grey  Street,  Newcastle  :  Scene  during  the  Snowstorm  25 




Maps,  Arms  and  Defences  of  the  Ancient  Britons,  &c.  • — 
27,  28,  29,  60,  61,  62,  107,  108,  471,  173,  228.  230,  259 
260,  261,  298,  299,  349,  415,  416,  417,  451,  452,  491,  492, 

493, 532,  533,  534 

The  Robin 32 

Langdale  and  Langdale  Pikes 32 

View  from  the  Top  of  Langdale  Pikes 33 

Allom's  View  of  Durham    40 

The  Lion  Bridge,  Alnwick 41 

Swallowship    56 

Birthplace  of  Charles  Dickens,  Gad's  Hill  Place 57 

The  Falls  of  Lodore 64 

Colwith  Force 65 

Chollerford,  North  Tyne 72 

Barnard  Castle,  Lartington,  and  Cotherstone  Church    73 

Barnard  Castle,  from  the  Tees 75 

Grainger  Street,   Newcastle 80 

Butcher  Market,  Newcastle 81 

Art  Gallery,  Newcastle 82 

The  House  Sparrow  and  Hedge   Sparrow 86,     87 

Uncle  Toby's  Toy  Exhibition 88 

Academy  of  Arts.  Newcastle 89 

Victoria  Hall,  Sunderland  : — 

View  from   the  Park,  View  from  Laura  Street, 
Interior,  the  Fatal  Door,  Scene  of  the  Catastrophe, 

Two  Sketches  of  the  Memorial 97,93,99,  100 

Richardson's  Shop,  Blackett  Street,  Newcastle 103 

Eldqu  Square,  Newcastle 103 

Carliol  Tower,  Newcastle 104 

Public  Library,  Newcastle 105 

Middlesbrough  Town  Hall  and  Municipal  Buildings..  112 

The  Prince  of  Wales  and  the  Chillmgharn  Bull 113 

Langley  Castle 120 

Chipohase  Castle 121 

Blea    Tarn 128 

The  Skylark 129 

Whitton  Tower 137 

The  Watchman's  Rattle 138 

A  Chartist  Spear 149 

"ACraaFoot"    149 

Norham  Castle    152,  153 

Singleton  House.  Newcastle 158 

Blind  Asylum,  Newcastle 159 

Dame  Allan's  School,  Newcastle 159 

St.  Thomas's  Church,  Newcastle 160 

Lambton  Castle,  Durham 161 

Entrance  to  Morpeth  Old  Bridge    167 

Old  Mill  by  the  Bridge  at  Morpeth  167 

Morpeth  Parish  Church 168 

Morpeth  Market  Place  169 

Gateway  of  Morpeth  Castle 170 

Trinity  House.  Newcastle 176,  177 

Museum,  Trinity  House,  Newcastle 178 

Chapel  of  Trinity  House,  Newcastle 179 

The  Cuckoo  181 

Wastwater,  Cumberland   184 

The  Screes,  Wastwater 185 

Memorial  to  Lieutenant  Adamson 186 

Duddo  Tower  and  Stones 200 

Cartington  Castle  201 

Dorothy  Foster's  Visiting  Card 205 

Kirkstall  Abbey,  near  Leeds   209 

Newgate,  Newcastle,  about  1400 214 

Newgate  in  1813  215 

Demolition  of  Newgate,  1823 215 

The  Newgate,  Newcastle,  1789   216 

Groined  Archway  of  Newgate,  1823 217 

Demolition  of  South  Transept,  St.  Andrew's  Church  218 

St.  Andrew's  Church,  Newcastle    219 

The  Black  Horse,  Neweate  Street,  Newcastle  220 

Scotch  Arms,  Newcastle,  1843    221 

The  Toll  Booth,  Gateshead 223 

The  Old  Moot  Hall    224 

Sheriff's  Procession  to  meet  the  Judges   225 

Tynemouth  Castle  228 

Lmdisfarne  Abbey 228 

Whitby  Abbey 230 

The  Rook  and  the  Jackdaw 232 

Wandering  Willie  233 

The  Miller's  Cottage,  Barras  Bridge,  Newcastle   234 

Old  Windmill,  near  Walker-ou-Tyne   237 

River  Police  Station,  Newcastle 248 

The  Quicks'  Burying  Ground,  Newcastle 249 

Staward  Peel    "  256 

Bothal  Castle,  Northumberland !!!!!"!!!""  257 

Rains  of  Monastery  at  Jarrow    259 

A  Chmle .......  260 

Swords  and  Axe-head....  261 

Puffing  Billy,  1813  .."".I"."""'.'.".  262 

Stephenson's  Engine,  1815    262 

Stephenson's  Engine,   "Rocket"    263 

Chat  Moss,  showing  Stephenson's  line  ""'.'.  263 

Opening  of  Stockton  and  Darlington  Railway.  264 

The  Rainhill  Competition,  1829  :  The  "  Rocket"  First  265 

Gallowgate,  from  Percy  Street,  Newcastle 272 

Darn  Crook,  Newcastle 272 

Old  Houses  in  Percy  Street,  Newcastle 273 

Corner  in  Percy  Street.  Newcastle ....'.'...  273 

Gallowgate  Hopping,  Newcastle 274 

The  Mairpie  277 

New  Municipal  Buildings,  West  Hartlepool  280 

Stranton  Church,  West  Hartlepool    281 

Church  Street,  West  Hartlepool 281 

The  Nest  on  the  Tomb,  Jesmoud  Cemetery    282 

Sanctuary  Knocker,  Durham " 239 

Sun  Diai  at  Haydon  Bridge 293 

Seven  Dials    294 

Calaly  Castle,  Northumberland  296 

Help,  the  Hail  way  Dog 297 

Coxhoe  Hall,  Durham 304 

Long  Walk,  and  The  Avenue,  Coxhoe 305 

Head  of  the  Side,  Newcastle,  1876 312 

The  Side,  Newcastle 313 

Gale  Cross,  near  the  Sandhill,  Newcastle 314 

Sweeper's  Entry,  Close,  Newcastle 319 

Panelled  Chamber,  Tuthill  Stairs,  Newcastle 319 

Elizabethan  Mansion  ou  Tutl.ill  Stairs 320 

West  Entrance  to  Panelled  Chamber    321 

ChalHnch 324 

St.  Helen's  Auckland  Hall,  Durham 325 

Aske  Hall,  Yorkshire 329 

Fletcher's  Entry,  Groat  Market,  Newcastle    333 

St.  Michael  and  All  Angels' Church,  Newcastle    335 

Fell  House.  Residence  of  Thomas  Wilson    337 

Hareshaw  Linn     343 

St.  John's  Church,  Gateshead  Fell 344 

Norton  Church 345 

Effigy  in  Norton  Church  347 

Part  of  Earl's  Inn,  Newcastle,  1846  351 

The  Yellow  Doors  Tavern,  Close,  Newcastle 352 

Close  Gate,  Newcastle,  1826 ...  353 

The  Water  Tower,  Close,  Newcastle,  1346  353 

The  Greenfinch    358 

Latin  Inscription  in  the  Rectory  House  of  Stanhope...  359 

Stanhope,  Weardaie    360 

Stanhope  Church 361 

Stone  Bridge  over  the  Wear,  Stanhope 362 

Ponteland  Tower 367 

Fox  How,  Ambleside 368 

Katy's  Coffee  House,  Newcastle 369 

Kepier  Grammar  School,  Houghton-Ie-Spring  376 

Cross  House,  Westgate  Road,  Newcastle 377 

Gibside  Hall,  Chapel,  and  Banqueting  Hall  392 

Alnmouth  393 

St.  Nicholas'  Church,  Newcastle 400 

Union  Bank,  St.  Nicholas' Square,  Newcastle  401 

Old  House  in  St.  Nicholas'  Square,   Newcastle 401 

TheChiff-Chaff 405 

The  Castle  Garth,  Newcastle 408 

St.  Nicholas' Cathedral,  Newcastle 409 

Cover  of  Font,  St.  Nicholas'  Church 410 

Pew  Standards,  St.  Nicholas'  Church 411 

Brinkburn  Priory 415 

The  King's  Cairn,  Dunmail  Raise,  Cumberland 417 

Procession  of  Boats  on  the  Wear,  Durham 424 

Garden  Party  in  the  Castle  Grounds,  Durham 425 

Millet's  "  Angelus" 432 

The  Cut-Purse  Ordeal 440 

St.  Mary's  Island,  Northumberland 441 

Three  Tuns  Inn,  White  Cross,  Newcastle 446 

Autograph  of  Edward  Chicken 446 

Residence  of  Thomas  Dixou,  Sunderland 448 




St.  Giles's  Church,  Durham 449 

The  High  Crane,  Quayside,  Newcastle 4bA 

Grinding  Chare,  Quayside,  Newcastle 454 

Quayside,  Newcastle 454 

Hornsby's  Chare.  Newcastle 455 

Grain  Warehouse,   Quayside,  Newcastle 4bb 

Hi(?h  Dykes  Tavern,  Broad  Chare,  Newcastle 456 

Old  House  in  Broad  Chare,  Newcastle 457 

House  Where  Lord  Eldon  was  Born 458 

The  Glasshouse  Bridee,  Newcastle 458 

The  Central  Station  Hotel,  Newcastle 464 

Sherburn  Hospital  465 

Sherburn  Hospital  Gateway    468 

Chimney  Swallow    470 

The  Swift  J/0 

Christopher  North's  Cottage  at  EUeray  473 

Ancient  Doorway,  Mowhray  Park,  Sunderland    475 

Monument  to  Thomas  Thompson  478 

Ralph  Gardner's  House  at  Chirton   488 

Rock  Hall,  Northumberland   489 

Old  House  at  Hi-xham  49° 

Haltwhistl.-    497 

Views  of  Blanchland   501-2-3-4-5 


Central  Railway  Station,  Newcastle 512 

Elswick  Works,  Newcastle 513 

House  Martin  and  Sand  Martin 514,  515 

Willimoteswick  Castle  517 

Windermere  Lake  (two  views) 520,  521 

A  Northumbrian  Bake  Stick   522 

Elephant  Rock,  Hartlepool -. 526 

Eden  Hall 529 

Fairy  Well,  Eden  Hall  531 

Luck  of  Eden  Hall 531 

York  Castle  533 

The  Conqueror  at  the  Seige  of  York 534 

Kepier  Hospital,  Durham , 536 

Botlial  Village 537 

Bolton  on  the  Aln   544 

Sea  Fight  off  Yarmouth 545 

Elswick  Lane  :  Entrance  to  Elswick  Park 552 

Elswick  Hall  and  Park  553 

Elswick  Cemetery   555 

Rydal  Mount  560 

Weardale  Fairy  Pipe 561 

The  Wagtails 565,  566 

The  Side,  Newcastle  571 

Lord  Armstrong  •? 

John  Brand  -^ 

Georgs  llrcuis  13 

John  Trotter  Brockets  14 

Thomas  Gray    *J 

George  Dodds   44 

Joseph  Baxt-r  Ellis 45 

Thomas  Kiclianlx>n     45 

William  Sut'.on 45 

John  Lucas    46 

Mrs.  Ashton  Dilke 47 

Arthur  48 

Charles  John  Brandling 69 

Joseph  Barlow 83 

George  lioutl'-.l:;>-    85 

T.  Humphry  \Var.l 96 

Kims  110 

William  Fallows  Ill 

Raylton  DIM  in 112 

G.  Gordon  l!o-.kins 112 

Dr.  John  Brown  1^2 

Lancelot  ("  Capability")  Brown 124 

Michael  Bryan 126 

John  Bruce    127 

Rev.  Robert  G  ivy.  M.A.,  Rector  of  Sunderland   137 

John  Augustus  O'Shea  142 

Professor  John  Stuart  Blackie     143 

Henry  BlackUrn    143 

Archduke  Rudolph,  Crown  Prince  of  Austria    144 

Major  le  Caron .....  144 

Thomas  Sopwi th 154 

John  Buddie 162 

William  Buhner  164 

Dadabhai  Naoroji    189 

King  Milan  of  Servia 192 

Richard  Pigott 192 

H.  H.  Emmerson 193 

Robert  Jobling 195 

JohnSurtees 195 

Ralph  Hedley  196 

Thomas  Dickinson  197 

John  Bright  208 

Sir  Thomas  Burdon 211 

Bishop  Carleton    213 

Samuel  Carter  Hall 240 

Duchess  of  Cambridge    v  240 

James  R.  Anderson  in  1846  and  1886    241 

Mr.  Anderson  as  Ulric,  1838    242 

Mr.  Anderson  as  Macbeth,  1871 244 

Robert  Carey,  Earl  of  Monmouth 266 

Bishop  Chad  wick 269 

Louis  Kossuth 276 

Prince  Albert  Victor 279 

William  Gray   280 

Georpfe  Pynian 230 

John  Barkslry   282 

R.  S.  Newall,  J.P 283 

Henry  George  285 

James  Craig 287 

Carl  Rosa  288 

John  the  Pieman,  a  Sunderland  Character 295 

Hut.  Aklerson,  Bellman  of  Durham 301 

Elizabeth  Barrett  Browning 304 

Rev.  George  Carr 309 

Leopold  Charles  Martin    318 

Lewis  Thompson 322 

Richard  Ayre    326 

William  Roxby  Beverley  328 

Edward  Jennings,  V.C 330 

Thomas  Wilson,  author  of  "The  Pitman's  Pay  "  337 

The  Marquis  of  Londonderry  342 

Bishop  Butler    360 

John  Mackay  Wilson 363 

Bernard  Gilpin 375 

Benjamin  Piummer,  J.P 380 

J.  K.  Smith  380 

Sir  Jacob  Wilson 383 

l\alph  Carr-Ellison 385 

William  Chapman  389 

Laurance  Goodchild    405 

J.  W.  Carmichael    412 

Dr.  Lake,  Dean  of  Durham 426 

William  Drummond   426 

The  Shah  of  Persia 429 

Baron  Brown,  the  Durham  Poet 433 

Dr.  Edward  Charlton 444 

Thomas  Dixon,  Cork-cutter 447 

Walter  Scott 464 

John  Wilson  :  Christopher  North 472 

Joseph  Clark 507 

Professor  W.  H.  Flower    516 

Sir  Isaac  Lowthian  Bell,  Bart 516 

Professor  J.  S.  Burdon-Sandersou 517 

The  Marquis  of  Londonderry 525 

Arthur  Brogden  527 

Wilkie  Collins  528 

Eliza  Cook 528 

Rev.  Richard  Clayton,  M.  A.  539 

Rev.  Robert  Wasney 539 

Captain  Wiggins 547 

Mark  Littlefair  Howarth 559 

William  Wordsworth 561 

"  Tommy  on  the  Bridge '.'  (Thomas  Ferns) 566 

Sir  Daniel  Gooch 568 

PhineasT.  Barnum 569 

SirJohnFenwick 570 

Charles  Avison,  Organist 570 

Charles  Marvin   .,  573 




VOL.  III.— No.  23. 

JANUARY,  1889. 



(Coan   Jtotolani) 


j|HE  fond  hopes  and  "best  laid  schemes"  of 
parents  have  oft  been  frustrated  by  the 
tyrant  voice  of  genius.  Honour  and  obedi- 
ence to  beloved  guardians  are  commend- 
able and  to  be  cherished.  But  the  human  soul  and 
intellect  cannot  be  formed  and  fashioned  like  the  pot- 
ter's clay.  We  may  not  change  the  colour  of  the  iris, 

the  character  of  the  voice,  our  form  and  stature :  much 
less  the  Divine  essence — the  soul  and  its  stock-in-trade 
within  us.  Ben  Jonson  had  a  trowel  in  his  hand  for 
long,  a  book  in  his  pocket  and  volumes  in  his  brains  the 
while.  Davy  ignored  his  indentures  to  the  apothecary  to 
search  the  hills  for  minerals  and  dream  of  future  renown. 
Linnaius  was  intended  for  the  Church  ;  but  he  neglected 




I  January 

theology,  obeyed  the  still  small  voice,  and  became  the 
immortal  founder  of  botany.  Faraday  obtained  food  for 
his  craving  genius  from  the  books  he  stitched,  responded 
to  the  inward  monitor's  call,  and  held  "aloft  among  the 
nations  the  scientific  name  of  England  for  a  period  of 
forty  years."  The  generous  offer  of  a  friend  and  the 
solicitous  guidance  of  parents  made  William  George 
Armstrong  a  lawyer.  He  locked  himself  up  amid  parch- 
ment rolls  and  tomes  of  decisions  and  authorities,  gave 
his  undivided  heart  to  the  pursuit  of  science,  and  made 
a  column  of  water  lift  a  hundred  tons  ! 

Children  are  not  necessarily  the  best  judges  of  that  for 
which  they  are  best  intended.  They  frequently  make  a 
wrong  selection  under  the  influence  of  surroundings  not 
intended  to  give  them  the  bias.  In  maturity  they  often 
abandon  their  first  love.  Many  boys  are  without  pre- 
ference ;  they  continue  indifferent  to  every  vocation  from 
the  village  green  to  the  end  of  life.  This  was  not  the 
case  with  the  boy  William  George  Armstrong.  Me- 
chanics were  to  him  a  passion  from  childhood,  and  physi- 
cal science  absorbed  his  hours  of  relaxation  as  a  schoolboy 
and  as  a  student  at  law.  His  father  was  the  son  of  a 
Cumberland  yeoman,  who  became  a  corn  merchant,  an 
alderman,  and  a  mayor  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  while 
his  mother  was  a  daughter  of  William  Potter,  of  Walbottle 
House,  Northumberland.  To  this  worthy  couple,  a  son, 
afterwards  the  famous  engineer,  was  born  on  Nov.  26, 
1810,  at  Pleasant  Row,  Shieldfield,  Newcastle.* 

William  entered  the  Bishop  Auckland  Grammar  School 
in  1826,  where  he  remained  for  several  years.  During 
his  residence  at  Bishop  Auckland,  he  gratified  his  me- 
chanical ingenuity  at  the  works  of  Mr.  Ramshaw.  He 
was  invited  to  that  gentleman's  home,  where  he  found 
"a  help-meet  for  him."  Aye,  and  one  who,  during  a 
busy,  eventful,  and  brilliant  career,  has  seconded  his  best 
efforts  and  cheered  his  anxious  moments.  She  shares 
to-day  his  noble  fame.  Upon  leaving  school  young  Arm- 
strong entered  the  law  office  of  Mr.  Armorer  Donkin,  an 
intimate  friend  of  the  family,  and  a  man  of  influence  and 
position  in  the  cemmunity.  His  legal  curriculum  was 
finished  at  the  office  of  his  brother-in-law,  Mr.  W.  H. 
Watson,  the  late  Baron  Watson,  then  a  special  pleader  in 
the  Temple.  In  1833  he  returned  to  his  native  town  to 
become  a  partner  with  Messrs.  Donkin,  Stable,  and 

Mr.  Armstrong  was  not  an  orthodox  English  sports- 
man. Though  fond  of  music,  the  cry  of  the  hound  failed 
to  charm  his  senses.  Fishing  was  his  favourite  sport. 
He  imbibed  the  taste  from  his  father.  Even  in  this  pas- 
time his  inventive  genius  found  employment.  A  new  bait 
basket  was  contrived,  whereby  the  minnow  was  kept  at  a 
lower  temperature;  his  tackle  was  continually  under- 
going improvement ;  and  he  became  one  of  the  most  ac- 
complished fishers  on  the  Coquet.  It  was  during  an  out- 

*  For  view  of  birthplace  tee  IfmtUy  Chronicle,  voL  L,  p.  286. 

ing  through  the  Craven  district  of  Yorkshire  in  quest 
of  trout  that  the  idea  which  culminated  in  his  fame  first 
came  to  him.  He  was  rambling  through  Dent  Dale,  in 
1836,  when  his  attention  was  arrested  by  an  overshot 
water-wheel  turned  by  a  gurgling  rill.  The  mill-wheel 
supplied  the  power  for  some  marble  works  at  the  foot  of 
the  declivity.  Twenty  feet  only  of  several  hundred  feet 
descent  was  utilised ;  the  rest  remained  unproductive. 
The  possibility  of  the  stream  as  a  motive  power  at  once 
engrossed  Mr.  Armstrong's  thoughts.  Intuition  took 
the  hint.  For  ten  years  he  thought  and  wrought  Jo 
perfect  and  realise  his  idea.  Now  the  freights  of  nations 
are  swung  by  his  crane,  and  his  hydraulic  machinery  is 
found  on  every  mart  of  commerce  in  the  civilized  world. 

But  the  time  during  which  he  was  harnessed  to  the 
legal  profession  was  in  truth  a  period  of  apprenticeship 
in  constructive  mechanics.  Scarcely  a  day  passed  when 
Mr.  Armstrong  was  at  home  that  he  did  not  spend 
several  hours  at  Watson's  High  Bridge  Works,  either 
superintending  his  own  models  or  watching  the  construc- 
tion of  scientific  machinery.  It  was  a  severe  struggle  be- 
tween a  sense  of  duty  to  his  partners  and  profession  on  the 
one  hand,  and  innate  genius  on  the  other ;  and  the  young 
solicitor  kept  swinging  like  an  erratic  pendulum  between 
the  law  office  and  the  lathe.  The  first  attempt  of  Mr. 
Armstrong  to  realise  his  ambition  to  convert  a  column  of 
water  into  a  motive  power  was  by  means  of  an  automatic 
hydraulic  wheel,  acted  upon  by  discs  made  to  enter  a 
curved  tube  at  the  radius  of  the  wheel-edge.  It  was  an 
ingenious  contrivance,  and  its  utility  was  tested  at  the 
Skinner  Burn.  This  was  admirable  experience,  and  a 
valuable  lesson  ;  but  the  wheel  failed  to  realise  the  in- 
ventor's expectations. 

Soon  after  this  time  a  sensation  was  produced  in  the 
scientific  world  by  a  phenomenon  which  transpired  at  one 
of  the  Seaton  Delaval  Collieries.  The  workmen  declared 
that  something  "uncanny  like"  was  seen  at  the  engine 
boiler,  and  when  they  adjusted  the  safety-valve  while 
steam  was  blowing  off,  fire  was  said  to  reach  out  towards 
their  finger-tips.  Tyneside  philosophers,  and  subse- 
quently men  of  science  throughout  the  country,  became 
interested  in  the  mystery ;  and  it  was  discovered  that 
electricity  was  evolved  under  the  following  circumstances : 
The  boiler  was  found  to  be  insulated  upon  a  dry  seating, 
and  the  friction  produced  by  the  escape  of  particles  of 
water  blowing  away  with  high-pressure  steam  produced 
electricity,  and  a  nervous  shock  was  experienced  when 
the  hand  was  held  in  proximity  to  the  escaping  steam. 
Experiments  bearing  upon  the  generation  of  electricity 
by  high-pressure  steam  were  commenced  by  a  number  of 
scientific  men ;  but  the  lawyer  distanced  the  philosophers 
in  the  measure  of  success  attained.  Numerous  tests  were 
made  as  to  the  best  material  for  insulation  and  the  best 
form  and  lining  for  the  exit  of  steam.  At  last  the 
hydro-electric  machine  was  produced  at  the  works  of 
Messrs.  Watson  and  Lambert,  Carliol  Square.  Large 




numbers  of  this  celebrated  machine  were  constructed — for 
the  Polytechnic  Institution  of  London,  for  Professor 
Faraday,  and  for  the  scientific  institutions  of  Europe  and 

When  the  invention  had  been  completed,  Mr.  Arm- 
strong returned  to  his  favourite  study,  and  continued  to 
make  experiments  to  perfect  his  hydraulic  machine :  at 
last  he  succeeded.  A  fortunate  circumstance  materially 
assisted  in  bringing  it  under  public  notice  and  into  prac- 


tical  use.  In  1845,  Mr.  Armstrong  became  associated  in 
his  legal  capacity  with  a  company  organised  to  supply  the 
towns  of  Newcastle  and  Gateshead  with  water.  When 
the  company  was  formed,  Mr.  Armstrong  delivered  a 
lecture  at  the  Literary  Society  of  Newcastle,  and  demon- 
strated the  utility  of  his  invention  by  a  working  model. 
Soon  thereafter  a  few  friends  joined  with  him  to  erect  a 
crane  on  Newcastle  Quay,  where  its  usefulness  could  be 

put  to  the  test  in  loading  and  discharging  ships.  Three 
more  cranes  were  eventually  ordered  by  the  Corporation 
of  Newcastle.  A  somewhat  interesting  circumstance, 
which  tended  to  forward  the  popularity  of  the  hydraulic 
crane,  took  place  at  this  time.  Let  the  inventor  himself 
relate  it : — 

Amongst  others  the  late  Sir  William  Cubitt  (then  Mr. 
Cubitt)  took  a  very  early  interest  in  the  machine,  and 
wrote  to  Mr.  Jesse  Hartley,  who  was  then  the  engineer 
of  the  Liverpool  Docks,  urginghim  to  go  and  see  it,  but 
that  somewhat  eccentric  gen- 
tleman, who  was  very  averse 
to  novelties,  at  first  flatly 
refused  to  do  so.  A  second 
letter  from  Sir  William  Cubitt 
put  the  matter  in  such  a  light 
that  Mr.  Hartley  could  not 
persist  in  hia  refusal  without 
incurring  the  imputation  of 
shutting  his  eyes  to  improve- 
ments ;  so  without  giving  any 
notice  of  his  intention  he  went 
to  Newcastle  alone  to  see  the 
crane.  It  was  not  at  work 
when  he  arrived,  but  the  man 
in  charge  was  there,  and  Mr. 
Hartley  entered  into  a  banter- 
ing conversation  with  him. 
This  man,  who  went  by  the 
name  of  '*  Hydraulic  Jack," 
had  acquired  great  dexterity 
in  the  management  of  the  ma- 
chine, and  being  put  upon  his 
"mettle"  by  Mr.  Hartley's  in- 
credulous observations,  he  pro- 
ceeded to  show  its  action  by  a 
daring  treatment  of  a  hogshead 
of  sugar.  He  began  by  run- 
ning it  up  with  great  velocity 
to  the  head  of  the  jib,  and  then 
letting  it  as  rapidly  descend, 
but  by  gradually  reducing  its 
speed  as  it  neared  the  ground 
he  stopped  it  softly  before  it 
quite  touched  the  pavement. 
He  next  swung  it  round  to  the 
opposite  side  of  the  circle,  con- 
tinuing to  lift  and  lower  with 
great  rapidity  while  the  jib  was 
in  motion,  and,  in  short,  he 
exhibited  the  machine  to  such 
advantage  that  Mr.  Hartley's 
prejudices  were  vanquished. 
Mr.  Hartley,  who  will  be  re- 
membered as  a  man  whose  odd 
ways  were  combined  with  a 
frank  and  generous  disposi- 
tion, displayed  no  feeling  of 
discomfiture,  but  at  once  called 
upon  the  author,  whom  he  la- 
conically addressed  in  the  fol- 
lowing words  :  *'  I  am  Jesse 
Hartley,  of  Liverpool,  and  I 
have  seen  your  crane.  It  is 
the  very  thing  I  want,  and 
I  shall  recommend  its  adop- 
tion at  the  Albert  Dock." 

With  scarcely  another  word  he  bade  adieu,  and  returned 
to  Liverpool.  This  anecdote  marks  an  epoch  in  the  his- 
tory of  hydraulic  cranes,  which  then  passed  from  the  stage 
of  experiment  to  that  of  assured  adoption. 

The  triumph  of  the  invention  and  the  fame  of  the  in- 
ventor were  now  established ;  and  in  1847-8  the  Elswick 
Works,  intended  for  the  construction  of  hydraulic  ma- 
chinery, were  founded  by  Mr.  Armstrong  and  his  old 
friend  and  partner  Mr.  Alderman  Donkin,  Mr.  Alderman 




Potter,  Mr.  George  Cruddas,  and  Mr.  Richard  Lambert. 
From  this  beginning  the  famous  works  of  Sir  William 
Armstrong  and  Partners  have  developed. 

Mr.  Armstrong  had  no  part  in  the  international  jumble 
out  of  which  the  Crimean  War  was  begotten.  But  when 
the  appeal  to  arms  was  made,  he  was  sufficiently  human, 
and  enough  of  a  patriot,  to  wish  success  to  British  arms. 
He  watched  the  movements  of  troops,  the  formation  of 
lines,  the  approaches  and  means  of  defence  with  the 
anxiety  of  an  Englishman,  but  from  the  plane  of  science. 
Difficulty  was  experienced  at  Inkerman  in  bringing  up 
heavy  artillery.  Two  eighteen-pounders  were  finally  got 
into  position  ;  they  contributed  largely  to  turn  the  tide  of 
battle,  and  gain  the  doubtful  day.  "  Why  cannot  lighter 
guns  obtain  a  greater  range  ?  "  That  was  the  question 
which  occurred  to  Mr.  Armstrong.  And  he  grasped  this 
proposition  with  all  that  strength  and  continuity  which 
characterise  him.  Inkerman  was  fought  in  November, 
1854.  Within  a  month  he  had  solved  the  problem, 
convinced  the  War  Secretary,  and  commenced  the 
gun.  The  arrow  in  its  flight  tirst  suggested  the  best 

for   rifled    ordnance.    A    Committee  of    the    House   of 
Commons,  reporting  upon  the  whole  question,  said : — 

Mr.  Armstrong  proposed  »  method  of  constructing  a 
gun  which  rendered  it  capable  of  enduring  the  strain  to 
which  rifled  ordnance  is  submitted.  This  method  was 
certainly  at  that  time  the  only  one  capable  of  fulfilling 
that  condition ;  and  your  Committee  have  had  no 
practical  evidence  before  them  that  even  at  this  mo- 
ment any  other  method  of  constructing  rifled  ordnance 
exists  which  can  be  compared  with  that  of  Mr.  Arm- 
strong. In  combination  with  his  system  of  constructing 
or  manufacturing  a  gun,  Mr.  Armstrong  had  introduced 
to  the  notice  of  the  Government  a  plan  of  breechloadinsr, 
the  gun  being  rifled  on  the  old  polygroove  system,  which 
involved  the  coating  of  the  projectile  with  soft  metal. 
This  combination  of  construction,  breechloading,  rifling, 
and  coating  the  projectiles  with  soft  metal,  came  to  be 
termed  the  Armstrong  system.  The  range  and  precision 
of  the  gun  were  so  vastly  superior  to  all  field  ordnance 
known  at  the  time,  that,  after  careful  and  repeated  trials, 
the  Committee  appointed  to  investigate  the  question 
recommended  its  adoption  as  the  field  gun  of  the 
service.  , 

The  Adjutant-General    of    Artillery    pronounced    the 
Armstrong  field  gun  the  best    then    known— that   also- 
being  "  the  opinion  of  officers  of  Artillery  of  all  classes.' 
The  success  of  the  gun  was  conclusive,  the  result  of  the 

form  of  projectile.  But  material  of  construction  and  its 
application,  the  mode  and  method  of  rifling,  loading, 
and  of  exploding  shells — all  the  questions  involved  in 
gunnery  had  to  be  thought  out  anew  and  by  a  single 
mind.  Experimental  guns  were  constructed,  and  trials 
were  made  at  early  hours  and  in  out  of  the  way  places,  on 
the  moors  at  Allenheads  and  by  the  sea-shore.  At  last, 
in  the  spring  of  1856,  the  Armstrong  gun  was  ready  for 
official  scrutiny.  The  first  gun  submitted  to  the  Govern- 
ment was  a  three-pounder.  A  five-pounder  was  next 
made  for  further  examination ;  it  was  adopted.  Heavier 
cannon,  to  be  constructed  on  the  Armstrong  principle, 
were  required  at  once.  The  Rifled  Cannon  Committee 
tested  the  capabilities  of  the  (run  to  the  uttermost,  and 
recommended  it  as  combining  the  best  known  elements 

struggle  was  most  gratifying  to  Mr.  Armstrong,  and 
fortune  was  at  his  feet.  But  he  rose  to  a  sublime  height, 
and  gave  the  fruit  of  his  genius,  his  toils  of  years,  his 
hope  of  reward  and  renown,  without  fee  or  consideration, 
to  his  country.  The  nation  applauded  the  deed  of 
patriotism.  The  Queen  conferred  upon  him  the  dignity 
of  Knighthood  and  Commander  of  the  Bath.  His 
services  were  found  imperative  for  the  construction  of  the 
gun  ;  and  he  was  made  Engineer  of  Rifled  Ordnance, 
with  a  salary  of  £2,000  a  year,  and,  later,  Superintendent 
of  the  Gun  Factory.  The  Government  required  that 
guns  should  be  constructed  with  secrecy  and  despatch. 
Woolwich  was  entirely  unprepared  for  such  work,  and  an 
arrangement  was  made  whereby  the  Armstrong  guns 
should  be  made  at  Elswick.  Lord  Derby's  Government 

January  I 
1889.     f 


made  the  contract.  Under  its  provisions  the  Elswick 
Ordnance  Company  were  obliged  to  provide  all  the  works 
and  machinery  for  making  the  ordnance  required,  and 
confine  them  entirely  to  the  execution  of  Government 
orders.  Should  the  works  be  kept  idle  through  want  of 
orders  from  the  Department  for  War,  the  company  was 
to  receive  compensation,  to  be  assessed  by  the  Attorney 
General.  This  arrangement  continued  until  the  spring  of 
1863,  when  Sir  William  resigned  his  appointment,  and 
the  contract  between  the  Government  and  the  Elswick 
Company  was  cancelled  by  mutual  consent. 

But  few  of  the  original  features  of  the  Armstrong  gun 
are  maintained  in  the  ordnance  now  made  by  the  in- 
ventor. The  coil  formation,  the  rifling,  and  the  breech- 
loading  when  desired,  are  adhered  to.  And  in  view  of 
the  results  of  the  trials  at  Spezzia,  it  is  only  fair  to  add 
that  the  gun  still  holds  the  supremacy.  But  the  original 
little  three-pounder,  which  two  men  could  carry,  has 
grown  into  a  one  hundred  ton  wire  gun,  the  most 
destructive  weapon  upon  earth. 

From  modest  beginnings  the  Elswick  Works  have 
gone  on  increasing  and  extending  until  now  they  cover 
about  seventy  acres  of  ground,  and  afford  employment 
to  12,000  contented  men.  Towards  the  end  of  1882, 
they  were  joined  to  the  well-known  shipbuilding  works 
of  Charles  Mitchell  and  Co.,  of  Low  Walker,  under 
the  corporate  name  of  Sir  William  George  Armstrong, 
Mitchell,  and  Co.,  Limited.  The  position  for  their 
enterprise  is  admirable :  their  capabilities  for  build- 
ing and  mounting  war  vessels — arising  out  of  a  remark- 

able combination  of  genius,  skill,  workmanship,  hydraulic 
contrivances  to  make  and  handle  ordnance,  and  work  the 
guns  when  mounted— are  certainly  unsurpassed.  When 
the  new  company's  stock  was  placed  upon  the  market,  the 
applications  exceeded  the  shares  to  be  issued  fourfold. 

Although  he  had  been  frequently  invited  to  associate 
himself  in  some  direct  manner  with  the  management  of 
the  public  affairs  of  his  native  town,  Sir  William  Arm- 
strong only  once  solicited  the  suffrages  of  his  fellow- 
citizens.  And  then  his  services  were  declined.  A  grave 
crisis  had  arisen  in  1886.  Mr.  Gladstone,  having  pro- 
duced a  Home  Rule  Bill  for  Ireland  which  had  failed  to 
secure  the  support  of  a  large  section  of  the  Liberal  party, 
was  defeated  in  Parliament.  Then  followed  a  general 
election.  Sir  William  Armstrong  was  a  Liberal ;  but  he 
dissented  from  the  Irish  policy  of  Mr.  Gladstone.  Re- 
quested to  come  forward  as  a  candidate  on  Unionist 
principles  for  one  of  the  two  seats  for  Newcastle,  he 
agreed  to  stand,  with  Sir  Matthew  White  Ridley  as  his 
colleague.  Mr.  John  Morley  and  Mr.  James  Craig, 
Gladstonian  Liberals,  were,  however,  returned.  It  was 
Sir  William  Armstrong's  first  and  last  contest  in  New- 
castle. But  though  excluded  from  the  House  of  Com- 
mons, he  was  offered  a  seat  in  the  House  of  Lords.  This 
offer,  made  in  1887,  was  accepted.  Elevated  to  the 
peerage  as  Baron  Armstrong  of  Cragside,  he  was  hon- 
oured by  the  Government  of  the  day  with  the  duty  of 
seconding  the  Address  in  reply  to  the  Speech  from  the 
Throne.  It  goes  without  saying  that  he  discharged  this 
function  with  dignity  and  credit 


(  January 
I      18»9. 

Lord  Armstrong  has  ever  taken  a  deep  interest  in  pub- 
lic institutions  and  affairs.  It  was  through  him  that  a 
committee  was  appointed  by  the  Government  to  report 
upon  the  coal  measures  of  Great  Britain.  He  has  actively 
participated  in  the  deliberations,  and  is  a  past  president 
of  the  British  Association,  the  Institute  of  Mechanical 
Engineers,  the  Institute  of  Civil  Engineers,  and  kindred 
societies.  The  Literary  and  Philosophical  Society  of 
Newcastle  is  indebted  to  Lord  Armstrong,  its  president, 
for  more  than  his  bountiful  hand  and  wise  supervision. 
His  lectures  from  its  platform  have  added  to  the  high 
position  it  occupies  among  the  societies  of  England.  In 
1844  he  addressed  the  members  upon  hydro-electricity. 
During  the  next  session  he  delivered  three  lectures  on 
"  The  Employment  of  a  Column  of  Water  as  a  Motive 
Power  for  Propelling  Machinery."  These,  together 
with  addresses  delivered  to  the  various  scientific  and 
mechanical  institutes,  and  articles  contributed  to  maga- 
zines and  publications,  are  all  in  the  special  direction  of 
his  fame.  But  in  the  winter  of  1873  he  gave  the  society 
and  his  townsmen  the  result  of  a  visit  to  Egypt  in  1872, 
in  four  lectures.  These  lectures  now  constitute  a  small 
volume,  full  of  information  and  charm. 

Bountiful  gifts  from  Lord  and  Lady  Armstrong  have 
become  such  frequent  occurrences  that  they  no  longer  oc- 
casion surprise.  Were  the  Jardin  d'Acclimatation  re- 
peated on  the  western  slopes  of  Newcastle,  no  one 
would  wonder.  A  lecture  hall  for  the  Literary  Society 
to-day,  an  operating  theatre  for  the  Infirmary  to-mor- 
row ;  thousands  to  restore  a  grand  old  steeple  ;  thou- 
sands more  to  the  Children's  Hospital ;  three-fourths 
of  a  £20,000  bridge  across  Benton  Valley;  ten  thou- 
sand to  the  Natural  History  Museum  ;  a  Mechanics' 
Institute,  and  a  long  range  of  schools,  for  the  work- 
men of  Elswick  :  a  Banqueting  Hall  for  the  city  of 
his  birth ;  Parks  for  his  fellow-citizens !  I  am  told 
that  his  wealth  is  still  immense.  The  more  he  bestows 
the  richer  he  becomes.  To  satisfy  the  cravings  of  the 
student,  to  reclaim  the  child  from  disease,  are  deeds  for 
more  than  evanescent  applause.  What  are  bags  of  gold 
in  the  vaults  compared  with  a  mortgage  upon  the  hearts 
and  brains  of  men  and  women  ?  And  the  parks  he  has 
provided,  the  acres  which  his  bountiful  heart  has  wisely 
bestowed  upon  the  people,  are  more  valuable  to  him  now 
than  ever  before :  the  quality  has  been  transformed,  the 
area  transferred  into  the  grateful  visages  of  the  people ; 
and  smiling  little  faces  of  generations  yet  unborn  shall 
bless  the  memory  of  him  who  vouchsafed  for  them  recrea- 
tion grounds  surrounded  by  the  beauties  and  riches  of 
nature — who  enabled  them  to  breathe  the  air  of  heaven 
amid  the  hum  and  strife  of  earth.  He  who  can  evoke 
the  blessings  of  the  poor  is  more  than  a  prince  :  and  his 
fame  shall  resist  "  the  empire  of  decay." 

The  banqueting  hall  in  Jesmond  Dene,  like  the  Armstrong 
Park  adjoining,  forms  part  of  the  princely  gifts  of  Lord 
Armstromg  to  the  people  of  Newcastle. 

Lord  Armstrong's  portrait  is  copied  from  a  photograph 
by  Messrs.  W.  and  D.  Downey,  taken  a  few  years  ago. 

j]R.  MURRAY,  of  Oxford,  pausing  in  the  her- 
culean task  of  his  "New  English  Dictionary," 
_  tells  us—"  The  fact  has  of  late  years  power- 

fully impressed   itself   upon  philological   students,   that 
the  creative  period  of  language,  the  epoch  of  'roots,'  has 
never  come  to  an  end.    The  '  origin  of  language'  is  not  to 
be  sought  merely  in  a  far-off  Indo-European  antiquity,  or 
in  a  still  earlier  pre-Aryan  yore-time ;  it  is  still  in  peren- 
nial process  around  us."    A  literary  language  is  hostile  to 
word-creation.    But  such  is  not  the  case  with  language  in 
its  natural  state.     "The  unwritten  dialect,"    he  adds, 
"and,  to  some  extent,  even  slang,  and  colloquial  speech, 
approach  in  character  to  language  in  its  natural  state, 
aiming  only  at  being  expressive,  and  treating  memory 
and  precedent  as  ministers,  not  as  masters.     In  the  local 
dialects,  then,  in  slang,  in  colloquial  use,  new  vocables 
and  new  expressions  may  at  any  time  be  abruptly  brought 
forth  to  serve  the  needs  of  the  moment.    Some  of  these 
pass  at  length  from  colloquial  into  epistolary,  journalis- 
tic, and,  finally,  into  general  literary  use.     The  dialect 
glossaries  abound  in  words  of  this  kind."    Such  a  word  is 
"candyman,"  a  word  known  to  every  pitman  in  Durham 
and  Northumberland,  which  has  a  place  in  the  English 
language    and   is  defined  in    "The  New  English  Dic- 
tionary "  as  meaning,  in  the  North  of  England,  "  a  bum- 
bailiff,  or  process  server."     Now,  everybody  knows  the 
"candy,"  or  "sugar-candy,"  which  lured   the  juvenile, 
happy  in  the  possession  of  a  penny,  to  purchase  its  sticky 
sweetness  from  the  tempting  window,  or  which  was  an 
irresistible  bait  to  our  infantile  ha'penny  when  displayed 
with  all  the  blandishment  of  the  itinerant   "  candyman." 
But  what  possible  connection  can  there  be  between  the 
grave  "  bum-bailiff  "  of  the  dictionary  and  the  wandering 
confectionery  man  with  sweet  discourse  ?    This  question 
was  asked  in  the  London  Kotet  and  Queries  just  a  dozen 
years  ago,  and  was  in  that  same  volume  fully  and  finally 
explained  by  Mr.  W.  E.  Adams,  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
who  wrote — "  It  is  not  often  that  we  are  able  to  trace  so 
satisfactorily  the  origin  of  provincial  words  as  we  are  that 
of  the  word   'candyman.'     It  is,  as  was  stated  in  the 
editor's  note  (Notes  and  Queries,  vol.  v.,  p.  325,   April 
22nd,  1876),  'a  term  in  the  North  for  men  employed  to 
carry  out  evictions  against  cottage  occupiers.'   There  was, 
in  October,  1863,  a  great  strike  of  miners  at  the  collieries 
of  Messrs.  Strakers  and  Love,  in  the  county  ot  Durham. 
As  no  adjustment  of  the  difference  was  possible,   the 
owners  determined  to  eject  the  miners  from  their  cottages. 
For  this  purpose  a  large  number  of  curious  characters 
were  engaged  by  the  agents  of  Messrs.  Strakers  and 
Love.     Among  the  persons  so  engaged  was  at  least  one 

January  \ 


whose  ordinary  occupation  was  that  of  selling  candy 
and  other  sweetmeats  in  the  neighbouring  towns.  The 
man  was  recognised  and  was  chaffed  about  his  calling  by 
the  evicted  miners.  Very  soon,  of  course,  the  term 
'candyman,'  which  rapidly  became  a  term  of  reproach, 
was  applied  to  the  whole  class.  Since  that  time  the  word 
has  come  into  general  use  over  the  two  Northern  Counties 
whenever  ejectments  take  place."  Like  the  verbs  to 
bowdlerize,  and  to  boycott,  the  substantive  candyman 
has  thus  taken  its  place  as  an  English  word  in  very 
recent  years.  The  adoption  of  "candyman,"  however, 
dates  from  an  earlier  period  than  that  mentioned  by  Mr. 
Adams.  It  seems  to  have  been  first  used  during  the 
"  great  stick"  of  1844,  and  had  already  become  general  in 
1863.  But  for  the  prompt  record  of  the  unlikely  connec- 
tion between  sugar-candy  and  the  serving  of  a  warrant, 
what  groping  might  not  some  twentieth  century  philolo- 
gist have  made,  "as  vainly  in  the  'word-hoard'  of  Old 
English  speech,  or  even  the  fullest  vocabulary  of  Indo- 
European  roots,  as  in  a  school-manual  of  Latin  and  Greek 
roots  and  affixes,"  to  find  the  origin  of  the  bum-bailiff 
candyman  !  R.  OLIVER  HESLOP. 

STIu  U0rtft=€0tmti*B  (Sarlatttr 


)"    £tokoe. 

jjALLADS  embodying  a  series  of  riddles  are 
much  rarer  in  the  English  language  than  in 
the  language  of  Sweden,  Denmark,  or  other 
Northern  nations.  The  riddles  in  these 
ballads  are  sometimes  propounded  to  a  knight,  sometimes 
to  a  lady,  and  often  to  the  Evil  One  himself ;  in  the 
latter  case,  the  demon  is  sure,  of  course,  to  be  puzzled  and 
unable  to  answer  the  questions. 

In  addition  to  its  enigmatical  character,  the  metrical 
construction  of  "  Whittingham  Fair  "  is  of  a  duolinear 
form,  common  to  many  ballads  which  have  descended  to 
us  from  the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth  centuries.  These 
compositions  were  generally  of  a  rude  and  simple  kind, 
consisting  of  verses  of  two  lines  only,  with  an  interval  of 
rest  at  the  end  of  each,  which  the  minstrel  made  use  of  to 
play  a  symphony  (either  to  lengthen  the  ballad  or  to 
display  his  musical  skill).  Vocalists,  when  singing  such 
ballads  without  instrumental  accompaniment,  it  may  be 
easily  inferred,  would  introduce  some  burden  to  replace 
the  symphony  of  the  minstrel.  Some  of  these  burdens 
consisted  of  short  proverbial  expressions,  such  as  "  'Tis 
merry  in  the  hall,  when  beards  wag  all."  Others  were 
mere  nonsense  lines  that  went  glibly  off  the  tongue, 
giving  the  accent  of  the  music,  but  having  no  connection 
with  the  subject  of  the  ballad.  Examples  of  these 
burdens  are  common  in  the  plays  of  Shakspeare  and  the 

Elizabethan  dramatists.  The  "  Willow  willow  "  of  Ophe- 
lia in  "  Hamlet,"  and  "Hey  ho  !  the  wind  and  the  rain  " 
of  the  clown  in  "Twelfth  Night,"  are  specimens,  as  are 
also  the  "Fallal  la"  and  the  "Tol  derol"of  our  own  day. 

"Whittingham  Fair,"  like  many  other  old  ballads,  has 
been  relegated  to  the  nursery,  and  is  sometimes  sung 
without  the  first  verse,  though  it  is  then  evidently  in- 

The  melody  which  here  accompanies  the  song  we 
believe  to  be  the  original  tune,  and  is  always  sung  to  it  in 
North  and  West  Northumberland. 

Are  you     go  •  ing     to          Whit-ting-ham    Fair? 

Pars  -  ley,     sage,  rose     -     ma  -  ry   and  thyme,  Re- 

jjP^r  fljb^fe^g^ 

mem-ber     me     to  one    that   lives     there,    For 

once   she   was     a     true 

lov  -    er 


Tell  her  to  make  me  a  cambric  shirt, 
Parsley,  sage,  rosemary,  and  thyme  ;* 

Without  any  seam  or  needlework, 
Then  she  shall  be  a  true  lover  of  mine. 

Tell  her  to  wash  it  in  yonder  well, 
Parsley,  sage,  rosemary,  and  thyme  ; 

Where  never  spring  water  or  rain  ever  fell, 
And  she  shall  be  a  true  lover  of  mine. 

Tell  her  to  dry  it  on  yonder  thorn, 
Parsley,  sage,  rosemary,  and  thyme  ; 

Which  never  bore  blossom  since  Adam  was  born, 
Then  she  shall  be  a  true  lover  of  mine. 

Now  he  has  asked  me  questions  three, 
Parsley,  sage,  rosemary,  and  thyme  ; 

I  hope  he'll  answer  as  many  for  me 
Before  he  shall  be  a  true  lover  of  mine. 

Tell  him  to  buy  me  an  acre  of  land, 
Parsley,  sage,  rosemary,  and  thyme  ; 

Betwixt  the  salt  water  and  the  sea  sand, 
Then  he  shall  be  a  true  lover  of  mine. 

Tell  him  to  plough  it  with  a  ram's  horn, 
Parsley,  sage,  rosemary,  and  thyme  ; 

And  sow  it  all  over  with  one  pepper  corn, 
And  he  shall  be  a  true  lover  of  mine. 

Tell  him  to  sheer't  with  a  sickle  of  leather, 

Parsley,  sage,  rosemary,  and  thyme  ; 
And  bind  it  up  with  a  peacock  feather, 

And  he  shall  be  a  true  lover  of  mine. 

Tell  him  to  thrash  it  on  yonder  wall, 

Parsley,  sage,  rosemary,  and  thyme, 
And  never  let  one  corn  of  it  fall, 

Then  he  shall  be  a  true  lover  of  mine. 

When  he  has  done  and  finished  his  work, 

Parsley,  sage,  rosemary,  and  thyme  ; 
Oh.  tell  mm  to  come  and  he'll  have  his  shirt, 

And  he  shall  be  a  true  lover  of  mine. 

•  The  second  line  of  the  song  "  Parsley,  sage,  rowmary,  and 
thyme,"  fullv  bears  out  the  condition  of  being  a  nonsense  line, 
having  no  connection  with  the  lubjeet  ;  but  when  we  once  heard 
the  ballad  the  singer  achieved  a  still  higher  pitch  of  absurdity  by 
solemnly  chanting  "Parsley,  sage,  grwa  merry  in  time,  an  the 
correct  burden. 


j]  ALTON  CASTLE  or  Tower  is  situated 
about  a  couple  of  miles  north  of  Cor- 
bridge,  and  within  a  short  distance  of  the 
Roman  Wall.  It  is  regarded  as  a  good  specimen  of  the 
late  pele  tower.  Without  possessing  any  distinguish- 
ing feature,  it  is  interesting  from  the  fact  that  its  stones 
were  mostly  taken  from  the  neighbouring  Roman  station 
of  Halton  Cheaters,  which  was  identified  by  Horsley  as 
the  Hunnum  of  the  Notitia,  the  fifth  of  the  stations  from 
the  east  per  lineam  valli  and  the  headquarters  of  the 
Sabinian  cavalry  regiment.  Two  Roman  funereal  tablets 
are  built  into  the  surrounding  walls.  A  small  chapel  ad- 
joins ;  but,  save  the  chancel  arch  and  the  east  window, 
little  of  the  original  architecture  remains. 

The  manor  originally  belonged  to  the  family  of  Halton, 
and  appears  in  the  list  of  lands  held  in  drengage  under 
King  John.  There  was  a  John  de  Halton  in  Henry  III.  's 
reipm,  and  a  William  of  the  family  was  High  Sheriff  of 
Northumberland  in  the  seventeenth  year  of  the  reign  of 

Edward  I.  A  sister,  Margaret,  inherited  a  moiety  of  the 
manor,  the  other  moiety  being  possessed  by  the  Carnabys 
of  Carnaby,  a  famous  Northumbrian  family  who  in  the 
reign  of  Richard  II.  appear  to  have  been  in  possession  of 
the  whole  manor.  Preserved  in  this  Border  tower  was  a 
sword  of  the  Carnabys,  5ft.  4in.  long.  There  is  a  tradi- 
tion to  the  effect  that  when  the  country  was  infested  with 
mosstroopers  one  of  the  Carnabys  had  a  commission  to 
apprehend  and  try  them.  Whilst  he  was  engaged  upon 
the  trial  of  some  thieves  who  had  fallen  into  his  hands,  a 
notorious  character  was  seized  by  his  son,  who  asked  his 
father  what  should  be  done  with  him.  "Hang  him," 
said  the  father.  At  the  termination  of  the  trial  with 
which  he  was  occupied,  the  elder  Carnaby  ordered  the 
culprit  to  be  brought  before  him,  but  was  informed  that 
the  sentence  had  already  been  carried  out.  There  is  a 
similar  tradition,  however,  about  Belted  Will. 

A  relic  of  the  feudal  system,  according  to  a  statement 
in  the  proceedings  of  the  Newcastle  Society  of  Anti- 
quaries for  1882-t,  is  still  observed  at  Great  Whittington. 
The  freeholders  are  obliged  to  send  seven  mowers  and 

January  \ 
1889.     / 



fourteen  reapers  to  Halton  Castle  for  one  day  every  year 
when  called  upon.  It  is  called  the  Bond  Barge.  The 
labourers  receive  no  wages,  but  are  supplied  with  victuals 
and  drink. 


pHE  ruins  of  Thirlwall  Castle  are  situate  on 
an  eminence  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Tipalt, 
a  tributary  of  the  South  Tyne,  at  a  short 
distance  north  of  the  point  where  that  rivulet  was 
crossed  by  the  great  Roman  Wall.  Though  the 
castle  is  said  to  derive  its  name  from  the  Scots 
piercing  the  wall  here,  it  has  evidently  had  no  con- 
nection with  the  great  barrier.  Horsley,  indeed,  con- 
jectures that  it  might  have  received  its  present  name 
from  a  passage  of  a  branch  of  the  South  Tyne  through 
the  wall  a  little  to  the  west  of  the  fortress.  There  is, 

however,  a  tradition  that  the  castle  received  its  name 
from  the  fact  that  the  Roman  Wall  was  "thirled,"  or 
penetrated,  at  this  point.  The  walls  are  in  some  places  nine 
feet  thick,  and  the  place  was  defended  by  a  strong  outward 
barrier.  There  is  evidence  that  this  stronghold  was  built 
entirely  of  stones  from  the  Roman  Wall.  In  1831  the 
south  wall  fell  into  the  Tipalt.  The  ruins  now  present  a 
picturesque  appearance,  derived  from  its  situation  on  a 
rocky  boss  about  thirty  feet  from  the  stream.  Thirlwall 
Castle  was  for  many  generations  the  seat  of  the  Thirl- 
walls,  whose  heiress,  in  1738,  married  Matthew  Swin- 
burn,  of  Capheaton,  who  sold  the  castle  and  manor  to  the 
Earl  of  Carlisle.  Dr.  Bruce  in  his  "Roman  Wall," 
says  : — "  Amongst  the  witnesses  examined  on  the  occa- 
sion of  the  famous  suit  between  the  families  of  Scrope 
and  Grosvenor,  for  the  right  to  bear  the  shield  'azure,  a 
bend  or, 'which  was  opened  at  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  in 
1385,  before  King  Richard  II.  in  person,  was  John 
Thirlwall,  an  esquire  of  Northumberland.  The  witness 



\     1689. 

related  what  he  heard  on  the  subject  of  the  dispute  from 
his  father,  who  'died  at  the  age  of  145,  and  was,  when  he 
died,  the  oldest  esquire  in  the  North,  and  had  been  in 
arms  in  his  time  sixty -nine  years.'  Such  is  the  lan- 
guage of  the  record  of  these  proceedings,  preserved  in  the 
Tower  of  London." 

at  Jttarft  'Eton^t  Cgne  antr 



"  Sir  Henry  Brabant,  another  alderman,  profest,  if  the 
King  should  command  him  to  kill  a  man  in  cold  blood, 
he  took  himself  bound  in  conscience  and  duty  to  execute 
his  commands."  "  Life  of  Ambrose  Barnes." 

j]NE  of  Richardson's  reprints— "  The  Eve  of 
the  Revolution  in  Newcastle"  (already 
quoted  in  our  sketch"  of  Sir  William 
Blackett  the  Second)— is  a  letter  to  King 
James  II.  from  Sir  Henry  Brabant,  complaining  that  his 
loyalty  to  the  Crown  had  not  been  supported  as  it  should 
have  been  by  some  of  his  colleagues  in  the  municipal 
government  of  Newcastle.  The  writer  of  this  epistle 
came,  like  so  many  other  "men  of  light  and  leading"  in 
Newcastle,  from  the  adjoining  palatinate.  His  father, 
John  Brabant,  of  Pedgbank,  had  bound  him  apprentice, 
in  1636,  to  Alexander  (afterwards  Sir  Alexander)  Davi- 
son,  one  of  the  leaders  of  the  Royalist  party  in  New- 
castle, and  one  of  the  most  venerable  and  venerated 
aldermen  of  that  faction.  The  times  were  becoming 
critical  when  he  entered  upon  his  apprenticeship ;  they 
became  still  more  so  before  his  indentures  were  half  com- 
pleted ;  long  ere  his  term  expired  the  country  was  en- 
gaged in  civil  war.  In  the  eighth  year  of  his  servitude, 
when  the  Scots  stormed  Newcastle,  his  master  was  killed 
fighting,  at  the  age  of  eighty,  upon  the  town  wall. 
Trade  being  at  a  standstill,  he  made  no  effort  to  secure 
a  "turnover,"  and  when  he  applied  to  be  admitted  to 
the  freedom  of  the  Merchants'  Company  he  was  fined  for 
neglecting  to  complete  his  apprenticeship.  Pleading  ig- 
norance, he  obtained  a  remission  of  one-half  the  fine,  and 
on  the  1st  September  he  was  received  into  fellowship. 
Not  for  long,  however,  did  he  enjoy  his  privileges.  He 
had  taken  lessons  in  loyalty  from  the  master  who  died 
sword  in  hand  defending  the  Stuart  cause,  and  express- 
ing his  opinions  too  freely,  he  incurred  the  displeasure  of 
the  authorities.  By  order  of  Common  Council,  in  1649, 
he  was  publicly  disfranchised  for  being  in  arms  against 
the  Parliament. 

What  became  of  Mr.  Brabant  during  the  interregnum, 
is  not  stated.  At  the  Restoration  he  regained  his 
freedom,  and,  being  impoverished  in  his  estate  by  the 
civil  commotions,  obtained  from  Charles  II.  the  office 
of  collector  of  customs,  &c.,  in  Newcastle.  The 
Shrievalty  came  to  him  in  1662,  and  five  years  later  he 
rose  to  the  higher  position  of  Mayor.  Excisemen  in 
those  days  were  not  usually  very  popular  persons,  and 
even  collectors  of  customs,  when  invested  with  municipal 
authority,  were  apt  to  be  regarded  with  aversion. 
"There  were  none  that  bore  office  in  the  excise  but 
rogues,"  said  John  Lee,  yeoman,  "  being  at  William 
Mason's  house  in  the  Bigg  Market,"  on  the  lath 
October,  a  few  days  after  Mr.  Brabant's  election.  "  And 
what  was  Henry  Brabant,"  he  temerariously  asked, 
"  but  an  exciseman  !  and  none  but  broken  rogues  had 
such  places."  For  which  outspoken  speech,  and  seditious 
words  against  his  Majesty,  Lee  was  hauled  up  before 
a  magistrate,  as,  at  a  later  date,  Albert  Hodgson  was 
cited  for  saying  something  to  the  contrary  effect. 
Hodgson  being  a  Catholic,  railed  at  Alderman  Davison, 
son  of  Brabant's  master,  "  and  did  with  much  invitracye 
and  malice  asperse  and  abuse  Mr.  Davison,"  adding  that 
"none  of  the  aldermen  were  worth  anything  except 
Mr.  Brabant,"  &c.  In  the  times  of  the  Stuarts,  as  in 
our  own  day,  railing  and  abuse  were  the  common 
heritage  of  persons  in  authority,  for  party  spirit  in 
politics  and  religion  is  eternally  the  same. 

In  the  books  of  the  Trinity  House  is  a  record  that 
Alderman  Henry  Brabant  and  Ralph  Jenison  were 
deputed  by  the  town  to  attend  the  King  in  council  for  the 
adjustment  of  a  dispute  pending  between  the  town  and 
Mr.  Edmoud  Curtis,  who  had  undertaken  to  clear 
away  the  wrecks  in  the  river.  The  Hostmen's  books 
contain  entries  that  "Ralph  Jenison,  governor,  and 
Henry  Brabant,  Esq.,  going  to  London,  are  desired  to 
use  their  endeavours  to  secure  an  Act  of  Parliament  for 
regulating  the  abuses  of  collieries,"  &c.,  and  that  in  1681 
the  Hostmen  appointed  a  committee  to  consult  Henry 
Brabant  and  other  officers  in  the  Custom  House,  with  a 
view  to  compel  ships  to  discharge  at  a  proper  ballast 
quay,  or  shore,  within  the  river.  Items  of  no  great 
importance  are  these,  except  to  show  that  Mr.  Brabant 
was  living  in  the  sunshine,  after  some  years  spent  in  the 
shade.  The  circumstances  under  which  he  became 
Mayor  a  second  time,  at  Michaelmas,  1685,  are  given  in 
his  letter  to  the  King.  In  that  document  he  appears  as 
a  knight,  and  it  is  believed  that  he  received  this  courtly 
title  at  his  Majesty's  accession  in  March  previous.  The 
honour  came  too  late  to  be  of  much  use  to  him.  For  in 
June,  1687,  being  then  about  66  years  of  age,  he  died — 
died,  as  he  had  lived,  a  poor  man.  There  is  an  order  of 
Common  Council,  dated  1707,  by  which  £5  was  to  be 
given  "  to  Lady  Brabant  in  charity,"  and  that  is  the  last 
time  the  name  appears  in  the  municipal  annals  of 

January  \ 
1889.     / 



gflje  ?Rtt).  |oljn  $ranb,, 


The  father  of  John  Brand  was  parish  clerk  of 
Washington,  near  Durham.  His  daily  occupation  is 
not  stated  ;  probably  he  was  a  farm  labourer,  or  small 
handicraftsman  ;  if  he  had  been  in  better  circumstances, 

local  historians  would  have  told  us  so.  His  son  John 
was  born  on  the  19th  August,  17*4;  his  wife  died 
shortly  afterwards,  and  when  he  married  a  second 
time  he  allowed  his  brother-in-law,  Anthony  Wheatley, 
to  bring  the  boy  to  Newcastle  to  be  brought  up.  Mr. 
Wheatley  was  a  shoemaker  in  the  Back  Row,  a  narrow 
thoroughfare  which  extended  eastward  from  the  foot 
of  Westgate  Street.  (A  view  of  the  Back  Row,  which 
has  now  disappeared,  was  given  in  the  Monthly  Chronicle, 
vol.  ii.,  p.  137.)  He  was  only  a  small  tradesman,  follow- 
ing an  ill-requited  calling  in  a  poor  neighbourhood, 
with  squalid  surroundings,  but  he  did  the  best  he  could 
for  his  adopted  son. 

As  soon  as  he  was  old  enough,  young  Brand  was  sent 
to  the  Royal  Free  Grammar  School  of  Newcastle,  an 
institution  which  a  newly-appointed  headmaster — the 
Rev.  Hugh  Moises — was  endowing  with  fresh  life. 
Under  his  careful  tuition,  the  lad  made  rapid  progress. 
Wise  and  thoughtful  beyond  his  years,  as  boys  brought 
up  by  foster-parents  often  are,  he  became  a  diligent  and 
obedient  scholar — a  credit  to  the  school,  and  a  source  of 
pride  and  gratification  to  bis  teachers.  At  the  age  of 
fourteen  he  was  withdrawn  from  Mr.  Moises's  care,  and 
bound  apprentice  to  his  uncle. 

It  was,  perhaps,  fortunate  that  the  sedentary  occupa- 
tion of  a  cordwainer  fell  to  his  lot.  Shoemaking,  as 
practised  before  the  introduction  of  machinery,  was 
favourable  to  the  formation  of  studious  habits.  Young 

Brand  had  acquired  at  the  Grammar  School  a  taste  for 
learning  which  he  was  unwilling  to  neglect.  His  uncle, 
being  a  lenient  master,  and  most  likely  proud  of  the 
accomplishments  of  his  youthful  relative,  raised  no  objec- 
tion. Thus,  unfettered  at  home,  and  encouraged  by  Mr. 
Moises,  the  lad  kept  up  his  studies,  conned  over  his 
lessons  as  he  sat  at  work,  and  grew  up  to  manhood 
clever  and  accomplished. 

When  his  indentures  of  apprenticeship  expired,  in  1765, 
Mr.  Brand  was  desirous  of  utilising  his  acquirements  in 
a  more  congenial  sphere.  But  no  opening  presented 
itself  to  his  maturing  genius,  and  he  remained  with  his 
uncle.  During  his  servitude  he  had  begun  to  woo  the 
Muse,  and  ventured  into  print  with  "A  Collection  of 
Peetical  Essays.  Newcastle-upon-Tyne  :  Printed  by  I. 
Thompson,  Esq.,  1765." 

Under  the  will  of  Bishop  Crewe,  Lincoln  College, 
Oxford,  was  endowed  with  twelve  exhibitions  to  be  held 
by  natives  of  the  diocese  of  Durham,  and  in  1768,  when 
Mr.  Brand  was  taking  up  his  freedom  of  the  Cordwainers 
Company,  it  occurred  to  Mr.  Moises  that  the  bishop's 
munificence  might  be  utilised  to  rescue  his  gifted  protegu 
from  a  life  of  drudgery  and  indigence.  Opulent  friends 
were  consulted,  and  favourable  responses  obtained.  On 
the  8th  of  October,  1768,  Mr.  Brand  was  admitted  a 
commoner  of  Lincoln  College,  and  on  the  10th  of  the 
month  following  he  was  elected  a  Lord  Crewe  ex- 
hibitioner, the  value  of  which,  at  that  time,  was  £30  per 
annum.  His  collegiate  course  lasted  three  years,  and 
when  it  was  ended  he  was  ordained  by  Dr.  Egerton, 
Bishop  of  Durham,  and  licensed  to  the  curacy  of  Bolam. 
In  1773,  returning  to  Newcastle,  he  officiated  as  one  of 
the  curates  of  St.  Andrew's,  and  the  following  year,  Mr. 
Matthew  Ridley,  of  Heaton,  gave  him  his  first  pre- 
ferment, the  curacy  of  Cramlington,  of  the  yearly  value 
of  £40. 

While  at  Oxford,  Mr.  Brand  had  renewed  his  dalliance 
with  the  poetic  Muse.  The  subject  of  his  verse  was  sug- 
gested by  frequent  walks  along  the  banks  of  the  Isis  to 
the  ruins  of  Godstow  Nunnery,  the  burial  place  of  "Fair 
Rosamond,"  paramour  of  Henry  II.  In  1775,  when  he 
took  his  bachelor's  degree,  he  gave  these  poetical  medita- 
tions to  the  printer,  and  they  were  published  in  a  thin 
quarto  (with  a  copperplate  engraving  by  Ralph  Beilby), 
under  the  suggestive  title  of  "Illicit  Love."  For- 
tunately, soon  after  its  publication,  he  turned  to  a 
more  attractive  and  more  useful  study— that  of 
antiquities.  In  November,  1776,  he  sent  to  press, 
from  his  residence  in  Westgate  Street,  Bourne's 
little  book  on  the  Antiquities  of  the  Common  Peo- 
ple (which  had  become  scarce)  with  copious  addi- 
tions of  his  own,  under  the  title  of  "Observations 
on  Popular  Antiquities."  This  work,  expanded  from 
materials  which  Mr.  Brand  left  behind  him,  and  from 
other  sources,  was  re-issued  in  1813  by  Mr.  (afterwards 
Sir)  Henry  Ellis,  and  has  been  several  times  reprinted. 



A  few  months  after  it  was  published  the  author  was 
admitted  a  member  of  the  London  Society  of  Anti- 
quaries ;  the  year  following  he  was  appointed  under 
usher  in  the  Grammar  School  of  Newcastle,  where  he 
had  received  his  early  education ;  and  in  1781,  having 
in  the  meantime  taken  his  M.A.  degree,  he  was  preferred 
to  the  ushership.  The  curacies  of  Cramlington  and  St. 
Andrew's,  Newcastle,  supplemented  by  his  income  as 
usher,  afforded  him  a  moderate  competence,  and  he  lived 
in  Newcastle,  with  his  aunt,  Mrs.  Wheatley,  as  his  house- 
keeper, in  comparative  ease  and  comfort. 

While  thus  engaged,  be  had  been  collecting  materials 
for  a  history  of  Newcastle,  and  by  Christmas,  1783, 
had  made  substantial  progress  with  his  work.  It 
happened  that  just  at  this  time  the  rectory  of  St. 
Mary-at-Hill  and  St.  Andrew  Hubbard,  in  the  City  of 
London,  fell  vacant,  and  the  Duke  of  Northumberland, 
the  patron  for  that  turn,  offered  the  living  to  Mr. 
Brand,  adding  to  it  the  office  of  private  secretary  and 
librarian.  On  the  8th  of  February,  1784,  he  read  him- 
self in  at  St.  Mary-at-Hill,  and  prepared  to  take  up 
his  permanent  abode  in  London.  Directly  afterwards, 
another  appointment  fell  in  his  way.  Dr.  Morrell, 
secretary  to  the  London  Society  of  Antiquaries,  died 
on  the  19th  of  the  month,  and  through  the  influence  of 
the  duke,  and  the  high  opinion  which  his  fellow 
members  entertained  of  his  merits,  Mr.  Brand  was 
unanimously  chosen  to  fill  the  office. 

And  now,  resident  in  the  Metropolis,  provided  with 
ample  means,  and  having  free  access  to  public  records 
and  private  collections,  Mr.  Brand  was  able  to  push  his 
history  of  Newcastle  more  rapidly  towards  completion. 
Frequent  reference  to  it  is  made  in  his  "  Letters  to 
Ralph  Beilby,"  published  by  the  Newcastle  Typographi- 
cal Society.  Obtaining  from  the  Common  Council  of 
Newcastle,  on  the  14th  June,  1787,  permission  to  dedicate 
the  work  to  them,  he  commenced  to  solicit  subscribers, 
and  on  the  16th  May,  1789,  it  was  announced  as  ready  for 
delivery,  price  three  guineas,  in  two  volumes,  royal 
quarto,  and  liberally  illustrated  with  34-  plates,  &c., 
engraved  by  Mr.  Fittler. 

For  two  and  twenty  years  Mr.  Brand  fulfilled  the 
duties  of  secretary  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  and 
rector  of  St.  Mary-at-Hill.  He  did  not  marry,  but  lived 
with  a  housekeeper  at  the  rooms  of  the  society  in 
Somerset  Place,  Strand,  till,  prosecuted  by  common 
informers  for  non-residence,  he  was  compelled  to  occupy 
his  parsonage.  After  the  publication  of  his  "History," 
nothing  of  importance  issued  from  his  pen.  He  con- 
tributed a  few  papers  to  the  "  Archaeologia,"  and  printed 
a  quarto  pamphlet  about  some  inscriptions  discovered  in 
the  Tower  of  London,  and  that  was  all.  Not  that  his 
pen  was  idle  during  that  long  time.  On  the  contrary,  it 
was  constantly  at  work,  though  in  another  direction.  He 
n.ade  it  the  chief  business  of  his  life  to  collect  scarce  and 
out-of-the-way  books  and  manuscripts,  and  enrich  them 

with  pen  and  ink  sketches  of  their  authors,  explanations 
of  the  text,  and  other  useful  and  critical  annotations. 
Many  hundreds  of  books,  pamphlets,  and  tracts  were 
gathered  together  at  Somerset  Place  and  the  parson- 
age, some  of  them  of  the  rarest  character.  Writing  a 
small,  thin  hand,  but  clear  and  legible  as  print,  he  was 
able  to  compress  a  great  deal  of  matter  into  a  fly  leaf,  or 
the  back  of  a  title  page,  and  scores  of  his  treasures  were 
in  this  way  illustrated,  explained,  and  improved. 

On  the  morning  of  the  llth  of  September,  1806,  while 
preparing  for  his  usual  walk  through  the  City  to  the 
office  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  Mr.  Brand  suddenly 
died  in  his  study.  He  was  buried  in  the  chancel  of 
his  church  of  St.  Mary-at-Hill,  where  a  tablet,  bearing 
the  following  inscription,  preserves  the  memory  of  his 
pastorate : — 

Within  the  Communion  Rails  lies  interred  the  Body  of 
the  Rev.  John  Brand,  22  years  and  6  months  the  faithful 
Rector  of  this  and  the  united  Parish  of  St.  Andrew 
Hubbard.  He  was  also  perpetual  Curate  of  Cramlington, 
in  the  County  of  Northumberland,  and  he  was  Fellow 
and  Secretary  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries.  He  died 
llth  September,  1806,  in  the  63rd  year  of  his  age.  His 
affectionate  Aunt,  Mrs.  Ann  Wheatley,  of  Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne,  has  erected  this  Monument  to  his  Memory. 

By  his  will  dated  March  14,  1790,  Mr.  Brand  be- 
queathed all  his  "  books,  English  portraits,  prints, 
ancient  coins,  household  furniture,  cloaths,  and  linen," 
and  all  the  residue,  &c.,  to  his  aunt  and  sole  executrix, 
Ann  Wheatley,  who  had  brought  him  up.  The  old 
lady  proceeded  to  realise  the  property,  and  the  sale  of 
the  books  and  MSS.  which  he  had  gathered  together 
was  a  notable  event  in  London.  A  priced  catalogue  of 
the  first  part  of  the  "Bibliotheca  Brandiana"  shows 
that  the  sale  lasted  from  May  6  to  June  20,  1807, 
comprised  8,611  lots  of  books,  &e.,  and  243  lots  of 
MSS.,  and  with  a  second  auction  in  February  follow- 
ing of  more  than  4,000  duplicates,  and  collections  of 
pamphlets,  realised  £17,000. 

Probate  was  granted  to  Mrs.  Wheatley  in  November, 
1806,  the  value  of  the  property  being  sworn  as  under 
£800.  But  after  the  sale,  when  it  was  ascertained  how 
inadequately  that  sum  represented  the  value  of  Mr. 
Brand's  effects,  another  probate  was  issued,  and  the  pre- 
vious one  was  declared  to  be  null  and  void.  At  Mrs 
Wheatley's  death,  her  furniture  and  other  goods  and 
chattels  were  bequeathed  to  her  maid,  Mary  Sharp,  who 
had  lived  with  Mr.  Brand  in  London.  From  Mary  Sharp, 
who  resided  for  some  years  in  Cumberland  Row,  New- 
castle, and  died  at  the  age  of  90,  they  came  to  her  niece 
Ann,  wife  of  Edward  Hudson,  of  Alnwick,  and  are  now 
in  the  possession  of  Mrs.  Hudson's  representative,  Miss 
Almond  of  that  town.  Among  them  are  Mr.  Brand's 
cabinet  of  coins  and  curios,  gold  watch,  clock,  portfolio  of 
prints,  and  various  framed  pictures  and  engravings.  His 
writing  desk  (upon  which  the  Rev.  Mr.  Wasney,  the 
popular  curate  of  St.  Thomas's  Chapel,  wrote  his  sermons 
while  lodging  with  Mary  Sharp)  is  owned  by  the  widow 




of  the  late  Mr.  William  Armstrong,  master  printer  of  the 
Newcastle  Chronicle — a  friend  of  the  Hudson  family.  A 
collection  of  papers  and  letters  by  and  relating  to  Mr. 
Brand,  including  his  memorandum  book  for  1799,  and  a 
MS.  notice  of  his  works  by  the  late  Mr.  Thomas  Bell, 
was  purchased  by  the  Rev.  J.  R.  Boyle,  in  1885,  and  is 
now  in  the  library  of  the  Newcastle  Society  of  Anti- 

Our  portrait  is  taken  from  a  miniature  kindly  lent  by 
Mr.  J.  C.  Brooks,  of  Newcastle,  who  inherited  it  from 
Mr.  John  Martin,  librarian  to  the  London  University. 
So  far  as  is  known,  this  is  the  only  recognisable  portrait 
of  Mr.  Brand  in  existence,  the  liknesses  prefixed  to  the 
"  History  of  Newcastle,"  and  sometimes  found  attached 
to  the  catalogue  of  the  "Bibliotheca  Brandiana, "  being 
only  shadow-outlines,  or  silhouettes. 



In  the  early  part  of  the  present  century  three  brothers 
named  Brewis  came  from  the  country  to  Newcastle,  and 
started  business  as  cartmen.  They  were  industrious, 
thrifty,  God-fearing  men,  and  they  prospered.  John,  the 
oldest,  became  an  elder  and  precentor  at  the  High  Bridge 
Presbyterian  Chapel,  round  which  loving  memories  of  the 
Rev.  James  Murray  still  lingered,  and  his  brothers 
William  and  George  were  among  his  fellow-worshippers 
They  all  brought  up  families  in  respectability  and  com- 
fort. One  of  John  Brewis's  sons  became  a  popular 
Independent  minister  (of  him  more  presently)  ;  one  of 
William's  children  was  George  Brewis,  attorney,  pioneer 
of  building  societies  in  Newcastle,  and  temperance 

George  Brewis  was  born  about  the  year  1814,  in  Percy 
Street,  and  was  educated  by  Mr.  John  Weir,  a  well- 
known  schoolmaster  of  the  period.  As  a  boy  he  entered 
the  office  of  Mr.  John  Clayton,  town  clerk,  where  he 
continued  eleven  years,  and  thence  transferred  his 
services  to  Mr.  George  Tallentire  Gibson,  to  whom  he 
was  articled  with  a  view  of  entering  the  profession  of 
the  law.  About  1845,  he  was  placed  on  the  rolls  as  an 
attorney  and  solicitor,  and  at  once  commenced  a  prac. 
tice  as  the  legal  adviser  of  building  societies,  the  founda- 
tion of  which,  with  much  foresight,  he  had  laid  during 
his  clerkship. 

Incentives  to  thrift  in  the  form  of  building  societies, 
and  incitements  to  sobriety  in  the  shape  of  total  abstin- 
ence pledges,  came  in  together.  Joseph  Livesey,  the 
founder  of  teetotalism,  visited  Newcastle  in  the  autumn 
of  1835.  George  Brewis  signed  the  pledge  on  the  22nd 
June,  1836,  and  immediately  thereafter  became  an  active 
propagandist  of  temperance  principles.  When  the  first 
report  of  the  "  Newcastle  Teetotal  Society  "  came  out,  its 
roll  of  officers  was  filled  with  these  well-known  names  :— 
President,  Jonathan  Priestman ;  secretaries,  Jas.  Rew- 

castle    (corresponding),    Geo.    Hornsby    (minute),   John 
Benson  (registering),  and  Geo.  Brewis  (discipline). 

Following  the  bent  of  his  own  inclination  as  well  as  the 
traditions  of  his  fore-elders,  Mr.  Brewis  was  an  earnest 
Nonconformist.  As  a  youth  he  taught  in  the  Sunday 
School  of  High  Bridge  Chapel ;  in  manhood  he  became 
a  member  of  the  Congregational  Church  assembling  in 
St.  James's  Chapel,  at  the  head  of  Grey  Street.  In 
politics  he  was  an  advanced  Liberal,  and  gave  energetic 

support  to  Mr.  J.  F.  B.  Blackett,  Mr.  Peter  Carstairs, 
and  Mr.  (afterwards  Sir)  Joseph  Cowen,  in  their  re- 
spective candidatures  for  the  representation  of  New- 
castle. With  municipal  matters  he  did  not  actively 
intermeddle  till  late  in  life,  and  then,  having  been  a 
Poor  Law  Guardian  for  a  time,  he  fought  for  a  seat  in 
the  Council,  and  was  unsuccessful. 

Mr.  Brewis  died  suddenly  in  his  office,  Royal  Arcade, 
on  the  3rd  December,  1867,  and  a  few  days  later  was 
interred  in  Elswick  Cemetery  with  the  solemnities  of  a 
public  funeral. 

$eo.  SKUltam 


William  Brewis,  eldest  son  of  the  before-named  John 
Brewis,  was  born  in  Newcastle  on  the  8th  of  October, 
1804.  Trained  to  the  religious  life  by  his  father  at  High 
Bridge  Chapel,  and  manifesting  early  inclinations  for  the 
work  of  the  ministry,  he  was  sent  to  Rotherham  Indepen- 
dent College,  in  September,  1820,  on  the  eve  of  his  17th, 



year.  After  passing  through  the  usual  curriculum,  he 
was  called  to  the  pastorate  of  the  church  at  Lane  End  in 
Staffordshire,  and  on  the  26th  of  April,  1825,  received  the 
rite  of  ordination.  His  next  appointment  was  at  Kirby 
Moorside ;  thence  he  removed  to  Gainsborough ;  and  in 
1837  he  became  minister  of  the  Congregational  Church  at 
Penrith,  where  he  remained  until  called  to  his  reward, 
thirty-two  years  later. 

The  congregation  at  Penrith  was  small  in  number  and1 
in  influence  when  Mr.  Brewis  entered  upon  his  ministry 
there,  but  his  preaching  attracted  hearers,  and  in  no 
long  time  he  built  up  a  strong  and  flourishing  cause. 
Such  was  his  success  that,  after  a  few  years'  labour,  a  new 
building,  in  which  his  Penrith  followers  might  worship 
with  convenience  and  comfort,  became  desirable.  But, 
although  his  hearers  were  numerous,  their  resources  were 
slender.  It  was  not  until  1865  that  they  felt  justified  in 
commencing  to  build  a  place  that  should  be  worthy  of 
them  and  their  position.  When,  however,  they  did  begin, 
they  built  for  posterity.  Completed  in  July,  1866,  at  a 
cost  of  £3,500,  the  handsome  new  edifice  became  a  centre 
of  renewed  life  and  activity,  sixty  members  were  added  in 
one  year,  and  the  various  organisations  which  have  their 
origin  and  find  their  home  in  a  prosperous  religious 
community,  grew  and  flourished  under  the  roof  of  Penrith 
Congregational  Church. 

i'or  three  years  only  was  Mr.  Brewis  permitted  to  see 
the  fruition  of  his  labours.  The  end  came  somewhat 
suddenly.  In  the  morning  of  Saturday,  May  22,  1869, 
after  family  worship,  he  complained  of  sickness,  and  in 
the  afternoon,  sinking  from  his  chair,  in  a  kneeling 
posture  he  passed  away.  On  the  Wednesday,  while  his 
old  friend  Samuel  Plimsoll,  M.P.,  and  ministers  from  all 
parts  of  the  Northern  Counties  gathered  round,  his  re- 
mains were  buried  in  the  private  cemetery  of  the  congre- 
gation. A  sermon  from  the  text,  "  The  Lord  God  is  a 
Sun,"  which  he  had  prepared  the  day  before  his  death  for 
the  ensuing  morning  service,  was  read  the  following  Sun- 
day in  a  dozen  neighbouring  chapels,  and,  being  after- 
wards printed,  had  a  wide  circulation. 

|ol)n  Srottec  Crockett, 


During  the  fifty  years  which  preceded  the  general 
adoption  of  steam  locomotion,  when  methods  of  inter- 
communication and  opportunities  for  interchange  of 
thought  and  opinion  between  provincial  communities 
were  limited,  Newcastle  was  the  home  of  gifted  men, 
whose  acquirements  in  literature  and  science,  in  anti- 
quities and  art,  gave  the  town  a  definite  position  among 
trans-metropolitan  centres  of  intellectual  activity.  Excel- 
lent are  their  names — Adamson  and  Atkinson,  Bewick 
and  Buddie,  Burdon  and  Brockett,  Dobson  and  Double- 
day,  Hodgson,  Losh,  and  Mitchell,  Mackenzie,  Richard- 
eon,  and  Turner,  Williamson,  Wilson,  and  Winch.  Ad- 

mirable were  their  enterprises — the  Literary  and  Philo- 
sophical Society,  Society  of  Antiquaries,  Typographical 
Society,  Institution  for  the  Promotion  of  the  Fine  Arts, 
Botanical  and  Horticultural  Society,  Mechanics'  In- 
stitute, and  Natural  History  Society.  "True  men  were 
they  in  their  time  " — these  pioneers  and  promoters  of  cul- 
ture in  Newcastle.  " They  rest  from  their  labours";  but 
their  works,  for  the  most  part,  survive,  and  bear  testi- 
mony, generation  after  generation,  to  their  wisdom  and 
foresight,  to  their  energy  and  devotion. 

Among  these  leaders  of  thought  in  Newcastle,  John 
Trotter  Brockett  was  a  prominent  figure.    Born  in  1788, 


his  early  surroundings  had  been  in  the  highest  decree 
favourable  to  the  acquisition  of  knowledge  and  the  cul- 
tivation of  literary  taste.  The  Rev.  William  Turner — 
Unitarian  divine,  scientific  lecturer,  and  director-general 
of  intellectual  progress  on  both  sides  the  Tyne— super- 
intended his  education ;  his  father  (claiming  on  the 
mother's  side  descent  from  the  Nonconformist  family  of 
Angus)  was  Deputy-Prothonotary  in  the  local  Courts  of 
Record,  and  supervised  his  studies  in  mathematics  and 
jurisprudence.  His  own  diligence,  aiding  the  sound 
training  of  teacher  and  parent,  enabled  him,  at  the 
proper  age,  to  enter  with  confidence  upon  the  profession 
of  the  law.  Having  completed  articles  with  Messrs. 
Clayton  and  Brumell,  the  leading  solicitors  in  the  town, 
he  became  managing  clerk  to  Mr.  Armorer  Donkin,  in 
due  time  was  admitted  an  attorney,  married  a  daughter 
of  John  Bell,  merchant,  and  settled  down  to  a  lucrative 

Mr.  Brockett  commenced  at  an  early  period  of  life  to 
write,  to  edit,  and  to  publish.  In  1817,  his  name  appears 
as  the  editor  of  a  new  issue  of  Bartlet's  "  Episcopal  Coins 




-of  Durham  and  the  Monastic  Coins  of  Reading,  Minted 
during  the  Rei(rns  of  Edwards  I.,  II.,  and  III."  Heat 
the  same  time  reprinted  two  rare  tracts — one  of  1627, 
"A  Short  View  of  the  Long  Life  and  Reigne  of  Henry 
the  Third";  the  other,  dated  1650,  being  "An  Exact 
Narration  of  the  Life  and  Death  of  the  Reverend  and 
Learned  Prelate  and  Painful  Divine,  Launcelot  Andre  wes, 
late  Bishop  of  Winchester."  The  excellence  of  the  typo- 
graphy displayed  in  these  reprints  by  the  printer  (Mrs. 
Hodgson)  induced  him  to  suggest  the  formation  of 
a  society  for  the  re-issuing  of  scarce  tracts,  and  the 
preservation  of  local  compositions,  in  the  best  style 
of  printing  that  the  town  could  produce.  He  was 
busy  at  this  time  with  a  learned  treatise  upon  a 
question  that  was  occupying  the  attention  of  local 
politicians,  and  the  following  year  it  was  issued, 
with  the  long-drawn  title  of  "An  Enquiry  into  the 
Question  whether  the  Freeholders  of  the  Town  and 
County  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne  are  entitled  to  vote  for 
members  of  Parliament  for  the  County  of  Northumber- 
land"— an  inquiry,  by  the  way,  that  was  answered  by 
the  Reform  Bill.  As  soon  as  this,  his  first  bit  of  inde- 
pendent authorship,  was  out  of  hand,  Mr.  Brockett 
resumed  his  reprint  proposals.  A  pamphlet  on  "Hints 
on  the  Propriety  of  Establishing  a  Typographical 
Society  in  Newcastle,"  which  he  published  in  the  same 
year  as  the  "  Enquiry,"  led  to  the  formation  of  a  literary 
organisation  based  upon  his  suggestions.  The  Newcastle 
Typographical  Society  sprang  into  being  at  once,  and, 
although  its  aims  were  limited  and  some  of  the  members 
were  not  very  careful  about  the  utility  of  the  productions 
which  they  put  forth,  a  collection  of  their  tracts— 
about  80  in  number — is  not  without  historical  value. 
The  society  printed  for  private  distribution  as  a  rule, 
and  in  very  limited  numbers,  Of  some  of  their  publica- 
tions only  twenty  copies  were  issued ;  of  a  few  as  many 
as  300  were  struck  off,  and  these  were  generally  offered 
for  sale,  but  for  the  most  part  the  number  printed  was 
a  hundred.  On  various  issues  were  engraved  the  special 
devices  of  the  issuing  members,  being  generally  cuts  by 
Bewick,  representing  a  ruin  with  armorial  bearings. 
Mr.  Brockett's  vignette,  which  appears  upon  a  dozen  of 
the  tracts,  was  one  of  the  most  striking,  as  his  pamphlets 
were,  from  a  historical  point  of  view,  among  the  most 
valuable  of  the  series. 

In  1825,  appeared  the  first  edition  of  his  far-famed 
"  Glossary  of  North-Country  Words" ;  it  was  followed  in 
1829  by  another  and  much  more  comprehensive  book 
under  the  same  title ;  and  after  Mr.  Brockett's  death, 
his  son,  aided  by  local  men  of  letters,  brought  out  the 
work  in  the  two-volume  form  that  is  now  most  com- 
monly met  with.  A  "  Glossographia  Anglicana,"  from 
MSS.  which  Mr.  Brockett  had  prepared  for  publication, 
was  privately  printed  a  few  years  ago  in  "The  Sette 
of  Odd  Volumes,  "with  a  biographical  sketch  by  Frederick 

From  the  title  of  the  first  book  to  which  Mr.  Brockett 
put  his  name  it  may  be  inferred  that  he  was  interested 
in  the  collection  of  coins  and  medals.  To  a  knowledge 
of  numismatics,  which  was  at  once  deep  and  wide,  he 
added  a  passion  for  gathering  together  not  only  the 
shining  discs  which  attract  men  to  that  special  cult, 
but  curios  of  all  kinds,  and  especially  rare  editions  of 
rare  books.  Mr.  Fenwick  tells  us  that  his  collection 
of  the  former  at  a  ten  days'  sale  in  London,  in  1823, 
realised  £1,760;  and  his  library  of  scarce  and  curious 

books,  which  occupied  fourteen  days  in  the  selling, 
brought  £4-,  260.  No  sooner  had  he  disposed  of  these 
treasures  than  he  began  to  accumulate  afresh.  Dr. 
Dibdin,  the  famous  antiquary,  passing  through  New- 
castle in  1837,  was  entertained  by  the  literati  of 
the  town,  and  in  the  charming  book  which  he  after- 
wards published,  "A  Bibliographical,  Antiquarian,  and 
Picturesque  Tour  in  the  Northern  Counties  of  England 
and  in  Scotland,"  describes  his  intercourse  with  Mr. 
Brockett  in  terms  of  mingled  humour  and  apprecia- 
tion : — 

More  than  once  was  the  hospitable  table  of  my  friend, 
John  Trotter  Brockett,  Esq.,  spread  to  receive  me.  He 
lives  comparatively  in  a  nut-shell :  but  what  a  kernel ! 
Pictures,  books,  curiosities,  medals,  coins  of  precious 
value,  bespeak  his  discriminating  eye  and  his  liberal 
heart.  You  may  revel  here  from  sunrise  to  sunset,  and 
fancy  the  domains  interminable.  Do  not  suppose  that  a 
stated  room,  or  rooms,  are  only  appropriated  to  his 
BOKES  :  they  are  "  upstairs,  downstairs,  and  in  my  lady's 
chamber."  They  spread  all  over  the  house— tendrils  of 
pliant  curve  and  perennial  verdure.  For  its  size,  if  1 
except  those  of  one  or  two  Sannatyners,  I  am  not  sure 
whether  this  be  not  about  the  choicest  collection  of  books 
which  I  saw  on  my  tour. 

From  an  early  period  of  his  life  Mr.  Brockett  was  a 
member  of  the  Literary  and  Philosophical  Society  of 
Newcastle,  and  for  some  years  preceding  his  death  he 
undertook  the  responsible  duties  of  one  of  its  secretaries. 
He  assisted  at  the  formation  of  the  Newcastle  Society  of 
Antiquaries,  and  became  an  active  member  of  its  Council. 
The  Newcastle  and  Gateshead  Law  Society  found  in  him 



one  of  its  warmest  supporters,  and  awarded  him,  in  18J2, 
its  special  thanks  for  services  he  had  rendered  to  the  pro- 
fession before  a  Parliamentary  Committee.  He  was  a 
Fellow  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  London  ;  the 
well-known  initials  of  that  institution  formed  the  only 
affix  that  he  consented  to  couple  with  his  name.  In 
domestic  life,  he  was  a  pattern  of  all  that  was  amiable. 
His  family  participated  with  him  in  his  favourite  studies 
and  pursuits,  and  his  home  was  the  abode  of  peace  and 
happiness.  Some  years  previously  to  his  death  he  lost  his 
eldest  sen.  He  sustained  the  shock  with  surprising 
fortitude  ;  but  it  may  have  been  the  remote  cause  of 
his  death,  which  occurred  at  his  house  in  Albion  Street 
on  the  12th  of  October,  1842,  in  the  54th  year  of  his  age. 

was  the  popular  name  given  to  two 
Hfe-sized  leaden  figures  which  for  many 
years  formed  the  chief  attraction  and  laud- 
mark  in  Broad  Street  (now  Roker  Avenue),  at  the 
junction  of  Fulwell  Lane  and  Church  Street,  Monk- 

in  its  later  days  by  "  Gentleman  John,"  a  soubriquet 
which  clung  to  Mr.  John  Smith,  shipowner,  all  through 
his  successful  career  from  a  blacksmith  to  a  capitalist. 
But  previous  to  this  it  ia  said  to  have  been  the  residence 
of  the  great-grandfather  of  the  late  Mr.  George  Cooper 
Abbes,  of  Cleadon  Hall,  who  purchased  the  two  figures' 
which  had  been  brought  over  from  Germany  (with  ten 
more)  by  some  speculative  skipper,  and  set  them  up  to 
adorn  the  entrance  to  his  house.  The  other  figures  found 
their  way  into  the  hands  of  different  gentlemen  in  the 
County  Palatine,  and  most  of  them  have  probably  Jong 
ere  this  been  melted  down  for  the  sake  of  the  lead.  The 
duty  on  lead,  in  the  shape  of  ore,  was  four  pounds  a  ton  a 
hundred  years  ago,  whereas  the  Babbies,  being  "works 
of  art,"  would  be  admitted  either  duty  free  or  for  a  com- 
paratively small  charge. 

Between    sixty   and    seventy    years   ago,    the    Broad 
Street  mansion  (or,  as  some  say,  the  house  next  to  it) 

wearmouth.  The  house  with  the  garden  pillars  thus 
ornamented  was  once  a  very  pleasant  residence,  remark- 
able for  having  a  clock  and  bells,  and  was  occupied 

was  occupied  by  a  Scotchman  of  the  name  of  Rae 
who  kept  a  -genteel  school  in  it,  which  was  attended 
by  the  children  of  the  principal  Sunderland  families— the 
Kennicotts,  Robsons,  &c.  Mr.  Kae's  wife  was  the  sister 
of  a  Miss  Gilbert,  the  mother  of  the  celebrated  Lola 
Montez,  whose  real  name  was  Eliza  Gilbert.  Eliza, 
whose  father  is  said  to  have  been  an  officer  in  the 
British  army  serving  in  India,  was  sent  home  from 
the  East  while  yet  a  mere  child,  and  boarded 

January  I 

1889.     j 



with  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Rae,  from  whom  she  received 
the  elements  of  a  Rood  substantial  English  education. 
She  had  for  her  schoolfellows  many  who,  when  she  after- 
wards became  world-famous,  remembered  her  as  a  very 
interesting,  clever,  pretty  girl. 

A  few  years  ago,  the  Babbies  were  presented  to  the 
Roker  Park,  where  they  may  now  be  seen ;  but  it  is 
proposed  to  place  them  on  the  pillars  at  the  entrance 
from  Roker  Promenade  when  the  gateway  shall  have 
been  completed.  The  style  of  dress  denotes  the 
figures  to  be  of  German  or  Dutch  manufacture.  The 
scythe  which  the  man  is  represented  in  the  act  of  sharpen- 
ing, is  the  Flemish  or  Hainault  scythe,  with  which  a  good 
workman  could  cut  an  acre  of  corn  easily  in  a  day,  and 
which  was  introduced  into  this  country  by  some  enter- 
prising farmers  about  fifty  years  ago,  to  take  the  place  of 
the  Irish  scythe-hook,  which  had  itself  supplanted  the 
old  toothed  hook  or  sickle,  all  to  be  rendered  obsolete  in 
their  turn  by  the  reaping  machine. 

TOmft  at  tire 

(HE  wreck  of  the  Stanley  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Tyne  took  place  on  the  24th  of  November, 
1864.  During  the  early  part  of  that  day,  a 
strong  breeze  blew  from  the  east-south-east. 
It  was  not,  however,  sufficiently  violent  off  the  mouth  of 
the  Tyne  to  account  for  the  gradual  rise  of  the  waves  as 
the  day  advanced.  In  the  afternoon,  the  storm,  of  which 
the  wind  from  the  quarter  indicated  had  been  the  herald, 

gradually  grew  in  violence  until  it  became  evident  that 
there  were  serious  grounds  for  apprehension  as  to  the 
safety  of  vessels  which  were  then  in  the  offing.  About 
half-past  four  o'clock  an  occurrence  took  place  which, 
unfortunately,  proved  the  precursor  of  further  and 
more  serious  disasters.  One  of  the  Tyne  Commis- 
sioners' hoppers,  in  tow  of  a  steam-tug  belonging  to 
Mr.  Lawson,  of  South  Shields,  was  outside  the  bar,  when 
the  towline  parted.  The  hopper  was  driven  behind  the 
North  Pier,  the  two  men  who  were  on  board  of  her  being 
rescued  by  means  of  life-buoys  by  some  of  the  pier  men  ; 
while  the  tug  was  dashed  upon  the  Herd  Sands,  whence 
her  crew  were  saved  by  the  South  Shields  lifeboat.  The 
next  vessel  which  ran  on  shore  proved  to  be  the  passenger 
steamer  Stanley. 

This  fine  vessel  was  the  property  of  the  Aberdeen 
Steam  Navigation  Company.  She  was  an  iron  screw- 
steamer,  and  was  built  at  West  Hartlepool  by  Messrs. 
Pile,  Spence,  and  Co.  in  1859.  Her  register  tonnage  was 
376,  her  actual  burthen  being  552  tons.  She  had  sailed 
from  Aberdeen  on  the  previous  night,  bound  for  London, 
in  charge  of  Captain  Howling,  having  a  crew  of  2j 
hands,  all  told.  The  number  of  passengers  at  the  time 
of  sailing  was  30,  about  half  of  whom  were  women. 
The  vessel  had  also  a  full  cargo  on  board,  and  on  her  deck 
were  about  48  cattle  and  30  sheep.  She  proceeded  on 
her  voyage  with  every  prospect  of  reaching  her  desired 
haven  in  safety,  until  off  the  Northumberland  coast, 
where  she  first  began  to  experience  the  effects  of  the 
storm.  Finding  the  sea  so  turbulent  in-shore,  the 
Stanley  stood  out  seaward  in  the  expectation  of  finding 
smoother  water,  but  discovered  th:it  she  was  only  run- 




ning  into  the  full  force  of  the  gale.  In  this  terrible 
plight,  the  captain  determined  to  steam  for  the  Tyne, 
the  mouth  of  which  was  reached  about  a  quarter  to  five 
o'clock.  The  master  had  only  once  during  his  nautical 
career  been  in  the  Tyne,  and  that  was  about  twenty 
years  previously.  Under  these  circumstances,  he  na- 
turally felt  considerable  hesitation  in  taking  the  bar, 
more  especially  as  the  tidal  lights  were  not  then 
burning.  He  fired  a  couple  of  rockets  for  a  pilot,  but 
none  came  off.  A  tug-steamer  did,  indeed,  leave  the 
harbour,  but  she  never  approached  near  to  the 
Stanley.  The  mate,  however,  who  had  frequently 
sailed  to  and  from  the  Tyne,  expressed  his  readiness 
to  steer  the  vessel  into  port.  The  captain  yielded  to 
his  representations,  and  the  head  of  the  steamer  was 
turned  towards  the  bar.  This  was  safely  crossed.  But 
the  ship  had  got  no  further  than  just  off  the  Spanish 
Battery,  when,  with  a  dreadful  shock,  she  struck  upon 
the  rocks  known  as  the  Black  Middens. 

As  soon  as  the  peril  of  the  Stanley  was  seen  from  the 
shore,  a  number  of  the  coastguardsmen  set  about  getting 
the  rocket  apparatus  ready  for  firing.  The  Tynemouth 
lifeboat,  the  Constance,  was  promptly  manned,  while  the 
North  Shields  lifeboats,  the  Northumberland  and 
Providence,  with  the  South  Shields  lifeboats,  William 
Wake,  Tyne,  and  Fly,  were  also  got  out  and  pulled 
down  the  harbour  into  the  Narrows.  Intelligence  of  the 
catastrophe  spread  with  lightning-like  rapidity,  and  the 
consternation  and  excitement  of  the  inhabitants  in  the 
sister  towns  at  the  mouth  of  the  Tyne  were  intense. 
The  night  was  pitch  dark,  and  from  the  elevated 
headland  overlooking  the  harbour  the  sea  could  be  made 
out  only  by  a  broad  band  of  white  foam  ;  but  a  couple  of 
hundred  yards  from  the  shore  could  be  dimly  discerned 
through  the  gloom  some  dark  object  indicating  the 
position  of  the  ill-fated  vessel.  The  roar  of  the  waves,  too, 
was  deafening ;  but  in  the  lulls  of  the  storm  the  despair- 
ing wail  of  the  poor  creatures  exposed  to  the  pitiless 
waves  was  heard  with  painful  and  agonizing  distinctness. 
As  the  tide  fell,  the  rocket  apparatus  was  carried  over  the 
rocks,  and  preparations  were  made  to  establish  means  of 
communication  with  those  on  board. 

Before  the  disaster,  the  Stanley  had  been  provided 
with  four  lifeboats ;  but,  after  striking  upon  the  rocks, 
three  of  these  were  speedily  smashed  to  pieces.  An 
attempt  was  made  to  launch  the  remaining  lifeboat ;  and 
for  this  purpose  four  of  the  crew  got  into  her,  taking  with 
them  four  female  passengers.  While  the  boat,  however, 
was  being  lowered  from  the  davits,  a  heavy  sea  caused 
her  to  turn  round  and  sink.  Three  of  the  seamen  were 
rescued  by  those  on  board,  but  the  four  ladies  and  the 
fourth  seaman  were,  in  a  moment,  swept  beyond  the 
reach  of  aid. 

After  firing  one  or  two  abortive  rockets,  the  coastguard 
at  last  succeeded  in  establishing  communication  with  the 
Stanley.  The  line  carried  by  the  rocket  was  soon  the 

.means  of  carrying  a  stout  warp  between. the  vessel 
and  the  shore ;  and  upon  this  warp  the  cradle  was 
slung.  The  first  man  to  venture  into  the  cradle  was  an 
ordinary  seaman,  named  Andrew  Campbell,  who  was 
safely  conveyed  to  the  shore  amid  the  cheers  of  the 
bystanders.  A  second  seaman  and  a  woman  next  got 
into  the  cradle,  but,  unhappily,  they  fell  or  were 
thrown  out,  and  were  drowned.  The  second  mate, 
James  Knipp,  then  took  his  place  in  the  cradle,  and  was 
safely  drawn  through  the  raging  waters  to  the  shore. 
Owing  to  an  unfortunate  error  of  judgment  on  tho 
part  of  some  one,  the  hawser  was  secured  in  such  a 
manner  that  it  was  no  higher  than  the  rail  of  the  ship, 
the  consequence  being  that  those  on  shore  could  not  get 
it  clear  of  the  water.  The  result  of  the  mistake  was 
soon  painfully  palpable.  When  a  seaman  named  Buchan 
had  been  drawn  about  midway  between  the  vessel  and 
the  shore,  the  bight  of  the  warp  was  borne  by  his 
weight  against  the  rocks,  amongst  which  the  whip-line 
of  the  cradle  became  entangled,  and  the  cradle  itself  was 
brought  to  a  standstill.  Inspired  by  the  strength  born 
of  despair,  the  determined  fellow  managed  to  haul  himself 
hand-over-hand  to  the  shore  by  the  warp.  The  warp  and 
cradle  being,  by  this  untoward  accident,  rendered  use- 
less, an  end  was  put  for  the  time  being  to  any  further 
efforts  in  that  direction ;  and  the  unfortunate  pas- 
sengers and  crew  still  on  board  were  left  to  their  fate 
until  the  full  tide  of  the  morning  should  afford  an 
opportunity  for  the  resumption  of  measures  for  their 

The  captain  and  his  mate  appear  to  have  done  every- 
thing in  their  power  towards  saving  the  passengers  from 
being  swept  away.  Two  women — the  only  two  who  were 
afterwards  saved — were  induced  to  place  themselves  in 
the  foretop,  where  they  were  securely  lashed ;  and  three 
or  four  more  were  bound  to  the  shrouds  beneath.  The 
bulk  of  the  female  passengers,  however,  were  too  much 
affrighted  and  prostrated  by  the  fearful  experiences 
through  which  they  were  passing  to  venture  from  the 

About  half-past  nine  o'clock,  the  steamer  was  struck 
by  a  tremendous  sea.  The  hull  yielded  to  the  irresistible 
blow,  and  parted  abaft  the  mainmast.  The  force  of  the 
waves  swung  the  fore  part  and  larger  portion  of 
the  vessel  completely  round  until  it  was  left  in  a  position 
with  the  bow  breasting  the  waves.  At  this  time  the 
whole  of  those  on  board  were  on  the  larger  portion  of  the 
vessel.  The  second-class  cabin  was  on  the  deck,  and  the 
top  of  it  formed  what  was  known  as  the  bridge  or  "look- 
out." Affording  as  it  did  a  place  of  refuge  from  the 
breakers  which  poured  incessantly  upon  the  doomed 
vessel,  it  became  crowded  by  female  passengers  and  a 
portion  of  the  crew.  All  were  tightly  lashed  to  the  rails 
by  which  the  sides  were  guarded.  But  a  terrific  breaker 
swept  the  entire  structure,  with  its  shrieking  occupants, 
into  the  sea,  where  they  all  perished. 

January  I 



The  survivors  in  other  parts  of  the  vessel  had  taken 
refuge  in  the  fore  and  main  rigging,  whence  several  of 
them  were  washed  into  the  sea.  The  same  fate  befel 
two  of  the  women  who  had  been  lashed  to  the  shrouds, 
while  another,  unable  to  bear  up  against  the  exposure 
and  hardships  of  that  terrible  trial,  expired  from 

About  five  o'clock  next  morning  the  sea  had  suffi- 
ciently fallen  to  permit  a  resumption  of  the  exertions 
to  save  the  survivors.  Three  rockets  were  fired  before 
a  communication  with  the  vessel  was  established.  This 
time  those  on  board  made  the  warp  fast  to  the  mast- 
head, by  which  means  it  was  kept  out  of  the  angry 
surf,  and  the  incline  materially  facilitated  the  working 
of  the  cradle.  Soon  all  was  ready  for  recommencing  the 
work  of  rescue,  and  in  a  few  minutes  afterwards  the  whole 
of  the  survivors  were  brought  safely  to  land. 

There  were  lost,  in  all,  about  twenty-six  lives ;  and 
with  the  other  disasters  which  occurred  at  the  harbour's 
mouth  during  that  memorable  night,  the  catalogue  of 
mortality  was  swollen  to  between  thirty  and  forty. 

There  has  since  been  no  such  lamentable  experience 
in  the  history  of  Tyne  navigation,  the  great  improve- 
ments effected  by  the  enterprise  of  the  River  Com- 
missioners having  largely  contributed  to  the  greater  im- 
munity from  fatal  disaster  which  is  now  enjoyed,  while 
the  brave  members  of  the  Tyneraouth  Volunteer  Life 
Brigade,  which  owes  its  origin  to  the  wreck  of  the 
Stanley,  are  ever  ready  to  render  assistance  when  neces- 
sity arises. 

The  sketch  of  the  wreck  which  accompanies  this  article 
is  taken  from  a  painting  by  Mr.  J.  W.  Swift,  a  local 
artist  of  the  time. 


j|HE  whole  surface  of  the  globe,  so  far  as  it 
has  been  inhabited  and  explored  by  man, 
is  supposed  to  have  been  infested  more  or 
less  in  former  times,  if  not  still,  by  super- 
natural beings  of  one  sort  or  another.  Some  of  these 
sprites  have  been  held  to  be  beneficent,  others  malig- 
nant, others  again  only  mischievous  or  tricksy.  Some 
seem  to  have  been  thought  ubiquitous,  if  not  omni- 
present, or  at  least  able  to  appear,  or  capable  of  being 
called  up,  at  any  time  or  place ;  while  others  are  local 
goblins,  frequenting  particular  spots,  and  never  wandering 
beyond  certain  narrow  limits.  The  counties  of  Durham 
and  Northumberland  are  popularly  believed  to  have 
abounded  as  much  as  any  known  region  with  these  crea- 
tures of  the  imagination,  which  have  not  even  yet  been 
all  forced  to  flee  away  by  the  spread  of  secular  know- 
ledge. The  Brownie  and  Dobie,  the  Brown  Man  of  the 
Moors,  Redcap,  Dunnip,  Hob  Headless,  Silky,  the  Cauld 

Lad  of  Hilton,  the  Picktree  Brag,  are  all  local  sprites  of 
more  or  less  celebrity,  haunting  particular  spots,  and 
varied  in  characteristics.  The  Hedhy  Kow  is  not  one  of 
the  least  famous  of  the  number. 

According  to  all  accounts,  this  Kow  was  a  "bogie," 
mischievous  rather  than  malignant,  which  haunted  the 
village  of  Hedley,  near  Ebchester.  Some  uncertainty  pre- 
vails as  to  the  precise  locality  here  indicated;  for  there  are 
at  least  four  Hedleys  within  a  short  distance  of  the  old 
Roman  station  on  the  Derwent,  viz.,  Hedley,  near 
ilickley,  in  the  parish  of  Whittonstall ;  Black  Hedley, 
near  Eddy's  Bridge— both  in  Northumberland  ;  Hedley, 
or  Hedley  Hall,  on  the  skirts  of  Blackburn  Fell,  formerly 
a  great  waste,  in  the  parish  of  Lamesley  ;  and  Hedley 
Hope,  near  Cornsay,  in  the  parish  of  Lanchester— the 
two  last  in  the  county  of  Durham.  Whichever  of  these 
four  neighbourhoods  was  that  haunted  by  the  Kow,  it  is 
perhaps  impossible  now  to  tell.  Neither,  in  fact,  does  it 
matter  very  much,  as  the  localities  are  only  a  few  miles 
from  each  other, with  only  the  river  Derwent  intervening. 
One  thing  all  are  agreed  on,  the  Kow  did  nobody  any 
serious  injury,  but  merely  took  delight  in  frightening 

To  whomsoever  he  appeared,  lie  usually  ended  his 
frolics  with  a  hoarse  laugh  at  their  fear  or  astonsihment, 
after  he  had  played  them  some  sorry  trick.  To  an  old 
woman,  for  instance,  gathering  sticks,  like  Goody  Blake, 
by  the  hedge  side,  if  not  actually  out  of  the  hedge,  he 
would  sometimes  appear  as  a  "fad"  or  truss  of  straw, 
lying  on  the  road.  If,  as  was  natural,  the  dame  was 
tempted  to  take  possession  of  this  "fad,"  her  load  in 
carrying  it  home  would  become  so  heavy  that  she  would 
be  obliged  to  lay  it  down.  The  straw  would  then  appear 
as  if  "quick,"  the  truss  would  rise  upright  like  the 
patriarch  Joseph's  sheaf,  and  away  it  would  shuffle 
before  her  along  the  road,  swinging  first  to  one 
side  and  then  to  another.  Every  now  and  then 
it  would  set  up  a  laugh,  or  give  a  shout,  in  the 
manner  of  a  rustic  dancer  when  he  kicks  his  heels  and 
snaps  his  fingers  at  the  turn  of  the  tune ;  and  at  last,  with 
a  sound  like  a  rushing  wind,  it  would  wholly  vanish  from 
her  sight. 

Two  men  belonging  to  Newlands,  on  the  left  bank  of 
the  Derwent,  opposite  Ebchester — a  place  now  rendered 
famous  in  connection  with  the  mysterious  person  who 
claimed  to  be  Countess  of  Derwentwater — went  out  one 
night  about  the  beginning  of  the  present  century  to  meet 
their  sweethearts.  On  arriving  at  the  appointed  place, 
they  saw,  as  they  supposed,  the  two  girls  walking  at  a 
short  distance  before  them.  The  girls  continued  to  walk 
onwards  for  two  or  three  miles,  and  the  young  men  to 
follow  without  being  able  to  overtake  them.  They 
quickened  their  pace,  but  still  the  girls  kept  before  them ; 
and  at  length,  when  the  pair  found  themselves  up  to  their 
knees  in  a  mire,  the  girls  suddenly  disappeared  with  a 
most  unfeminine  ha,  ha,  ha  !  The  young  men  now  per- 



I  January 

ceived  that  they  had  been  beguiled  by  the  Hedley  Kow. 
After  getting  clear  of  the  bog,  they  ran  homeward  as  fast 
as  their  legs  could  carry  them,  while  the  boggle  followed 
close  at  their  heels,  hooting  and  laughing.  In  crossing 
the  Derwent,  between  Ebchester  and  Hamsterley  Hall, 
the  one  who  took  the  lead  fell  down  in  the  water,  and  his 
companion,  who  was  not  far  behind,  tumbled  over  him. 
In  their  panic,  each  mistook  the  other  for  the  Kow,  and 
loud  were  their  cries  of  terror  as  they  rolled  over  each 
other  in  the  stream.  They,  however,  managed  to  get  out 
separately,  and,  on  reaching  home,  each  told  a  painful 
tale  of  having  been  chased  by  the  Hedley  Kow. 

A  farmer  of  the  name  of  Forster,  who  lived  near 
Hedley,  went  out  into 'the  field  very  early  one  morning, 
as  he  intended  driving  into  Newcastle,  so  as  to  be  there  as 
soon  as  the  shops  were  opened.  In  the  dim  twilight,  he 
caught,  as  he  believed,  his  own  grey  horse,  and  harnessed 
it  with  his  own  hands.  But,  after  yoking  the  beast  to  the 
cart  and  getting  upon  the  shaft  to  drive  away,  the  horse 
(which  was  not  a  horse  at  all,  but  the  Kow)  slipped  away 
from  the  limmers,  setting  up  a  great  "nicker"  as  he 
flung  up  his  heels  and  scoured  away  "like  mad"  out  of 
the  farmyard. 

The  Kow  was  a  perfect  plague  to  the  servant  girls  at 
farm  houses  all  round  the  Fell.  Sometimes  he  would  call 
them  out  of  their  beds  by  imitating  their  lovers  at  the 
window.  At  other  times,  during  their  absence,  he  would 
overturn  the  kail  pot,  open  the  milk  house  door  and  invite 
the  cat  to  lap  the  cream,  let  down  "steeks"  in  the 
stockings  they  had  been  knitting,  or  put  their  spinning- 
wheel  out  of  order.  Many  a  time,  taking  the  shape  of 
a  favourite  cow,  he  would  lead  the  milkmaid  a  long  chase 
round  the  field  before  he  would  allow  himself  to  be  caught ; 
and,  after  kicking  and  "rowting"  during  the  whole  milking 
time,  "  as  if  the  de'il  was  in  Hawkie, "  he  would  at  last  up- 
set the  pail,  slip  clear  of  the  tie,  give  a  loud  bellow,  and 
bolt  off  tail  on  end,  thus  letting  the  girl  know  she  had 
been  the  sport  of  the  Kow.  This  trick  of  his  was  so  com- 
mon that  he  seems  to  have  got  his  name  from  it. 

It  is  related  that  he  very  seldom  visited  the  house  of 
mourning — a  clear  evidence  that,  demon  though  he  was, 
he  was  not  quite  destitute  of  sympathetic  feeling.  But 
on  the  occasion  of  a  birth  he  was  rarely  absent,  either  to 
the  eye  or  to  the  ear.  Indeed,  his  appearance  at  those 
times  was  BO  common  as  scarcely  to  cause  any 
alarm.  The  man  who  rode  for  the  midwife  was, 
however,  often  sadly  teased  by  him.  He  would 
appear,  for  instance,  to  the  horse,  in  a  lonely  place,  and 
make  him  take  the  "reist,"or  stand  stock-still.  Neither 
whip  nor  spur  would  then  force  the  animal  past,  though 
the  rider  saw  nothing.  It  frequently  happened  that 
the  messenger  was  allowed  to  make  his  way  with- 
out let  or  hindrance  to  the  house  where  the  "  howdie  " 
lived,  to  get  her  safely  mounted  behind  him  on  a 
well-girt  pillion,  and  to  return  homewards  so  far 
with  her  unmolested.  But  as  they  were  crossing  some 

stank,  or  fording  some  stream,  the  Kow  would  come  up 
and  begin  to  play  his  cantrips,  causing  the  horse  to  kick 
and  plunge  in  such  a  way  as  to  dismount  his  double  load 
of  messenger  and  midwife.  Sometimes  when  the  farmer's 
wife,  impatient  for  the  arrival  of  the  howdie,  was  groan- 
ing in  great  pain,  the  Kow  would  come  close  to  the  door 
or  window  and  begin  to  mock  her.  The  farmer  would 
rush  out  with  a  stick  to  drive  the  vile  creature  away, 
when  the  weapon  would  be  clicked  out  of  his  hand  before 
he  was  aware,  and  lustily  applied  to  his  own  shoulders. 
At  other  times,  after  chasing  the  boggle  round  the  farm- 
yard, he  would  tumble  over  one  of  his  own  calves,  and 
the  Kow  would  be  off  before  he  could  regain  his  feet. 

One  of  the  most  ridiculous  tales  connected  with  this 
mischievous  sprite  is  thus  told  by  Stephen  Oliver  in  his 
"Rambles  in  Northumberland": — "A  farmer,  riding 
homeward  late  one  night,  observed  as  he  approached  a 
lonely  part  of  the  road  where  the  Kow  used  to  play  many 
of  his  tricks,  a  person  also  on  horseback  a  short  distance 
before  him.  Wishing  to  have  company  in  a  part  of  the 
road  where  he  did  not  like  to  be  alone  at  night, 
he  quickened  the  pace  of  his  horse.  The  person 
whom  he  wished  to  overtake,  hearing  the  tramp 
of  the  horse  rapidly  advancing,  and  fearing  that 
he  was  followed  by  some  one  with  an  evil  intention, 
put  spurs  to  his  steed  and  set  off  at  a  gallop,  an  example 
which  was  immediately  followed  by  the  horseman  behind. 
At  this  rate  they  continued  whipping  and  spurring,  as  it 
they  rode  for  life  or  death,  for  nearly  two  miles,  the  man 
who  was  behind  calling  out  with  all  his  might,  '  Stop ! 
stop  !'  The  person  who  fled,  finding  that  his  pursuer  was 
gaining  upon  him,  and  hearing  a  continued  cry,  the  words 
of  which  he  could  not  make  out,  began  to  think  he  was 
pursued  by  something  unearthly,  as  no  one  who  had  a 
design  to  rob  him  would  be  likely  to  make  such  a  noise. 
Determined  no  longer  to  fly  from  his  pursuer,  he  pulled 
up  his  horse,  and  adjured  the  supposed  evil  spirit : 
'  In  the  name  of  the  Father,  and  of  the  Son,  and  of  the 
Holy  Ghost,  who  art  thou  ?'  Instead  of  an  evil  spirit,  a 
terrified  neighbour  at  once  answered  the  question  and 
repeated  it,  '  Aa's  Jemmy  Brown,  o'  the  High  Fields. 
Whe's  thoo  f  " 

Mr.  William  Henderson,  in  his  "Notes  on  the  Foil 
Lore  of  the  Northern  Counties  of  England  and  the 
Borders,"  institutes  a  comparison  between  the  Hedley 
Kow  and  Ben  Jonson's  Robin  Goodfellow,  the  Irish 
Phooka,  the  Scotch  Water  Kelpie,  the  Icelandic  Grey 
Nykkur-Horse,  the  Flemish  Kludde,  the  Yorkshire 
Padfoot,  and  other  famous  goblins,  all  of  which 
were  believed  to  take  a  variety  of  shapes,  appearing 
sometimes  like  an  ox,  sometimes  like  a  black  dog,  oc- 
casionally like  an  ass,  and  at  other  times  like  a  sow,  a 
horse,  a  white  cat,  a  rabbit,  a  headless  man,  or  a  headless 





HTft*  Jbtmtrf  at 

j]REY  STREET  is  generally  regarded  as  a 
noble  monument  to  the  genius  of  Richard 
Grainger.  To  trace  its  origin  we  must  go 
back  in  thought  to  the  spring  of  1834,  for 
then  it  was  that  Mr.  Grainger  entered  into  arrangements 
with  the  representatives  of  Major  Anderson  for  the  pur- 
chase of  the  celebrated  Anderson  Place,  at  a  cost  of 
£50,000.  Other  property,  including  the  old  theatre  in 
Mosley  Street,  probably  cost  him  about  £45,000  more. 
Having  made  this  costly  venture,  his  next  step  was  to  lay 
his  plans  for  projected  new  streets  before  the  Town 
Council ;  and  this  was  done  on  March  27th  of  the  above 
named  year.  He  desired  to  remove  the  Butcher  and 
Vegetable  Markets,  then  comparatively  new,  and  to  build 
on  the  site  a  magnificent  thoroughfare  which  should  co  n 
nect  Blackett  Street  with  Dean  Street.  Many  were  the 
difficulties  he  had  to  encounter.  The  owners  of  the  threat- 
ened property,  and  other  persons  who  had  invested  their 
money  in  the  neighbourhood,  sang  out  lustily  against  any 
change  being  made.  Grainger  was  not  disposed  to  yield 
to  this  clamour  if  he  could  possibly  help  it.  Accordingly, 
he  exhibited  his  plans  in  the  Arcade  on  the  29th  of 
May.  They  were  eagerly  inspected  by  the  public,  and 
obtained  such  general  approval  that  about  five  thousand 
signatures  were  appended  to  a  memorial  in  their 
favour.  A  counter-petition  only  obtained  some  three 
hundred  signatures.  Expressions  of  approval  were  also 
obtained  from  a  parish  meeting  in  St.  Andrew's,  the 
Chamber  of  Commerce,  and  other  bodies.  The  Council 
met  on  the  12th  of  June  to  consider  the  whole  question, 
when,  by  twenty-four  votes  against  seven,  it  was  resolved 
to  treat  with  Grainger.  On  the  following  15th  of  July, 
sanction  was  formally  given  to  the  plans.  Great  were 
the  rejoicings  when  the  news  was  made  known.  The 
parish  churches  rang  out  merry  peals ;  Mr.  Grainger's 
workmen  were  regaled  in  the  Nun's  Field  ;  in  fact,  the 
town  was  en  file. 

Then  Grainger  set  to  work  with  all  his  characteristic 
energy.  He  began  to  lay  out  his  new  streets  on  the  30th 
of  July.  The  levelling  of  the  ground  was  a  most  expen- 
sive undertaking.  Nearly  five  trillions  of  cubic  feet  of 
earth  had  to  be  carted  away,  at  a  cost  of  upwards  of 
£20,000.  In  the  course  of  the  excavations,  portions  of  an 
ancient  crucifix  and  a  gilt  spur  were  found,  as  well  as  a 
quantity  of  human  remains,  on  the  supposed  site  of  the 
burial  ground  of  St.  Bartholomew's  Nunnery.  The  work 
was  not  without  its  perils.  On  the  llth  of  June,  1835, 
for  instance,  about  three  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  three 
houses  on  the  south-west  side  of  Market  Street  suddenly 
fell  with  a  tremendous  crash  whilst  in  course  of  erection. 
The  buildings  had  nearly  reached  their  intended  height 

At  least  a  hundred  men  were  at  work  upon  and  imme- 
diately around  them,  several  of  whom  were  precipitated 
to  the  ground  with  the  falling  materials,  and  were  buried 
in  the  ruins.  Many  more  had  almost  miraculous  escapes 
from  a  similar  fate.  As  soon  as  the  alarm  had  subsided, 
the  other  workmen,  upwards  of  seven  hundred  in  number, 
devoted  themselves  to  the  relief  and  rescue  of  the  suf- 
ferers. Of  those  disinterred,  one,  the  foreman  of  the 
masons,  died  in  a  few  hours ;  four  were  dead  when  found ; 
fifteen  were  got  out  alive,  but  greatly  injured,  and  two  of 
them  died,  making  seven  in  all.  Grainger  himself  had  a 
narrow  escape.  He  had  inspected  the  houses  but  a  few 
minutes  before ;  when  they  fell,  he  was  standing  upon  the 
scaffolding  of  the  adjacent  house. 

Let  us  see  if  we  can  realise  something  of  the  general 
appearance  of  this  locality  before  Grainger  converted  it 
into  a  palatial  thoroughfare.  The  higher  part  of  what  is 
now  Grey  Street  was  a  place  of  solitude  and  retirement. 
Waste  ground  surrounded  Anderson  Place.  One  of  our 
local  poets  has  recalled  the  time  when  Novocastrians 

Walk  up  the  lane,  and  ope  the  Major's  gate. 
Pass  the  stone  cross,  and  to|the  Dene  we  come, 

Then,  halting  by  the  well  where  angels  wait 

To  bathe  the  limbs  of  those  in  palsied  state, 
(So  saith  the  legend),  gaze  in  musing  mood 

On  the  time-honoured  trees  where  small  birds  mate. 
Unlike  the  nuns,  build  nests  and  nurse  their  brood, 
And  prove  that  Nature's  laws  are  tender,  wise,  and  good. 

Outside  the  Major's  boundary  there  was  plenty  of  life, 
and  plenty  of  noise,  especially  on  Saturday  nights. 
Itinerant  vendors  indulged  in  their  quaint  cries.  Women 
and  children  (mostly  the  latter)  sang — 

Silk  shoe  ties,  a  penny  a  pair  : 

Buy  them,  and  try  them,  and  see  hoo  they  wear. 

Others  made  known  their  vocation  by  the  cry  : — "  Good 
tar-barrel  matches,  three  bunches  a  penny."  The  air  re- 
resounded  with  the  invitation  : — "Nice  tripe  or  mince  to- 
night, liinnies ;  gud  fat  puddins,  hinnies,  smoking  het, " 
concerning  which  savoury  viands  the  lines  recur  to  the 
veteran's  memory : — 

And  now  for  black  puddings,  long  measure, 

They  go  to  Tib  Trollibags'  stand  ; 
And  away  bear  the  glossy  rich  treasure, 

With  joy,  like  curl'd  bugles  in  hand. 

The  side  adjoining  Pilgrim  Street  was  devoted  to  the  sale 
of  poultry  and  eggs  ;  that  opposite,  and  therefore  nearer 
the  Cloth  Market,  to  the  stalls  of  the  greengrocers.  The 
intervening  space  was  given  up  to  the  butchers,  whose 
shops  ran  in  rows  from  north  to  south.  These  shops  had 
stone  fronts,  with  tiled  roofs,  and  an  overhanging  canopy 
in  front. 

Such,  then,  was  the  general  character  of  this  part  of  the 
good  old  town  in  the  past.  We  may  turn  now  to  its 
features  in  the  present.  Let  us  start  from  Blackett  Street, 
and  walk  quietly  down  to  Dean  Street.  At  once  our  at- 
tention is  arrested  by  the  noble  column  usually  known  as 
the  Grey  Monument.  On  October  6th,  1834,  a.  public 
meeting  was  convened  to  con-ider  the  propriety  of  cum- 




memorating,  by  the  erection  of  a  statue,  the  services 
rendered  to  the  cause  of  Parliamentary  Reform  by  the 
then  Earl  Grey.  William  Ord,  Esq.,  presided,  and  the 
idea  was  unanimously  approved.  A  sum  of  £500  was 
subscribed  in  the  room.  On  February  13th,  1836,  a 
model  of  a  Roman  Doric  column  by  John  Green  was 
adopted,  to  cost  £1,600 ;  and  it  was  resolved  to  commis- 
sion E.  H.  Baily  to  provide  a  suitable  statue  of  the  earl, 
at  a  further  cost  of  £700.  The  construction  of  the 
column  was  entrusted  to  Joseph  Welch,  builder  of  the 
Ouseburn  Viaduct,  and  Bellingham  Bridge  across  North 
Tyne.  The  foundation  stone  was  laid  by  Messrs.  J.  and 
B.  Green,  architects,  on  September  6th,  1837,  and  the 
column  was  finished  on  August  llth,  1838.  Baily's  statue 
was  placed  on  the  summit  thirteen  days  later. 

The  monument  is  133  feet  high,  and  contains  164  steps 
in  the  interior.  A  glass  bottle,  containing  coins  and  a 
parchment  scroll,  was  deposited  in  the  foundation  stone. 
The  scroll  records  : — "  The  foundation  stone  of  this 
column,  erected  by  public  subscription  in  commemoration 
of  the  transcendent  services  rendered  to  his  country  by  the 
Right  Hon.  Charles  Earl  Grey,  Viscount  Howick,  Knight 
of  the  most  noble  Order  of  the  Garter,  and  Baronet,  was 
laid  on  the  sixth  day  of  September,  one  thousand  eight 
hundred  and  thirty-seven,  by  John  Green  and  Benjamin 
Green,  Esqrs.,  Architects.  Building  Committee  : — The 
Rev.  John  Saville  Ogle,  of  Kirkley,  in  the  county  of 
Northumberland,  Clerk,  A.M.,  Prebendary  of  Durham ; 
Edward  Swinburne,  of  Capheaton,  Esq.  ;  Thomas  Emer- 
son Headlam,  of  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  Esq.,  M.D. ;  John 
Grey,  of  Dilston,  Esq. ;  Thomas  Richard  Batson,  of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  Esq.,  and  Alderman ;  Armorer 
Donkin,  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  Esq.,  and  Alderman  ; 
Ralph  Park  Philipson,  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  Esq., 
and  Town  Councillor ;  John  Fenwick,  of  Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne,  Esqr. ;  James  Hodgson,  of  Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne,  Esq.,  and  Alderman ;  Emerson  Charnley,  of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  Esq.,  and  Town  Councillor." 

On  the  exterior  of  the  column  is  cut  the  following  in- 
scription : — "  This  Column  was  erected  in  1838,  to  com- 
memorate the  services  rendered  to  his  country  by  Charles 
Earl  Grey,  K.G.,  who,  during  an  active  political  career  of 
nearly  half-a-century,  was  the  constant  advocate  of  peace 
and  the  fearless  and  consistent  champion  of  civil  and 
religious  liberty.  He  first  directed  his  efforts  to  the 
amendment  of  the  representation  of  the  people  in  1792, 
and  was  the  Minister  by  whose  advice,  and  under  whose 
guidance,  the  great  measure  of  Parliamentary  Reform 
was,  after  an  arduous  and  protracted  struggle,  safely 
and  triumphantly  achieved  in  the  year  1832." 

Near  the  Monument  is  the  Victoria  Room,  formerly  used 
as  a  music-hall.  In  its  early  days,  political  meetings  were 
occasionally  held  here,  whereat  Thomas  Doubleday, 
John  Fife,  and  Charles  Larkin  were  usually  the  chief 
speakers.  Later  on,  an  effort  was  made  to  popularise 
cheap  Saturday  and  Monday  evening  concerts  in  this 

room.  Amongst  others  who  took  part  in  them  were  Mr. 
William  Gourlay,  the  talented  Scotch  comedian,  who 
sang  comic  songs  here  when  the  theatre,  a  little  lower 
down  Grey  Street,  was  not  open  ;  Mr.  Fourness  Rolfe, 
also  of  the  same  theatre ;  the  sisters  Blake ;  and  Miss 
Goddard,  afterwards  Mrs.  Gourlay. 

At  the  corner  of  the  little  lane  just  a  step  or  so  further 
down  Grey  Street,  the  Newcastle  Journal  had  its  printing 
and  publishing  offices  at  one  time.  Mr.  John  Hernaman 
was  the  editor  of  this  paper  for  some  years,  and  got  into 
several  scrapes  owing  to  the  violence  with  which  he 
attacked  his  political  opponents.  On  one  occasion  he  fell 
foul  of  Mr.  Larkin,  who,  in  return,  made  mincemeat  of 
him  (metaphorically)  in  a  scathing  pamphlet,  entitled, 
"A  Letter  to  Fustigated  John" — the  word  "fustigated" 
being  an  old  synonym  for  "whipped."  It  was,  in  fact, 
Mr.  Hernaman's  unpleasant  experience  to  have  to  endure 
corporal  chastisement  more  than  once  in  the  course  of  his 
journalistic  career.  One  of  his  whippings  occurred  at 
the  Barras  Bridge.  In  another  case,  several  Sunderland 
men  came  over  to  Newcastle  to  avenge  themselves  for 
what  they  considered  an  unfair  criticism  on  certain  of 
their  transactions.  They  suddenly  burst  in  upon  the 
editorial  presence,  and  asked  Hernaman  for  the  name  of 
the  writer  of  the  objectionable  article.  The  latter 
declined  to  furnish  them  with  any  information  on  the 
subject.  On  this  refusal,  he  was  attacked  with  walking- 
sticks  and  horsewhips.  The  case  came  up  in  due  time 
at  the  Sessions,  where  the  defendants  were  "strongly 
recommended  to  mercy  on  account  of  the  very  great 
provocation  they  had  received."  They  were  each  called 
upon  to  pay  a  fine  of  £50.  Fortunately,  the  days  of  such 
journalistic  amenities  in  Newcastle  may  be  safely  enough 
regarded  as  over  now  for  good. 

Across  the  way  is  the  Central  Exchange  Hotel,  with  its 
handsome  dining-room,  its  rooms  for  commercial  tra- 
vellers, &c.;  and  on  our  left  hand  there  is  another  of  a 
similar  character,  also  devoted  to  commercial  men  and 
their  customers,  named  the  Royal  Exchange.  The  latter 
is  at  the  corner  of  Hood  Street,  so  called  after  an  alder- 
man of  that  name.  In  this  street  is  the  Central  Hall, 
used  for  Saturday  evening  concerts,  teetotal  gatherings, 
and  revival  meetings.  It  was  originally  a  Methodist  New 
Connexion  chapel,  in  which  Joseph  Barker  used  at  one 
period  of  his  career  to  hold  forth  to  large  congregations. 

Passing  Hood  Street  and  Market  Street,  we  come  to 
the  Theatre  Royal,  the  successor  of  the  establishment 
in  Mosley  Street.  The  portico  of  the  Theatre  Royal  is  a 
striking  feature  of  the  street,  though  unfortunately 
it  remains  incomplete  to  this  day.  The  design  is 
taken  from  the  Pantheon  at  Rome.  Six  noble  Corinthian 
columns,  with  richly  executed  capitals,  support  the  pedi- 
ment, in  the  tympanum  of  which  it  a  sculpture  of  the 
royal  arms,  the  work  of  a  Newcastle  artist  who  died  all 
too  soon  for  the  ripening  of  bis  fame.  This  work  of  his 
has  often  won  the  approval  of  critics  in  such  matters.  It 

1889.     ) 



is  here  that  the  Theatre  Royal  front  has  been  suffered  to 
remain  unfinished,  for  it  was  orignally  intended  to 
place  a  statue  of  Mrs.  Siddons  as  the  Tragic 
Muse  (after  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds's  famous  pour- 
trayal  of  that  great  actress),  on  the  top  of  the 
pediment.  The  building  was  opened  in  1837,  under 
the  management  of  Mr.  Penley,  with  an  address  from 
the  pen  of  Thomas  Doubleday,  the  "Merchant  of 
Venice,"  and  an  ephemeral  afterpiece.  The  house  has 
remained  a  popular  home  of  the  drama  ever  since. 
Most  of  the  great  players  of  their  day  have  fretted 
and  strutted  their  little  hour  on  this  stage ;  and  some 
of  them  laid  the  foundation  of  their  future  fame  and 
fortune  here.  Macready  (who  first  appeared  in  the  old 
theatre  at  the  foot  of  the  street,  of  which  his  father 
was  manager  for  about  twelve  years)  was  always  a 
Newcastle  favourite,  alike  in  his  youth  and  in  his 
prime.  He  says  himself  of  his  first  appearance 
here:  "I  was  warmly  received,  and  the  partiality 
with  which  my  early  essays  were  encouraged 
seemed  to  increase  in  fervour  to  the  very  last 
night,  when  I  made  my  farewell  bow  to  a  later 
generation."  The  great  tragedian  appeared  on  March 
15th,  1850,  as  Cardinal  Wolsey  (in  "Henry  VIII.") 
and  as  Lord  Townley  (in  the  "Provoked  Husband," 
by  Vanbrugh  and  Cibber).  After  playing  these  parts, 
Macready  delivered  his  farewell  address  to  his  New- 
castle friends.  In  the  course  of  it  he  said:  "When 
I  retrace  the  years  that  have  made  me  old  in  acquaint- 
ance and  familiar  here,  and  recount  to  myself  the  many 
unforgotten  evidences  of  kindly  feeling  towards  me, 
which  through  these  years  have  been  without  stint  or 
check  so  lavishly  afforded,  I  must  be  cold  and  insensible 
indeed  if  time  could  so  have  passed  without  leaving  deep 
traces  of  its  events  upon  my  memory  and  my  heart. 
From  the  summer  of  1810,  when,  scarcely  out  of  the 
years  of  boyhood,  I  was  venturing  here  the  early  and 
the  ruder  essays  of  my  art,  I  date  the  commencement  of 
that  favourable  regard  which  has  been  continued  to  me 
through  all  my  many  engagements,  without  change  or 
fluctuation,  up  to  the  present  time." 

Samuel  Phelps  and  James  Anderson,  two  of  Macready 's 
trusty  lieutenants  in  his  great  Covent  Garden  enterprise, 
have  frequently  played  here  with  acceptance.  So  has 
Charles  Kean,  who,  by  the  way,  was  hissed  in  Hamlet 
on  his  first  appearance  in  that  character  in  Newcastle, 
and  cut  up  by  the  newspapers  afterwards.  He  went, 
much  astonished,  to  the  manager.  "  Good  gracious,  Mr. 
Ternan,  they've  hissed  me  ;  what  on  earth  have  I  done  ?" 
"Well,  Mr.  Kean,  you've  cut  out  altogether  the  lines 
beginning,"  &c.  "  Good  gracious !"  rejoined  the  dis- 
comfited tragedian,  "who  could  ever  have  thought  they 
would  know  Shakspeare  so  well  down  here  !"  "  Oh,  yes, 
Mr.  Kean,"  answered  Ternan,  quietly,  "they  know  their 
Shakspeare  here,  I  can  assure  you."  Ternan  was  a  very 
able  Shaksperian  actor  himself. 

George  Bennett  and  James  Bennett  were,  among  other 
popular  tragedians,  here  in  their  younger  days;  and 
Barry  Sullivan  was  always  a  warm  favourite.  Of 
comedians,  Charles  Mathews,  Buckatone  and  his  cele- 
brated Haymarket  company,  Sothern  (Lord  Dundreary), 
Toole,  and  others,  have  fulfilled  successful  engagements 
in  the  Theatre  Royal.  Salvini  has  acted  on  the  Royal 
boards  also,  as  have  Madame  Ristori  and  Madame 
Sarah  Bernhardt.  Of  our  own  queens  of  the  stage  since 
1837,  nearly  all  have  appeared  here  at  one  time  or 
another ;  but  it  is  such  an  invidious  task  to  pick  and 
choose  amongst  them,  that  we  are  fain  to  shrink  from  it 
altogether.  It  would  be  very  unfair  not  to  make  mention 
of  the  many  years  of  managerial  toil  given  to  this  stage 
by  the  late  Mr.  E.  D.  Davis,  for,  by  common  consent  of 
all  qualified  to  judge,  he  was  ever,  as  actor,  as  artist, 
and  as  manager,  a  gentleman.  Since  his  retirement,  this 
house  has  been  under  the  direction  of  Messrs.  W.  H. 
Swanborough,  Glover  and  Francis,  Charles  Bernard,  and 
Howard  and  Wyndham,  who  are  the  present  lessees. 
Be  the  day  far  distant  when  the  Newcastle  drama,  with 
all  its  honourable  records,  shall,  to  use  Lord  Tennyson's 
words — 

Flicker  down  to  brainless  pantomime, 

And  those  gilt-gauds  men-children  bwarm  to  see  ! 

Probably  this  house  held  its  largest  receipts  on  Sept.  20, 
1848,  when  Jenny  Lind  appeared  in  "La  Sonnambula." 
The  prices  were  :— Dress  boxes,  £1  lls.  6d. ;  upper  boxes 
and  pit,  £1  Is. ;  gallery,  10s.  6d.  The  receipts  amounted 
to  upwards  of  £1,100.  Sims  Reeves  and  Madame  Gassier, 
Grisi,  and  Mario,  and  all  the  great  operatic  stars  have 
appeared  here.  Sims  Reeves,  indeed,  came  out  on  tht 
Newcastle  boards.  Our  sturdy  fathers  hissed  him  too. 
They  stood  no  nonsense  in  those  days,  either  from  a 
Charles  Kean  or  anybody  else. 

The  Theatre,  Grey  Street,  itself,  and  indeed  all  the 
streets  and  buildings  in  Newcastle,  presented  a  strange 
appearance  on  the  morning  of  March  3,  1886,  owing  to  a 
great  fall  of  snow  on  the  previous  day  and  night.  Our 
artist's  sketch  of  the  scene  will  convey  a  better  idea  of  it 
than  any  mere  description. 

Passing  by  Shakspeare  Street,  we  find  ourselves  about 
to  cross  the  High  Bridge,  which  is  another  intersecting 
thoroughfare,  running  from  Pilgrim  Street  to  the  Bigg 
Market.  There  is  nothing  specially  remarkable  about  it, 
save  that  at  least  one  somewhat  remarkable  man  of  his 
day  has  associated  his  name  with  it.  James  Murray,  for 
so  was  he  called,  studied  for  the  ministry,  but  he  could 
not  obtain  ordination  to  any  pastoral  charge  by  reason  of 
his  peculiar  views  on  church  government.  He  came  to 
Newcastle  in  1764,  and  found  friends  who  built  him  a 
chapel.  And  here  he  remained,  preached,  and  laboured, 
until  his  death  in  1782,  in  the  fiftieth  year  of  his  age. 
The  titles  of  some  of  his  published  discourses  afford  some 
indication  as  to  his  character.  Amongst  them  are 
"Sermons  to  Awes."  "New  Sermons  to  Asses."  "An 





1889.     f 


















old  Fox  Tarred  and  Feathered,"  and  "News  from  the 
Pope  to  the  DeviL"  On  one  occasion  he  gave  the 
authorities  a  fright,  and  seems  to  have  got  frightened 
himself  into  'the  bargain.  Thus  runs  the  story.  He 
announced  his  intention  of  preaching  a  sermon  from 
the  text,  "  He  that  hath  not  a  sword,  let  him  sell 
his  garment  and  buy  one."  Those  responsible  for  the 
peace  of  the  town,  knowing  their  man,  grew  rather  afraid 
when  they  heard  of  this  ominous  text.  They  sent  some 
of  the  town's  sergeants  to  form  a  portion  of  the  congre- 
gation. All  passed  off  quietly,  as  it  happened  ;  but  then 
it  occurred  to  Murray  that  he  had  better  find  out  how  he 
really  stood  in  regard  to  the  powers  that  were.  Forth- 
with he  went  up  to  London,  and  called  on  Lord  Mans- 
field, the  then  Chief-Justice.  He  obtained  for  his 
application  the  conventional  reply:  "Not  at  home." 
"  Tell  him,"  was  the  sturdy  rejoinder,  "  that  a  Scotch 
parson,  of  the  name  of  Murray,  from  Newcastle,  wants 
to  see  him."  He  was  admitted.  What  passed  at  the 
interview  ?  We  can  only  guess  from  the  judge's  last 
words,  quoting  a  simile  in  the  Book  of  Job  :  "  You  just 
get  away  by  the  skin  o'  your  teeth. " 

In  1780 — the  year  of  the  Gordon  riots  in  London,  so 
vividly  depicted  in  Dickens's  "Barnaby  Rudge,"  the 
year  when  there  was  danger  of  a  general  attack  on  the 
Roman  Catholics — Murray  w;is  to  the  fore  again.  In 
that  year  there  was  a  contested  election  in  Newcastle. 
Murray  proposed  a  sort  of  test,  or  pledge,  to  each  of  the 
candidates — aimed,  of  course,  at  the  religionists,  with 
whom  he  had  waged  a  life-long  war.  Sir  Matthew 
White  Ridley  would  have  nothing  to  do  with  it.  Even 
Andrew  Robinson  Bowes,  who  was  never  in  the  habit  of 
sticking  at  trifles,  vowed  that  "he  would  be  blessed"— 
only  that  was  not  quite  the  exact  word  ! — "  if  he  gave 
anything  of  the  sort."  The  third  candidate,  Sir  Thomas 
Delaval,  gave  the  required  pledge;  but  he  was  unsuc- 
cessful at  the  poll. 

We  might  add  more  concerning  this  curious  cleric, 
but  content  ourselves  with  relating  two  anecdotes 
which  reveal  him  on  his  better  side.  The  first  is,  that, 
being  on  the  highway  leading  to  Newcastle  on  a  rainy 
day,  he  overtook  a  labouring  man  who  had  no  coat. 
He  himself  had  two.  He  took  one  off,  and  put  it  on 
the  wayfarer's  back,  with  the  remark:  "It's  a  pity  I 
should  have  two  coats  and  you  none;  it's  not  fair." 
The  second  refers  to  an  incident  which  occurred  in  his 
chapel  here,  A  Scotch  drover  turned  into  the  place  one 
Sunday  rather  late,  and  was  content  to  stand.  Nobody 
offered  him  a  seat.  Murray  waxed  wroth.  "Seat  that 
man,"  thundered  he;  "if  he'd  had  a  powdered  head, 
and  a  fine  coat  on  his  back,  you'd  have  had  twenty  pews 
open ! " 

The  remainder  of  Grey  Street,  though  made  up  of 
noble  buildings,  calls  for  little  notice.  In  1838,  one  of 
them  was  occupied  by  a  Mrs.  Bell,  who  kept  it  as  a  board- 
ing house.  One  of  h<r  boarders  was  Mr.  James  Wilkie, 

who  at  the  time  held  the  office  of  house-surgeon  and  secre- 
tary to  the  Newcastle  Dispensary.  In  a  fit  of  temporary 
insanity  this  poor  man  threw  himself  out  of  an  upstairs 
window,  and  injured  himself  so  dreadfully  that  he  died 
shortly  afterwards.  This  victim  of  an  o'erwrought  brain 
had  been  connected  with  the  institution  for  fifteen  years. 
That  he  was  held  in  general  respect  in  Newcastle  may  be 
gathered  from  the  fact  that  about  a  thousand  persons 
followed  his  coffin  to  its  grave  in  Westgate  Hill  Ceme- 
tery, where  a  monument  was  erected  to  his  memory. 

Amongst  other  establishments  on  the  east  side  of  Grey 
Street  is  that  of  the  Messrs.  Finney  and  Walker,  whose 
premises  were  for  many  years  the  publishing  office  of 
the  Newcastle  Chronicle.  Opposite  is  a  noble  pile,  now  the 
Branch  Bank  of  England. 

Nobody  can  take  a  thoughtful  glance  at  the  thorough- 
fare we  have  been  traversing  without  admitting  that  it  is 
a  masterpiece  of  street  architecture  :  a  monument  to  the 
genius  of  the  two  men  principally  concerned  in  designing 
and  erecting  it — John  Dobson  and  Richard  Grainger. 

d  at  $crrtftumlmir. 


[|  HEN  travelling  through  the  picturesque 
stretch  of  country  that  lies  between  Tyne- 
dale  and  the  Tweed,  and  noting  its  many 
indications  of  marvellous  prosperity,  it  is 
difficult  to  realize  that  its  verdant  hills  ana  smiling 
valleys  were  ever  less  peaceful  than  they  now  are.  And 
yet,  if  the  whole  island  was  searched  from  Cornwall  to 
Caithness,  there  could  be  found  few  districts  that  have 
undergone  greater  changes,  or  played  a  more  conspicuous 
part  in  the  national  history.  In  pre-Roman  times,  much 
of  the  surface  of  Northumberland  was  covered  with  bogs 
and  marshes,  and  much  more  with  dense  and  almost 
impenetrable  forests.  Its  inhabitants  were  the  Ottadini 
—a  fierce  and  warlike  tribe  of  the  Brigantes — who  have 
left  their  hill  forts,  their  weapons,  and  their  tumuli,  as 
the  sole  evidences  of  their  constructive  skill.  When 
Caesar's  hordes  invaded  Britain,  fifty  years  before  the 
Christian  era,  they  were  never  able  to  penetrate  these 
Northern  wilds.  Their  accounts  of  the  people  with 
whom  they  did  come  in  contact,  however,  furnish  material 
from  which  a  very  fair  estimate  of  the  local  settlers  can 
be  formed.  The  men,  they  tell  us,  were  tall,  strong,  and 
active  ;  the  women  fair,  well-featured,  and  finely-shaped. 
Both  sexes  gloried  in  a  profusion  of  red  or  chesnut- 
coloured  hair,  and  their  favourite  method  of  adornment 
was  by  a  process  of  painting,  or  tatooing,  not  unlike  that 
practised  by  many  savage  races  in  our  own  day.  Their 
robes,  too,  when  robed  at  all,  consisted  entirely  of  skins ; 
their  oft-moved  huts  were  little  better  than  nests  of 



boughs  and  reeds ;  and  their  time,  when  not  engaged  in 
fighting,  was  usually  devoted  to  the  exciting  pleasures  of 
the  chase.  Cattle  were  extensively  reared  as  a  means  of 
subsistence ;  but,  except  along  the  coast  lines,  there  was 
no  effort  made  to  till  the  land  or  to  encourage  the  growth 
of  corn  or  other  grain. 


Such,  in  brief,  is  the  picture  which  old  chroniclers  give 
of  the  appearance  and  habits  of  the  Britons.  It  is  abun- 
dantly sufficient  for  our  purpose,  as  we  desire  to  deal 
only  with  the  warlike  attributes  of  this  primitive  people, 
and  to  point  out  the  methods  by  which  they  sought  to 
check  the  advance  of  our  earliest  invaders.  When  the 
well-disciplined  legions  of  Rome  first  secured  a  footing, 
they  found  the  southern  portion  of  the  country  very 
thickly  populated.  The  natives  were  as  courageous  as 
they  were  fierce,  and  defended  their  woodland  settle- 
ments by  deep  trenches  and  highly  piled  barricades 
of  fallen  timber.  They  were  swift  of  foot,  as  well  as 
expert  swimmers,  and  these  qualities— together  with 
their  skill  in  crossing  fens  and  marshes — enabled  them  to 
pounce  suddenly  upon  their  adversaries,  and  as  suddenly 
to  disappear  with  the  spoil.  Their  ordinary  arms  con- 
sisted of  a  small  dagger  and  spear ;  but,  in  war  times,  these 

were  augmented  by  a  light  shield,  by  long  and  heavily- 
bladed  swords  of  bronze,  and  by  javelins  which  they  could 
throw  with  great  accuracy  and  effect.  These  latter  mis- 
siles were  not  lost  by  the  act  of  propulsion,  as  they  were 
attached  to  the  wrist  by  leather  thongs,  and  could  be 
drawn  back  to  the  thrower  as  soon  as  their  mark  had 
been  reached.  At  the  lower  end  of  this  curious  dart  was 
a  round,  hollow  ball,  stocked  with  pieces  of  metal,  and  the 
noise  caused  by  the  flight  of  this  alarming  rattle — added 
to  the  exciting  cries  and  antics  of  the  gaily-stained 
warriors — has  rendered  many  a  well-meant  attack  of  the 
Roman  foe  inoperative. 


But  by  far  the  most  famous  of  British  implements  of 
war  was  the  chariot.  It  was  drawn  by  a  couple  of  small, 
wiry,  and  perfectly  trained  horses,  and  afforded  space  for 
two  or  three  fighting  men,  as  well  as  for  a  driver.  The 
body  of  the  vehicle  was  a  combination  of  strength  and 
lightness,  »nd  at  the  extremity  of  its  stout  axles  were 
fixed  scythes  or  hooks  for  slashing  and  tearing  whatever 

came  in  their  way.  They  could  be  driven  at  immense 
speed,  even  over  the  roughest  country,  and  were  usually 
of  most  use  at  the  commencement  of  a  battle.  While 
dashing  madly  about  the  flanks  of  an  opposing  lorce, 
their  occupants  would  throw  their  terrible  darts  with 
great  adroitness,  and  the  very  dread  of  this  onslaught  not 
unfrequently  broke  the  ranks  of  Caesar's  finest  troops. 
When  they  had  succeeded  in  making  an  impression  on 
the  advancing  foe,  and  saw  their  way  for  a  joint  attack, 
the  Britons  leapt  from  their  chariots,  formed  into  a 
solid  and  compact  body,  and  fought  on  foot  with  all 
their  accustomed  intrepidity.  The  drivers,  meanwhile, 
withdrew  the  chariots  from  the  strife,  and  took  up 
positions  which  would  best  favour  the  retreat  of  their 
masters  if  the  tide  of  battle  should  roll  against  them. 
"  In  this  manner,"  says  Caesar,  "  they  performed  the  part 

both  of  rapid  cavalry  and  of  steady  infantry."  "By 
constant  exercise  and  use,"  he  adds,  "  they  have  acquired 
such  expertness  that  they  can  stop  their  horses  in  the 
most  steep  and  difficult  places — when  at  full  speed — turn 
them  whichever  way  they  please,  run  along  the  carriage 
pole,  rest  on  the  harness,  and  throw  themselves  back  into 
their  chariots  with  incredible  dexterity."  It  is  worthy  of 
note  that  the  great  leader  makes  no  reference  to  the  cruel 
accessories  which  are  said  to  have  adorned  the  axles  of 
these  vehicles.  This  omission  has  caused  many  writers 
to  doubt  whether  such  instruments  of  torture  were  ever  in 
existence.  It  is  impossible,  of  course,  to  speak  positively 
on  such  a  matter ;  but  it  is  well  to  remember  that  similar 
appliances  have  been  used  in  other  lands,  and  that  our 
own  museums  contain  relics — from  more  than  one  British 
battle  field — which  antiquaries  think  could  hardly  have 
been  used  for  any  other  purpose  than  that  described. 


In  tactics  and  strategical  skill,  the  natives  displayed 
considerable  talent.  When  in  readiness  for  the  fray,  the 
infantry — in  wedge-shape  formation— occupied  the  centre ; 
the  cavalry  and  the  chariots  constituted  the  right  and  left 
wings;  and  at  the  rear  were  strong  bodies  of  reserves. 
They  were  quite  alive  to  the  importance  of  harassing  an 
enemy  before  delivering  the  chief  attack,  and  were  fully 
impressed  with  the  necessity  of  a  well-executed  move- 
ment on  the  hostile  flanks.  They  were  formidable  adver- 
saries in  every  way,  and  if  their  weapons  had  been  of  a 
better  quality— not  made  of  bronze  that  bent  beneath  a 
heavy  stroke— it  is  quite  possible  that  the  first  Roman  in- 




vasion  might  not  have  been  repeated.  As  it  was,  indeed, 
Csesar  never  made  any  great  headway,  and  could  only 
maintain  himself  with  difficulty  in  localities  that  ad- 
joined the  coast.  In  the  language  of  Tacitus,  he  was  "  a 
discoverer  rather  than  a  conqueror,"  and  even  his  dis- 
coveries, in  these  islands  at  least,  were  not  far  reaching. 


But  if  Csesar  made  little  impression  on  the  Britons,  he 
carried  away  reports  which  were  well  calculated  to  arouse 
the  ambition  of  his  successors.  Nearly  a  century  elapsed 
before  the  Romans  again  undertook  the  work  of  subjuga- 
tion ;  but  they  were  then  better  prepared,  came  in  greater 
numbers,  and  set  about  their  task  with  such  care  and 
deliberation  that  a  speedy  conquest  seemed  assured.  It 
is  not  necessary  to  follow  the  fluctuating  fortunes  of  their 
numerous  campaigns  in  the  South.  From  the  landing  of 
Aulus  Plautius  in  A.D.  43,  down  to  the  advent  of  Julius 
Agricola  in  78,  bloodshed  seldom,  if  ever,  ceased.  There 
were  terrific  struggles  with  the  Silures  under  Caractacus, 
and  with  the  Iceni  under  Boadecia.  There  were  furious 
onslaughts  upon  the  Druids  of  Anglesea  and  the  Brigantes 
across  the  Humber.  Fire  and  sword  went  hand  in  hand, 
and  the  track  of  war  was  followed  by  famine  and  disease. 
Victory  was  not  always  with  the  assailants  ;  but  whether 
they  lost  or  won  at  the  commencement,  they  always  ended 
by  bringing  the  natives  under  their  yoke. 


It  is  with  the  coming  of  Agricola  that  we  get  our  first 
records  concerning  the  district  that  constitutes  the  pre- 
sent county  of  Northumberland.  There  is  an  absence  of 
detail  about  many  of  the  recitals ;  but  they  will  serve, 
perhaps,  to  throw  a  little  lifrht  on  the  condition  of  the 
North  Country  and  its  occupants  at  a  very  remote  period. 
The  famous  chieftain  we  have  named  was  as  skilful  in  the 
arts  of  peace  as  in  those  of  war.  He  had  served  under 
Seutonius  Faulinus  against  the  "Warrior  Queen," 
and  was  greatly  beloved  by  his  army.  Under  his  able 
guidance  the  fortunes  of  Rome  underwent  a  marvellous 
change.  Deserted  posts  were  recovered,  refractory  tribes 
were  punished,  and  an  attempt  was  made  to  bring  the  con- 
quered people  into  greater  harmony  with  their  masters. 
While  this  work  was  proceeding  in  the  southern  province, 
Agricola  marched  north  of  the  Humber,  gained  victory 
after  victory,  and  ultimately  found  himself  face  to  face 
with  the  brawny  races  near  the  higher  reaches  of  the 
Tyne.  There  is  no  absolute  record  of  early  battles  in  this 
district,  but  it  is  fair  to  suppose  that  the  Ottadini — like 
the  Brigantes  of  Yorkshire  and  Lancashire,  and  the 
Gadeni  of  Cumberland  and  Westmoreland — would  be  dis- 
persed to  their  mountain  retreats,  and  that  Agricola 
would  then,  according  to  his  invariable  custom,  protect  the 
acquired  territory  by  throwing  up  strongly  entrenched 
works  for  the  accommodation  of  his  soldiers. 


By  the  spring  of  81 — having  ensured  the  safety  of  his 
communications — the  Roman  leader  was  ready  for  a 

further  advance,  and  he  began  his  march  northward  with 
every  confidence  in  the  ultimate  triumph  of  his  army. 
While  traversing  the  open  country,  he  was  practically 
unassailable,  but  at  the  river  fords,  and  amid  the  moun- 
tain passes,  his  progress  was  disputed  with  all  the  obsti- 
nacy that  a  clever  and  courageous  foe  could  devise. 
Many  an  entrenched  hill  top  in  Coquetdale  and  Glendale 
had  to  be  stormed  before  the  invaders  could  proceed, 
and  as  the  conflict  in  every  case  was  at  close  quar- 
ters— with  the  Britons  in  possession  of  the  best 
ground— the  assailants  lost  enormous  numbers  of  their 
men  ere  even  the  Cheviots  were  reached.  In  the  end, 

the  defenders  were  always  compelled  to  give  way  ;  and, 
being  then  driven  before  Agricola's  dashing  legions,  they 
were  put  out  of  harm's  way  behind  the  line  of  forts  he 
erected  between  the  Firth  of  Forth  and  the  River  Clyde. 
Having,  by  the  summer  of  83,  completed  this  under- 
taking, the  Roman  leader  renewed  his  journey  towards 
the  Highlands,  and  everything  seemed  to  indicate  that  bis 
pevious  successes  would  be  continued.  He  was  no  sooner 
out  of  sight,  however,  than  the  Caledonians  descended 
from  their  hill  strongholds,  swarmed  over  his  defences, 
and,  in  a  night  surprise,  managed  to  annihilate  one  of  his 
divisions.  Returning  with  all  speed,  Agricola  attacked 
his  daring  assailants,  and  succeeded  in  beating  them. 
But  the  damage  they  inflicted  upon  bis  troops  and  earth- 
works, precluded  all  attempts  at  further  advance,  and  he 
was  compelled  to  winter  in  a  very  inhospitable  region. 
The  campaign  recommenced  with  the  fine  weather  of  84 ; 
but  as  30,000  natives,  under  the  heroic  Galgacus,  had 
posted  themselves  on  a  well  chosen  spur  of  the  Grampians, 
it  was  necessary  at  once  to  dislodge  them.  After  a  fierce 
and  destructive  battle,  the  Romans  carried  the  position, 
and  inflicted  terrible  losses  on  their  retreating  foe.  But, 
though  defeated,  the  Northenera  contrived  to  check 
the  foreign  advance.  When  morning  dawned,  the  in- 
vaders saw  only  a  silent  and  deserted  land.  Their  late 
adversaries  had  disappeared  as  if  by  magic,  and  left 
nothing  behind  them  but  smoke  and  flame  and  ruin. 
With  a  crippled  army  and  straitened  supplies,  it  would 
have  been  extremely  hazardous  to  penetrate  into  the  hill 
country,  and  Agricola  found  himself  compelled  to  relin- 
quish his  enterprise.  He  returned  by  easy  stages  to;  the 


1SS9-     I 



entrenchments  he  had  left  on  Tyneside,  and  there,  putting 
his  troops  into  cantonments,  he  threw  that  mighty 
earthen  rampart  across  the  country — from  Wallsend  to 
the  Solway  Firth — which  has  been  a  source  of  specula- 
tion and  wonder  through  all  succeeding  ages.  His  cam- 
paigns had  taught  him  that  it  was  much  easier  to  march 
through  a  poverty-stricken  district  than  to  remain  in  it, 
and  he  fondly  hoped,  by  his  famous  barrier,  to  confine  the 
infuriated  Northmen  within  the  boundaries  of  their  own 
desolate  wilds. 


So  seriously  had  Agicola's  inroads  crippled  the  native 
tribes,  that  it  required  thirty  years  to  rehabilitate  their 
shattered  forces.  In  the  reign  of  Hadrian,  however,  they 
recommenced  hostilities,  and  attacked  the  Roman  garri- 
sons all  along  their  line.  Matters  had  become  so  serious 
in  120,  that  the  energetic  Emperor  journeyed  with  all 
haste  to  this  country,  and  did  everything  in  his  power  to 
quell  the  rebellious  spirit  that  had  been  engendered.  He 
was  successful  in  restoring  the  wavering  allegiance  of  the 
Yorkshire  Brigantes,  and  tried  to  accomplish  a  similar 
result  among  the  tribes  on  the  Borderland  ;  but  all  his 
efforts  to  gain  ascendency  over  the  Ottadini  and  their 
Caledonian  allies  proved  abortive.  It  thus  happened  that 
the  Clyde  line  of  forts  was  demolished,  that  the  country 
for  a  hundred  miles  to  the  southward  had  to  be  abandoned 
by  the  invaders,  and  that  the  conquests  of  Agricola  were 
rendered  useless.  To  more  effectually  protect  his  remain- 
ing possessions,  therefore,  Hadrian  spanned  the  country 
with  a  second  and  more  formidable  line  of  works,  on  a  site 
closely  adjoining  the  mound  of  his  predecessor.  It  was 
evidently  the  intention  of  the  Romans,  at  this  period,  to 
make  the  Tyne  their  northern  boundary,  and  they  would 
have  been  saved  endless  trouble  if  they  had  adhered  to 
their  resolve.  But  different  commanders  had  different 
ideas.  Lollius  Urbicus — one  of  the  great  captains  of 
Antoninus  Pius — advanced  from  the  wall  in  138,  and, 
slowly  fighting  his  way,  carried  the  Roman  banner  once 
more  to  the  Forth.  Having  connected  that  river  with 
the  Clyde — by  means  of  an  earthen  bank  and  a  score  of 
strong  redoubts — he  conceived  that  Northumberland  and 
the  Scottish  Lowlands  had  been  permanently  won.  The 
tribesmen  declined  to  so  understand  it.  In  183,  they 
again  broke  through  the  Scottish  barrier,  assaulted  the 
forts,  and — after  several  sanguinary  encounters  with  the 
column  sent  to  the  relief  of  the  beleaguered  garrisons — 
compelled  the  Roman  legions  to  seek  safety  beyond  their 
southern  defences. 


The  "barbarians" — as  the  Ottadini  were  called— had 
matters  pretty  much  in  their  own  hands  until  the  arrival 
of  the  Emperor  Severus  in  207.  Though  suffering  badly 
from  the  gout  and  other  maladies,  this  aged  warrior 
gathered  his  forces,  and  led  them  with  a  vindictive  heart 
towards  the  disputed  land.  But  the  tremendous 
difficulties  he  encountered,  on  passing  the  vallum  of 

Hadrian,  show  very  clearly  that  the  country  had  nevei 
been  altogether  under  foreign  control.  There  was  an 
absence  of  really  good  roads,  the  rivers  were  unspanned, 
and  large  tracts  of  wood  and  morass  were  almost  impass- 
able wildernesses.  Every  inch  of  the  invaders'  progress 
was  disputed.  Though  not  sufficiently  numerous  to  risk 
a  pitched  battle,  the  natives  contrived  to  commit  in- 
calculable mischief.  Their  intercourse  with  the  Romans 
had  already  taught  them  the  value  of  metal  head-gear 
and  shoulder  guards,  and,  with  such  protections,  they 
were  able  to  maintain  a  succession  of  skirmishes  and 
flank  attacks  that  were  as  irritating  as  they  were 
destructive.  When  aided,  later,  by  their  old  allies  of  the 
Scottish  Lowlands,  the  resistance  they  offered  would 
have  deterred  a  less  valiant  enemy.  But  Severus  was  un- 
daunted, and  doggedly  plodded  on.  What  with  regular 
fighting,  losses  in  ambuscades,  and  sickness  caused  by 
unceasing  labour  in  draining  bogs,  cutting  down  forests, 
bridging  rivers,  and  constructing  solid  travelling  ways, 
his  force  is  said  to  have  been  reduced  by  50,000  men.  In 
spite  of  all  obstacles,  however,  he  succeeded  in  reaching 
a  more  northerly  point  than  any  of  his  predecessors,  and 
eventually  struck  such  terror  into  the  native  hordes  that 
they  were  driven  to  sue  for  peace.  With  the  exception 
of  this  solitary  result,  the  campaign  was  as  barren  as  any 
that  had  gone  before.  Of  this  fact  the  Emperor  himself 
was  thoroughly  convinced.  He  realised — reluctantly,  it 
may  be— that  the  debateable  land  between  the  Tyne  and 
the  north  could  never  be  permanently  held  by  his 
legions ;  and  his  first  care,  on  his  return  southward,  was 
to  supplement  the  earthworks  of  Hadrian  and  Agricola 
with  a  strong  and  formidable  wall  of  solid  stone.  It 
would  serve  no  useful  purpose  to  describe  the  Tyneside 
works  in  detail ;  but  it  may  be  interesting  to  explain  the 
nature  of  the  operations  which  the  Romans  from  time  to 
time  carried  out.  According  to  the  account  of  William 
Hutton,  there  were  really  four  barriers.  The  defences  of 

4 ar ic ola,    hadTian       &ev-erus 
&  ^-fs\ 

Agricola  consisted  of  a  double  rampart  of  earth,  having  a 
ditch  so  planned  as  to  cause  a  rise  for  the  assailants  of 
nearly  20  feet.  To  further  strengthen  this  obstacle, 
Hadrian  deepened  the  ditch,  and,  with  the  soil  so  ob- 
tained, constructed  a  third  mound,  10  feet  high,  a  little 
more  to  the  northward.  These  all  ran  in  parallel  lines. 
When  Severus,  as  we  have  stated,  conceived  the  idea  of  a 
still  mere  formidable  structure,  he  raised  a  barrier  of 
stone.  It  was  8  feet  thick  and  12  feet  high,  with  an  addi- 
tional elevation  of  4-  feet  for  the  battlements.  Added  to 
this,  at  equal  distances,  were  a  number  of  stations  or 
towns,  81  castles,  and  330  turrets— all  connected  by  good 
wide  roads,  along  which  troops  could  move  from  one 
threatened  point  to  another  with  the  greatest  facility. 




But  for  fear  all  these  impediments  should  prove  insuffi- 
cient, the  north  front  was  protected  by  a  tremendous 
ditch  alone  its  whole  course.  Having  a  span  of  30  feet, 
and  a  depth  of  15,  it  is  not  surprising  that  the  military 
chiefs  should  have  regarded  their  last  effort  as  insur- 
mountable. As  long  as  ever  the  Roman  supremacy 
lasted,  this  line  of  defence  was  constantly  garrisoned  by 
many  thousands  of  armed  men ;  but  for  130  years  after 
the  death  of  its  valiant  founder — if  we  except  an  abortive 
raid  by  Constantius  Chlorus — there  was  no  attempt  made 
to  leave  its  protecting  shelter. 


The  first  illustration  shows  the  sword,  dagger,  and 
spear-head  in  use  amongst  the  Britons,  as  well  as  the 
hooks  that  are  supposed  to  have  been  attached  to  their 
chariots.  These  latter  were  sketched  from  specimens  in 
the  British  Museum,  and  clearly  indicate  the  effects  of 
corrosion  from  their  long  sojourn  in  the  ground. — No.  2 
eives  the  generally  accepted  notion  of  an  ancient  chariot 
and  shield. — No.  3  is  the  ground  plan  of  a  British  fort 
near  Hepple,  in  Coquetdale.  It  shows  three  lines  of 
entrenchments,  at  varying  heights,  round  the  sides  of  a 
commanding  hill ;  while  at  the  summit  may  be  seen  the 
excavations  that  were  commonly  used  as  store-rooms  or 
places  of  shelter. — No.  4-  shows  in  a  rough  form  the  sec- 
tions of  the  barriers  erected  by  Agricola,  Hadrian,  and 



j|R.  BARON  PARKE  heard  an  extraordinary 
case  at  the  Northumberland  Assizes  on  the 
28th  of  February,  1855.  From  the  magnitude 
of  the  claim  and  the  romantic  story  raised  on  behalf  of  the 
plaintiff,  it  caused  an  intense  amount  of  interest,  not  only 
in  the  North  of  England,  but  throughout  the  country, 
and  more  particularly  in  Lincolnshire.  The  claimant  and 
plaintiff  was  William  Stote  Manby,  a  gardener  of  Kiln 
Yard,  Louth,  a  man  in  a  most  humble  walk  in  life. 
Mr.  Samuel  Warren,  Q.C.,  the  author  of  that  then 
popular  standard  novel  "Ten  Thousand  a  Year,"  was 
leading  counsel  for  the  claimant,  and  it  was  said  at  the 
time  that  he  undertook  the  case  gratuitously. 

The  plaintiff  claimed  to  be  heir-at-law  of  Mrs.  Dorothy 
Windsor,  a  widow,  before  her  marriage  Miss  Dorothy 
Stole,  spinster,  daughter  of  Sir  Richard  Stote,  Knight, 
Sergeant-at-Law.  As  such  heir-at-law  he  sought  to  re- 
cover extensive  estates  in  Northumberland.  The  de- 
fendants were  Thomas  Wood  Craster,  Esq.,  and  Calverley 
Bewicke  Bewicke,  Esq.,  and  others,  their  tenants.  The 
first  two  defendants  were  sued  as  the  representatives  of 
Sir  Robert  Bewicke  and  Mr.  John  Craster,  tenants  of  the 
estates  prior  to  1780. 

The  value  of  the  estates  claimed  by  the  Louth  gardener 
was  stated  to  be  about  £50,  000  a-year;  but  probably  this 
was  an  exaggeration.  They  comprised,  however,  the  greater 
part  of  the  hamlet  and  extra-parochial  chapelry  of  Kirk- 
heaton,  near  Belsay,  including  Kirkheaton  Hall,  the 

living  of  the  chapelry,  and  a  land-sale  colliery  ;  an  estate 
adjoining  Howdon  Pans,  in  the  parish  of  Wallsend,  of 
about  297  acres,  the  coals  under  which  were  sent  to  Lon- 
don Market  under  the  name  of  "  Bewicke  and  Oraster's 
Wallsend  "  ;  an  estate  in  the  adjoining  parish  of  Long 
Benton ;  and  an  inn  called  the  Coach  and  Six  Horses. 
The  estates  altogether  were  stated  to  consist  of  about 
4,000  acres,  with  valuable  mines  below. 

The  plaintiff  sought  for  a  declaration  that  he  was  heir- 
at-law  of  Dame  Dorothy  Windsor  (who  died,  aged  84,  in 
1756,  in  Upper  Brook  Street,  London,  possessed  of  the 
above-named  properties,  which  were  known  as  the 
"Windsor  Estates"),  and  also  heir-at-law  of  his  grand- 
father, Stote  Manby,  who  died  intestate  in  1780,  leaving 
William  Mauby,  of  Louth,  his  only  son  and  heir-at-law, 
who  died  in  1809,  leaving  two  sons,  Richard  and  the 
plaintiff,  but  Richard  had  died  a  bachelor  in  1820.  The 
plaintiff  claimed  that  he  was  entitled  to  the  manors,  here- 
ditaments, and  premises  of  which  Dame  Dorothy  Windsor 
died  seized,  and  asked  that  it  might  be  declared  that  he 
had  been  kept  out  of  possession  of  the  estates  by  col- 
lusion and  fraud,  that  the  defendants  were  not  entitled 
to  avail  themselves  of  the  Statute  of  Limitations,  and 
that  possession  of  the  property  might  be  delivered  up 
free  from  incumbrances. 

Mr.  Warren  entered  fully  into  all  the  circumstances  of 
this  extraordinary  case  with  great  clearness,  ability,  and 
eloquence,  which  enhanced  the  interest  and  excitement  in 
Court.  He  recounted  the  biography  of  the  plaintiff's 
grandfather,  Stote  Manby,  the  original  heir-at-law,  who 
was  a  very  illiterate  man,  unable  to  read  or  to  write  even 
his  own  name,  a  day  labourer  or  carter,  who  during 
his  later  days  was  supported  by  his  wife's  labour  and 
the  casual  charity  of  his  neighbours,  and  who  lived  all  his 
life  in  a  wretched  mud  hovel,  scarcely  fit  for  human  habi- 
tation, in  the  village  of  Keddington,  near  Louth.  It 
was  explained  that  William  Manby  (the  plaintiff's  father) 
was  born  in  1747,  and  resembled  his  father  in  mental 
incapacity,  and  in  being  unable  to  read  or  write  his 
own  name ;  that  plaintiff's  brother  (Richard)  was  also 
very  poor,  and,  until  he  died,  unmarried,  worked  for  his 
daily  bread ;  that  all  these  members  of  the  plaintiff's 
family  had  lived  and  died  in  total  ignorance  of  their  title 
by  inheritance  to  the  Windsor  Estates;  and  that  the 
plaintiff  only  first  became  aware  of  his  rights  in  1846, 
when  he  was  told  by  a  very  old  man,  living  in  Louth, 
that  a  trial  was  heard  at  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  in  1781, 
which  showed  that  his  grandfather,  Stote  Manby,  was  heir 
to  the  wealthy  Dame  Dorothy  Windsor,  but  being  of  weak 
mind  had  been  kept  out  of  the  property  unlawfully.  The 
plaintiff's  story  was  that  Sir  Robert  Bewicke  and  Mr. 
John  Craster,  being  tenants,  retained  undisputed  posses- 
sion of  the  estates  from  1756  (the  time  of  Dame  Dorothy 
Windsor's  death)  until  1780,  "  most  unrighteously  and 
cruelly"  taking  advantage  of  poor  Stote  Manby's  in- 
capacity ;  that  one  Harvey,  an  attorney,  came  down 





to  Louth  in  1780,  and  undertook  to  be  Stota  Manby'a 
lawyer  ;  that  Harvey  commenced  actions  which  were 
defended  on  the  grounds,  first,  that  Dorothy  Windsor 
was  not  seized  of  the  estates,  and,  secondly,  that  Stote 
Manby  was  not  her  cousin  and  heir ;  that  in  1781  an 
action  was  tried  at  Newcastle,  before  Mr.  Justice  Nares 
and  Mr.  Justice  Heath,*  in  which  Stote  Manby's  heirship 
was  established  by  a  verdict  of  the  jury ;  that  on 
the  day  after  his  trial  a  second  action  was  called  on 
as  to  another  portion  of  the  property,  but  that  by 
fraud  and  connivance  no  trial  took  place,  Harvey  having 
been  prevailed  upon  to  abandon  the  action  and  enter  into 
a  compromise,  the  effect  of  which  was  to  secure  to  the 
then  plaintiff,  Stote  Manby,  and  his  heirs,  a  rent  charge 
of  £300  a  year,  leaving  the  defendants  of  1781  in  quiet 

The  object  of  the  trial  in  1855  was  to  unravel  all  these 
proceedings,  as  well  as  any  subsequent  transactions  that 
had  taken  place,  and  to  put  the  plaintiff,  William  Stote 
Manby,  on  a  verdict  being  given  in  his  favour,  in  posses- 
sion of  the  whole  of  the  Windsor  estates.  Before,  how- 
ever, Mr.  Warren  had  proceeded  far  with  his  opening 
of  the  case  he  was  stopped  by  Mr.  Baron  Parke,  who 
stated  that  he  considered  the  Statute  of  Limitations 
barred  all  title  on  the  part  of  the  plaintiff.  Mr.  Warren, 
therefore,  having  no  alternative,  consented  to  be  non- 

What  became  of  the  annuity  or  rent  charge  which 
Messrs.  Craster  and  Bewicke  granted  to  old  Stote 
Manby,  when  (as  above  alleged)  he  resigned  his  claim  in 
1781,  does  not  appear. 

The  case  (after  the  non-suit)  was  carried  into  the  Court 
of  Chancery.  The  defendants  demurred  for  want  of 
equity,  and  relied  on  the  Statute  of  Limitations.  The 
preliminary  process  to  enable  the  plaintiff  to  establish  his 
case  was,  however,  granted  by  the  Court.  After  a  long 
and  protracted  hearing,  on  the  23rd  April,  1857,  Vice- 
Chancellor  Sir  W.  Page  Wood  decided  that  nothing  had 
been  elicited  to  support  the  allegations  of  the  plaintiff, 
and  his  bill  was  consequently  dismissed  with  costs  against 

The  Lincolnshire  Journal  in  April,  1857,  explained  how 
the  claimant  was  able  to  carry  his  case  to  the  Court  of 
Chancery : — 

The  manner  in  which  the  funds  were  raised  for  the 
purpose  of  enabling  the  plaintiff  to  prosecute  his  sup- 
posed claims  was  by  borrowing  sums  of  money  with  the 
promise  to  re-pay  twenty  for  every  single  pound  when  he 
should  have  obtained  possession  of  his  estates  at  New- 
castle, &c.,  but  that  in  the  event  of  his  not  succeeding  in 
his  suit  the  money  so  advanced  should  be  considered  as  a 
free  gift. 

*  The  only  record  of  the  case  in  the  Newcastle  Chronicle 
for  1781  is  as  follows : — Before  Sir  George  Nares  and 
the  Hon.  Justice  Heath,  at  the  assizes  opened  in  New- 
castle, Saturday,  August  13,  1781,  "  the  long  contested 
cause  between  the  claimants  of  the  estates  of  the  late  Sir 
Richard  Stote,  of  Jesmond,  near  this  town,  was  this  week 
compromised  by  the  parties." 

The  bait  took  admirably,  and  an  immense  number  of 
the  unwise,  anxious  to  secure  the  prospect  of  receiving  so 
large  a  return  for  a  small  outlay  (well  knowing  that  in  no 
legitimate  business  could  they  make  one  pound  realise 
twenty)  rushed  to  deposit  various  sums  according 
to  their  means ;  some  selling  their  pigs,  some  borrowing 
money,  some  reducing  their  stock-in-trade  that  they 
might  embark  in  this  lottery  ;  and,  in  this  manner,  hun- 
dreds have  invested  their  all  in  the  risk. 

After  repeated  delays,  when  some  of  the  less  san- 
guine were  beginning  to  fancy  all  was  over,  the  case  was 
announced  positively  for  trial  a  few  days  since,  and  the 
spirits  of  the  subscribers  rose  to  fever  heat.  On  Tuesday, 
the  31st  ult.,  the  case  commenced,  and  day  after  day 
letters  announcing  the  flourishing  state  of  the  suit  were 
received  from  a  party  in  London  who  was  watching  its 
progress  ;  and  five  to  one  was  freely  offered  that  the 
plaintiff  would  obtain  a  favourable  verdict,  and  be  placed 
in  possession  of  the  estates  forthwith,  when — alas  !  for 
the  mutability  of  mundane  affairs — the  news  that  the 
arguments  of  the  four  eminent  and  learned  counsel 
engaged  for  the  plaintiff  had  failed  to  make  out  a  case 
reached  here  on  Saturday  morning  last,  and  that  Sir  W. 
Page  Wood  had,  without  calling  upon  defendants  for 
their  answer,  dismissed  the  bill  with  costs. 

It  would  be  far  easier  to  imagine  than  to  describe  the 
shock  which  this  intelligence  caused,  and  how  deep  and 
bitter  were  the  lamentations  of  the  deluded  friends. 
Several  had  anticipated  the  pleasing  prospect  of  retiring 
from  business  and  enjoying  for  the  remainder  of  their 
days  that  otium  cum  diynitale  which  a  favourable  issue 
promised  them  ;  but  all  these  hopes  of  future  happiness,  so 
long  and  fondly  cherished,  were,  at  one  fell  swoop,  totally 
extinguished,  "leaving  not  a  wrack  behind."  Sic  transit 
yloria  "Afanbi." 

S.    F.    LONGSTAFFE. 


O  English  bird  is  a  greater  favourite  than  the 
robin  (Sylvia  rubimla).  It  is  more  or  less  an 
all-the-year-round  resident  in  the  Northern 
Counties.  Many  persons  are  under  the  belief  that  it  is 
only  a  winter  songster;  but  this  arises  from  the  fact 
that  the  bird  is  less  noticed  in  summer.  Its  song  may 
be  heard,  in  fact,  in  almost  every  month  of  the  year. 

Though  so  great  a  favourite,  the  redbreast  is  a  fighting 
bird.  The  '  males,  at  least,  are  exceedingly  selfish  and 
pugnacious.  Where  food  is  placed  out,  they  will  attack 
and  drive  off  other  birds  of  superior  size,  and  they  often 
fight  with  and  kill  each  other.  I  have  noticed  that 
the  robins  fight  most  savagely  amongst  themselves  in 
autumn  ;  and  this  may  account  for  the  rather  widely 
prevalent  opinion  that  the  ungrateful  young  males  actu- 
ally kill  their  fathers  !  I  have  seen  many  robin  fights, 
some  deadly,  but  the  pugilists  were  almost  invariably 
mature  males. 

The  robin,  with  its  ruddy  and  olive  plumage,  is  well 
known  to  most  residents  in  town  and  country,  chiefly 
from  its  familiar  and  confiding  habits,  and  its  song  is 
always  welcome,  either  during  the  dreary  days  of  winter 
or  in  the  prime  of  summer.  Here  it  has  many  endearing 
familiar  names,  including  the  ruddock,  robinet,  &c., 
which  latter  designation  may  be  taken  to  mean  "little 
robin."  In  Germany  it  is  called  Thomas  Guidito  ;  in 




Norway,  Peter  Kousuiead ;  and  in  Sweden,  Tomiiii- 
Liden.  In  every  country  in  Europe  pretty  stories  and 
legends  are  told  of  it.  The  robin  has  had  its  praises  sung 
by  the  poets  almost  as  frequently  as  the  nightingale.  The 
young  birds,  until  they  attain  their  mature  plumage, 
have  their  feathers  mottled  grey  and  dusky  ;  but  even  in 
their  early  youth,  after  they  leave  the  nest,  they  have 
all  the  bold,  perky  ways  and  characteristics  of  the  old 

In  size  and  plumage,  the  male  and  female  birds  are 
much  alike,  though  the  latter  are  rather  smaller  than 
their  mates,  and  their  ruddy  and  olive-grey  plumage  is 
not  so  brilliant  as  that  of  their  more  pugnacious  mates. 
When  on  the  ground  in  search  of  food,  the  robins  pro- 
gress by  a  series  of  brisk  hops,  then  halt,  and  turn  their 
heads  knowingly  from  side  to  side.  Their  food  is  varied 
according  to  the  season  of  the  year.  The  nest  may  occa- 

sionally be  found  in  very  unexpected  situations,  from  the 
roof  of  an  outhouse  to  the  open  bottom  of  a  hedge.  Many 
instances  are  recorded  of  robins  nesting  in  living  rooms 
and  bedrooms.  Usually  the  bird  builds  a  nest  of  withered 
grass  and  roots,  lined  inside  with  fine  grass  and  hair. 
The  eggs,  from  five  to  six,  occasionally  seven  in  number, 
vary  much  in  their  colour  and  markings,  as  most  birds' 
eggs  do.  Some  are  profusely  covered  with  ruddy  freckles 
and  blotches,  whilst  others  are  of  a  dull  white  hue,  with 
few  or  no  ruddy  freckles.  H.  KERR. 

JJANGDALE  PIKES  form  a  grand  mountain 
group  at  the  head  of  Great  Langdale,  the 
vale  of  the  upper  part  of  the  River  Bra- 
thay,  one  of  the  feeders  of  Lake  Winder- 
mere,  They  soar  into  three  rugged  and  picturesque 
summits.  Two  of  them — Harrison  Stickle  and  the  Pike 
o'  Stickle — figure  prominently  in  almost  all  the  best 
views  of  the  English  Lake  District,  though  they 
nowhere  appear  to  greater  advantage  than  from 
Lingmoor,  ou  the  opposite  side  of  the  valley. 
The  other  pike  is  known  as  Gimmer  Crag,  but  is  over- 
shadowed by  its  grander  neighbours.  From  certain 
points  the  two  pikes — Harrison  Stickle  and  Pike  o' 
Stickle — appear  to  be  quite  close  together ;  still,  they 
are  in  reality  so  far  apart  as  to  leave  a  gap  by  no  means 
easy  to  cross.  The  Pike  o'  Stickle,  which  is  seen  to  the 
left  in  our  sketch,  has  an  altitude  of  2,300  feet  above 


January  I 
1889.      f 



the  level  of  the  sea,  and  is  very  rugged  and  broken, 
while  Harrison  Stickle  rises  to  a  height  of  over  2,400 
feet,  and  is  more  easy  of  ascent  than  the  other,  which  it 

Although  the  Langdale  Pikes  are  surrounded  by 
mountains  of  more  commanding  height,  yet  from  many 
places  they  appear  to  rise  in  a  group  from  the  plain. 
This  is  notable  in  our  first  view,  which  is  taken  from  a 
short  distance  down  the  Langdale  Valley. 

The  prospect  from  the  Pikes  is  varied  and  exten- 
sive. Langdale,  with  its  cultivated  enclosures,  is  seen 
far  below,  its  tarns  glistenintr  in  the  sunlight ;  fur- 
ther away  is  Windermere  and  Esthwaite  Water ; 
whilst  in  the  extreme  distance  a  glimpse  of  the 
sea  may  occasionally  be  obtained.  To  the  south 
the  massive  bulk  of  Wetherlam  confronts  the  eye, 
Coniston  Old  Man  and  Grey  Friars  shutting  in  the 
view  beyond.  To  the  east  rises  Loughrigg  Fell 
and  the  mountains  surrounding  Ambleside.  To  the 
north-east  are  Helvellyn,  Seat  Sandal,  and  Fairfield, 
with  Skiddaw  and  Blencathra,  or  Saddleback  as  it  is 
more  commonly  termed,  overlooking  Derweutwater. 
This  lake  cannot  be  seen  from  Harrison  Stickle,  but  a 
fine  view  of  it  may  be  obtained  from  the  Pike  o'  Stickle. 
To  the  west,  rearing  its  miehty  head  above  Bowfell  is 
Scawfell  Pike,  the  highest  mountain  in  England,  and 
Scawfell,  which  for  many  years  held  this  title  until  the 
point  was  decided  by  the  Government  surveyors.  To  the 
north  of  the  Scawfell  Pikes  rise  Great  End,  Great  Gable, 
and  Glaramara. 

Stickle  Tarn,  noted  for  its  fine  trout,  reposes  at  the 
foot  of  the  precipice  known  as  Pavey  Ark,  a  projecting 

shoulder  of  Harrison  Stickle.  It  is  used  as  a  reservoir 
for  the  Government  powder-mills  at  Elter  Water.  The 
stream  from  the  tarn,  known  as  Mill  Gill,  makes  t 
series  of  pretty  cascades,  which,  with  the  towering 
background  of  Harrison  Stickle,  form  a  striking  and 
effective  picture. 

The  tourist  traversing  Langdale  may  note  on  the  face 
of  Lingmoor  Screes  a  long  white  mark.  This  is  the  dales- 
men's sun  dial.  When  Sol's  rays  reach  this  mark,  they 
know  that  it  is  twelve  o'clock.  Elsewhere — at  the 
hamlet  of  Chapelstile — the  inhabitants  indulge  in  the 
mild  joke  that  it  was  there  that  Adam  and  Eve 
were  married,  the  allusion  being  to  Adam  and  Eve 
Fleming,  who  were  the  first  couple  joined  together  in 
wedlock  at  the  church.  A  short  distance  further  down 
the  valley  is  the  village  and  church  of  Langdale. 
Harriet  Martineau  tells  an  anecdote  about  this  primitive 
place  of  worship  that  is  worth  repeating.  "A  few  years 
ago,"  says  she,  writing  in  1855,  "the  rotten  old  pulpit 
fell,  with  the  clergyman,  Mr.  Frazer,  in  it,  just  after  he 
had  begun  his  sermon  from  the  text,  'Behold  I  come 
quickly.'  The  pulpit  fell  on  an  elderly  dame,  who 
escaped  wonderfully.  Mr.  Frazer,  as  soon  as  he 
found  his  feet,  congratulated  her  on  surviving  such  an 
adventure :  but  she  tartly  refused  his  sympathy,  saying, 
'If  I'd  been  kilt,  I'd  been  reet  sarrat  (rightly  served),  for 
you'd  threatened  ye'd  be  comin'  doon  sune.'  " 

There  is  a  mountain  track  from  Langdale  past  Stickle 
Tarn  into  Easdale.  It  was  while  returning  home  over 
this  pass,  one  winter's  evening  in  1807-8,  that  George 
and  Sarah  Green,  hard-working  dalesfolk,  were  lost 
in  a  snowstorm,  which  at  the  same  time  imprisoned 





their  half-dozen  bairns  within  a  remote  and  solitary 
cottage  in  Easdale  for  several  days.  De  Quincey,  in 
his  "Memorials  of  Grasmere,"  refers  to  the  story,  telling 
how  the  eldest  girl,  then  only  nine  years  old,  exhibited 
the  greatest  care  and  foresight  in  providing  for  the 
requirements  of  her  little  brothers  and  sisters.  Agnea 
Green,  however,  succeeded  in  getting  out  of  her  temporary 
prison,  finding  her  way  to  Grasmere,  and  alarming  the 
neighbours.  After  a  search  of  three  days,  the  bodies  of 
the  parents  were  discovered  on  White  Crag,  near  the 
Pikes,  in  their  last  long  sleep.  This  melancholy  incident 
elicited  the  sympathy  of  the  whole  of  the  inhabitants  of 
the  Lake  district,  inspired  Wordsworth  to  write  memorial 
stanzas  on  the  subject,  and  brought  material  help  for  the 
orphans  from  Royalty  itself. 

It  is  worth  noting  that  very  few  of  the  ordinary  English 
song  birds,  and  no  skylarks,  are  to  be  seen  or  heard  in 
these  narrow  valleys.  The  residents  account  for  it  by 
the  fact  that  the  precipitous  crags  afford  shelter  for 
numerous  hawks,  which,  with  ravens  and  crows,  are 
frequently  seen  hovering  about  the  hills.  Formerly 
eagles  were  wont  to  build  in  the  Pikes;  but  the 
shepherds  declared  war  against  them,  because  they  not 
unfrequently  carried  off  a  young  lamb.  The  birds  were, 
therefore,  either  killed  or  driven  away.  Failing  that, 
the  eggs  were  taken  from  the  nests — a  proceeding  often 
attended  with  great  danger,  as  the  dalesmen  had  some- 
times to  be  suspended  from  the  tops  of  precipices  by 

Our  drawings  are  reproduced  from  photographs  by  Mr. 
Alfred  Pettitt,  The  Art  Gallery,  Keswick. 

in  J9mrtfttttit« 

j]N  the  year  1297,  Sir  William  Wallace,  who 
had  succeeded,  in  spite  of  the  mean 
jealousy  of  the  haughty  and  turbulent 
Scottish  nobles,  in  freeing  his  country  for 
the  time  being  from  the  English  yoke,  led  his  exasperated 
followers  into  Northumberland,  and  burned  and  laid 
waste  the  country  wherever  he  went.  Forduu  and  the 
other  Scottish  historians  relate  that  a  principal  reason  for 
his  invading  England  at  this  time  was  the  extreme  dearth 
and  scarcity  that  prevailed  in  North  Britain,  arising 
from  the  inclemency  of  the  season,  joined  to  the 
calamities  of  war,  which  had  been  for  so  many 
years  waged  cruelly  and  mercilessly  by  both  parties 
alike — the  English  fighting  for  conquest  at  the  beck  of  an 
arrogant  monarch,  and  the  Scots  for  national  inde- 
pendence, under  self-appointed  chiefs,  not  always  co- 
operating heartily  with  each  other.  The  English  his- 
torian Walsingham  describes  this  particular  year  by  a 

rather  singular  epithet.  He  calls  it  "penuria  frugum 
illaudabilis,"  that  is,  "for  scarcity  of  grain  not  worthy  to 
be  praised." 

Having  determined  on  making  the  expedition,  in  order 
to  subsist  his  troops  at  the  expense  of  the  enemy, 
Wallace  is  said,  in  his  capacity  of  regent,  warden, 
or  guardian  of  Scotland,  in  the  name  of  King  John 
Baliol,  to  have  obliged  all  the  fighting  men  of  the  realm 
between  sixteen  and  sixty  to  follow  him  under  pain  of 
death;  and  it  is  added  that  this  penalty  was  inflicted 
on  the  disobedient  by  hanging  them  up  on  gallowses 
erected  for  that  purpose  in  every  barony  and  considerable 
town.  But  the  allegation  is  probably  a  gross  libel  on  the 
memory  of  the  Scottish  chief. 

After  making  himself  master  of  the  town  of  Berwick, 
which  had  been  evacuated  on  his  approach,  Wallace 
crossed  the  Tweed  into  Northumberland,  the  prin- 
cipal inhabitants  of  which  had  fled  with  their  families  and 
goods  to  Newcastle,  and  even  still  further  south,  there 
being  no  armed  force  at  hand  to  make  head  against 
the  invaders.  King  Edward  was  in  Flanders,  waging 
war  with  the  King  of  the  French  for  the  re- 
possession of  Guienne;  and  the  heads  of  the  English 
nobility,  neither  well  satisfied  with  the  king's  foreign 
policy,  which  demanded  constant  contributions,  nor  on  a 
good  common  understanding  among  themselves,  were 
scarcely  in  a  position  to  meet  Wallace  in  the  field,  after 
the  signal  victory  he  had  so  lately  gained  at  Stirling.  So 
the  Scots  marched  unopposed  as  far  as  the  Forest  of  Roth- 
bury,  which  was  then,  as  its  name  imported,  a  thickly 
wooded  district,  and  constituted  a  natural  fortress  some 
seven  miles  long  by  four  broad.  From  this  place  as  a 
centre  or  headquarters,  they  spread  themselves  through 
the  low  country,  laying  it  waste  with  fire  and  sword, 
killing  all  who  opposed  them,  collecting  great  spoils,  and 
destroying  everything  they  could  not  carry  away.  The 
priests  and  monks  of  all  orders  were  among  the  first  to 
flee  for  their  lives,  for  the  Scots  in  those  rude  times  were 
known  to  feel  little  or  no  scruple  with  regard  to  their 
sanctity,  so  many  of  the  Churchmen  being  soldiers  as 
well  as  priests;  and  the  Rector  of  Rudby,  Hugh 
Cressingham,  who  had  only  a  few  weeks  before  been 
slain  on  the  field  of  battle,  had  his  dead  body  flayed, 
and  the  skin  cut  in  pieces  to  be  distributed  as  trophies. 

The  Scots  continued  to  burn  and  plunder  at  their 
pleasure  all  over  Northumberland,  till  about  the  term 
of  Martinmas,  meeting,  indeed,  with  no  opposition  or  dis- 
turbance, except  when  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  castles 
of  Alnwick,  Warkworth,  Harbottle,  Prudhoe,  and  other 
fortresses,  from  which  the  garrisons  occasionally  sent 
forth  parties  to  attack  the  rear  of  the  marauders,  or  to 
pick  up  stragglers,  who,  when  they  fell  into  their  hands,  got 
very  short  shrift,  being  taken,  as  the  Border  phrase 
ran,  "  red  fang."  While  they  remained  encamped  in  the 
parish  of  Rothbury,  the  Scots  of  course  would  make  con- 
stant use  of  the  Reiver's  Well,  which  is  still  to  be  seen 

January  I 



near  the  principal  entrance  to  Lord  Armstrong's  resi- 
dence, Cragside. 

Having  pretty  well  exhausted  the  resources  of  the 
eastern  district  by  the  month  of  November,  Wallace  col- 
lected all  his  forces  together,  and  marched  away  west- 
wards towards  Carlisle,  with  the  view  of  occupying  that 
city,  possibly  to  make  it  his  winter  quarters.  In 
the  course  of  his  expedition  up  the  Tyne,  he 
stayed  two  days  at  Hexham,  where  the  priory  had  been 
burned  down,  or  at  least  plundered,  by  a  foraging  party, 
who  had  likewise  set  fire  to  the  nave  of  St.  Andrew's 
Church,  as  well  as  a  school-house  connected  with  it.  On 
this  second  visit,  the  following  singular  scene  is  said  by 
Walter  Hemingford,  the  monk  of  Gisborough,  in  his 
history,  to  have  occurred  : — 

Three  monks,  all  who  had  the  courage  to  remain,  were 
observed  in  a  small  chapel.  Thinking  the  danger  was 
over,  they  had  forsaken  their  hiding  places,  and  were  en- 
deavouring to  repair  the  damages  of  the  late  visitation, 
when,  in  the  midst  of  their  labours,  they  discovered  the 
Scottish  army,  and  fled  in  dismay  to  the  oratory.  The 
soldiers,  however,  with  their  long  spears,  were  soon 
among  them,  and,  brandishing  their  weapons,  com- 
manded them,  at  their  peril,  to  give  up  the  treasures  of 
the  monastery.  "Alas,"  said  one  of  the  monks,  "  it  is 
but  a  short  time  since  you  yourselves  have  seized  our 
whole  property,  and  you  know  best  where  it  now  is. "  At 
this  juncture  Wallace  entered,  and,  commanding  his 
soldiers  to  be  silent,  requested  one  of  the  monks  to  cele- 
brate mass.  He  obeyed,  and  the  Scottish  Guardian  and 
his  attendants  assisted  at  the  service  with  becoming 
reverence.  When  the  consecration  was  about  to  take 
place,  Wallace  retired  for  a  moment  to  lay  aside  helmet 
and  arms.  Instantly  the  avarice  and  ferocity  of  the  soldiers 
broke  out.  They  pressed  upon  the  priest,  snatched  the 
chalice  from  the  high  altar,  tore  away  the  ornaments  and 
sacred  vestments,  and  stole  even  the  missal  which  the 
priest  was  using.  When  their  leader  returned,  he  found 
the  priest  in  fear  and  horror  at  the  sacrilege.  Wallace, 
indignant  at  such  conduct,  gave  orders  that  the  villains 
should  be  searched  for  and  put  to  death,  and  in  the  mean- 
time took  the  monks  under  his  own  special  protection. 
As  some  atonement  for  the  outrage  committed,  the  Guar- 
dian granted  to  the  monks  of  Hexham  a  charter  of  pro- 
tection for  twelve  months. 

The  town  of  Corbridge  was  burned  by  the  Scots 
about  the  same  time ;  as  was  likewise  a  small 
house  of  Benedictine  nuns  at  Lambley,  near  Halt- 
whistle.  It  is  said  that  the  wretched  occupants  of 
the  nunnery  suffered  the  common  fate  of  female  captives 
in  such  savage  incursions  —  torture  and  ravishment. 
But  whether  such  foul  atrocities  were  approved  or  sanc- 
tioned by  Wallace  may  be  seriously  questioned.  If 
they  were,  one  can  only  say  that  such  sanction  or 
approval,  even  in  hot  blood  and  in  direct  reprisal,  was 
wholly  inconsistent  with  all  that  one  has  heard  of  him 
from  the  outset  to  the  close  of  his  career. 

The  citizens  of  Carlisle,  when  summoned  to  surrender, 
shut  their  gates  in  defiance,  and  made  such  preparations 
for  a  resolute  defence  as  determined  the  invaders  to  turn 
away  from  it  and  to  employ  their  strength  in  laying  waste 
the  neighbouring  country.  The  Forest  of  Inglewood, 
comprehending  all  that  large  and  now  fertile  tract  of 
country  extending  from  Carlisle  to  Penrith  on  the  left 
bank  of  the  Eden,  and  also  Allerdale  as  far  as  Cocker- 

mouth,  was  overrun  and  harned.  The  raiders  next 
turned  eastward,  with  the  view  of  making  similar  havoc 
in  the  county  of  Durham.  But  they  were  driven 
back  by  a  terrible  storm  of  snow  and  hail,  wherein 
many  of  them  perished  by  hunger  and  cold,  which  was 
ascribed  to  the  seasonable  protection  given  by  St. 
Cuthbert  to  his  own  people.  From  thence  Wallace 
marched  eastward  towards  Newcastle  by  the  old  road 
on  the  north  side  of  the  Tyne  ;  and  when  the  raiders  were 
passing  Heddon-on-the-Wall,  and  a  party  of  them  were 
foraging  about  Newburn,  the  inhabitants  of  Ryton, 
thinking  themselves  securely  defended  by  the  depth  of 
the  river,  provoked  the  Scots  with  such  opprobrious 
language  that  they  forded  the  Tyne,  and  plundered  and 
burned  the  town,  spreading  a  great  panic  throughout 
the  neighbourhood.  As  the  Scots  approached  New- 
castle, the  burgesses,  having  made  every  necessary  pre- 
paration for  defence,  sallied  forth  in  order  to  fight  them, 
upon  which  the  enemy  turned  another  way.  Again 
traversing  Northumberland,  and  destroying  everything 
they  had  missed  in  the  former  part  of  their  raid,  the 
invaders  returned  to  their  own  country  without  oppo- 
sition, and  loaded  with  rich  spoils,  which  they  divided 
after  once  more  crossing  the  Tweed.  During  this  inroad, 
either  in  coming  or  going,  the  Scots  encamped  on  a 
hill  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Carham,  on  the  south  bank  of 
the  Tweed,  three  or  four  miles  from  Coldstream,  and 
there  they  reduced  to  ashes  an  abbey  of  Black  Canons 
which  had  been  founded  at  a  period  unknown  as  a  cell 
to  the  Priory  of  Kirkham,  in  Yorkshire. 

The  horrible  ravages  committed  by  Waallace  and 
his  followers  on  this  occasion  are  described  in  the  fol- 
lowing manner  by  King  Edward  himself,  in  a  letter 
to  Boniface  VIII.,  that  infallible  pontiff  who  proclaimed 
that  "God  had  set  him  over  kings  and  kingdoms"  : — 
"The  Scots  inhumanly  destroyed  an  innumerable 
multitude  of  my  subjects,  burnt  monasteries, 
churches,  and  towns,  with  an  unpitying  and  savage 
cruelty,  slew  infants  in  their  cradles  and  women  in 
child-bed,  barbarously  cutting  off  women's  breasts,  and 
burnt  in  a  school,  whose  doors  they  first  built  up,  about 
200  young  men." 

But  it  must  be  recollected  that  this  catalogue  of 
atrocities,  scarcely  paralleled,  and  certainly  not  exceeded, 
by  any  on  record  in  European  history,  was  drawn  up  on 
hearsay  evidence,  and  therefore  must  not  be  taken  as 
literally  true.  Still  there  can  be  but  little  doubt  that  the 
Scots  did  commit  horrid  atrocities.  Wallace  himself,  in 
fact,  was  merely  a  sort  of  patriotic  reiver.  The  manners 
and  tastes  of  the  times,  however,  were  altogether  against 
the  weak  and  conquered,  whether  they  were.  Scots  or 



I  January 
1      18S9 

tlje  late  game?  ffilepljan. 

A  stark  moss-trooping  Scot  was  he, 
As  e'er  couched  Border  lance  on  knee. 
Through  Solway  sand,  through  Tarras  moss, 
Blindfold,  he  knew  the  paths  to  cross  : 
By  wily  turns,  by  desperate  bounds, 
Had  baffled  Percy's  best  blood  hounds. 

— Lay  of  the  Last  Minstrel. 

JIN  days  of  yore,  when  England  and  Scot 
land  were  under  separate  Crowns,  and  too 
close  neighbours  to  be  good  friends,  blood 
hounds  were  kept  on  the  Borders  for  the 
capture  of  light-footed  reivers ;  and  how  best  to  train 
them  for  their  vocation,  and  how  best  to  evade  their 
native  and  cultivated  instincts,  were  important  items  in 
the  curriculum  of  a  Tweedside  education.  On  both  sides 
of  the  boundary  river,  accomplished  blood  hounds  were  in 
anxious  request ;  and  if  they  could  be  got  ready-trained 
by  the  enemy,  no  scruples  would  stand  in  the  way  of  their 
acquisition.  English  and  Scottish  poets  have  alike  sung 
their  praises.  Somervile  is  eloquent  of  Border  strife,  and 
commemorates  the  swiftness  and  sagacity  of  the  hound 
which  ran  marauders  down. 

******    Upon  the  banks 

Of  Tweed,  slow  winding  through  the  vale,  the  seat 

Of  war  and  rapine  once,       * 

There  dwelt  a  pilfering  race,  well  trained  and  skilled 

In  all  the  mysteries  of  theft,  the  spoil 

Their  only  substance,  feuds  and  war  their  sport. 

Veiled  in  the  shades  of  night  they  ford  the  stream  : 
Then,  prowling  far  and  near,  whate'er  they  seize    • 
Becomes  their  prey.     Nor  flocks  nor  herds  are  safe  ; 
Nor  stalls  protect  the  steer,  nor  strong-barred  doors 
Secure  the  favourite  horse.     Soon  as  the  morn 
Reveals  his  wrongs,  with  ghastly  visage  wan 
The  plundered  owner  stands,  and  from  his  lips 
A  thousand  thronging  curses  burst  their  way. 
He  calls  his  stout  allies,  and  in  a  line 
His  faithful  hound  he  leads  :  then,  with  a  voice 
That  utters  loud  his  rage,  attentive  cheers. 
Soon  the  sagacious  brute,  his  curling  tail 
Flourished  in  air,  low  bending  plies  around 
His  busy  nose  ;  the  steaming  vapour  snuffs 
Inquisitive  ;  nor  leaves  one  turf  untried, 
Till,  conscious  of  the  recent  stains,  his  heart 
Beats  quick.     His  snuffling  nose,  his  active  tail, 
Attests  his  joy.     Then,  with  deep  opening  mouth, 
That  makes  the  welkin  tremble,  he  proclaims 
Th'  audacious  felon.     Foot  by  foot  he  marks 
His  winding  way. 

O'er  moor  and  moss  goes  the  untiring  "sleuth-hound" — 
"the  northern  name,"  says  John  Trotter  Brockett  in  his 
Glossary,  "  for  the  bloodhound  ;  so  called  from  its  quality 
of  tracing  the  sleuth,"  "the  slot  or  track  of  man  or  beast 
as  known  by  the  scent." 

These  dogs  were  held  in  great  estimation  by  our  an- 
cestors; particularly  on  the  Borders,  where  a  tax  was 
levied  for  maintaining  them.  Their  scent  was  so  re- 
markably quick  that  they  could  follow,  with  great  cer- 
tainty, the  human  footsteps  to  a  considerable  distance,  as 
fox-hounds  chase  a  fox,  or  as  beagles  and  harriers  chase  a 
hare.  Many  of  them  were,  in  consequence,  kept  in  cer- 

tain districts  for  the  purpose  of  tracing  thieves  and  ma- 
rauders through  their  secret  recesses. 

Thai  maid  a  prive  assemble 

Of  well  twa  hundir  men  and  mea, 

And  sleuth  hundis  with  thaim  gan  ta. 

The  lines  here  quoted  by  Mr.  Brockett  form  part  of 
"The  Bruce,"  the  well-known  poem  of  John  Barbour, 
Archdeacon  of  Aberdeen  ;  he  who,  in  the  fourteenth  cen- 
tury, immortalized  himself  in  the  affections  of  his  country 
by  the  lines  commencing — "Ah!  freedom  is  a  noble 
thing  !"  Sir  Walter  Scott  refers  to  him  in  a  note  to  the 
passage  of  "The  Lay  of  the  Last  Minstrel" 
which  heads  this  article.  "The  kings  and  heroes 
of  Scotland,"  says  he,  "as  well  as  the  Border 
riders,  were  sometimes  obliged  to  study  how  to  evade  the 
pursuit  of  bloodhounds."  Barbour  informs  us  that 
Robert  Bruce  was  repeatedly  tracked  by  sleuth-dogs. 
On  one  occasion  he  escaped  by  wading  a  bow-shot  down 
a  brook,  and  thus  baffling  the  scent.  The  pursuers  came 

Rycht  to  the  burn  that  passyt  ware ; 

Bot  the  sleuth-hund  made  stinting  thar, 

And  waveryt  lang  tyme  ta  and  fra, 

That  he  na  certain  gate  couth  ga ; 

Till  at  the  last  Jhon  of  Lorn 

Pursevit  the  hund  the  sleuth  had  Icrne. 

A  sure  way  of  stopping  the  dog  was  to  spill  blood  upon 
the  track,  which  destroyed  the  discriminating  fineness  of 
his  scent.  A  captive  was  sometimes  sacrificed  on  such 
occasions.  Henry  the  Minstrel  tells  a  romantic  story  of 
Wallace,  founded  on  this  circumstance.  The  hero's  little 
band  had  been  joined  by  an  Irishman  named  Fawdon,  or 
Fadzean,  a  dark,  savage,  and  suspicious  character.  After 
a  sharp  skirmish  at  Black  Erne  Side,  Wallace  was  forced 
to  retreat  with  only  sixteen  followers.  The  English 
pursued  with  a  Border  sleuthbratch  or  bloodhound. 

In  Gelderland  there  was  that  bratchel  bred, 

Siker  of  scent  to  follow  them  that  fled  ; 

So  was  he  used  in  Eske  and  Liddisdael ; 

While  [i.e.  when]  she  gat  blood  no  fleeing  might  avail. 

In  the  retreat,  Fawdon  tired,  or  affecting  to  be  so, 
would  go  no  farther.  Wallace,  having  in  vain  argued 
with  him,  in  hasty  anger  struck  off  his  head,  and  con- 
tinued the  retreat.  When  the  English  came  up,  their 
hound  stayed  upon  the  dead  body. 

The  slouth  stopped  at  Fawdoun  ;  still  she  stood  ; 
Nor  farther  wold,  fra  time  she  fund  the  blood. 

The  bloodhound  is  the  subject  of  an  interesting  leaf 
of  Charles  Knight's  "  National  Cyclopaedia  of  Useful 
Knowledge. "  Here  is  the  first  paragraph  of  the  descrip- 
tion : — "  The  name  of  a  hound  celebrated  for  its  exquisite 
scent  and  unwearied  perseverance ;  qualities  which  were 
taken  advantage  of,  by  training  it,  not  only  to  the  pursuit 
of  game,  but  to  the  pursuit  of  man.  A  true  bloodhound 
(and  the  pure  blood  is  rare)  stands  about  2Sin.  in  height, 
and  is  muscular,  compact,  and  powerful.  The  forehead 
is  broad ;  the  muzzle  is  long  and  deep,  with  pendulous 
lips.  The  nostrils  are  wide  and  well-developed ;  the  ears 
are  ample  and  pendulous  ;  the  aspect  is  serene  and 
sagacious.  The  tail  is  long,  with  an  upward  curve  when 




in  pursuit ;  at  which  time  the  hound  opens  with  a  voice 
deep  and  sonorous,  that  may  be  heard  down  the  wind  for 
a  very  long  distance."  Reference  is  made  by  the  writer 
in  the  encyclopaedia,  further  on,  to  the  statement  of  Sir 
Walter  Scott,  that  the  breed  of  bloodhounds  was  kept  up 
by  the  Buccleuch  family  on  their  Border  estates  till  within 
the  eighteenth  century. 

Those  who  are  familiar  with  Border  story  will  remember 
the  raid  of  1528.  Its  record  is  to  be  read  on  various  pages. 
The  late  Dr.  Charlton's  "  Memorials  of  North  Tynedale  " 
quote  it  from  the  State  Papers.  On  a  Monday  morning  in 
January,  William  Charlton  and  Archibald  Dodd,  with  two 
Scots,  Harry  Noble  and  Roger  Armstrong,  rode  a  foray, 
with  several  others,  into  the  Bishopric  ;  seized  the  parson 
of  Muggleswick,  and  bore  him  away ;  plundering  the  in- 
habitants as  they  went,  The  country  rose  in  pursuit,  led 
by  Edward  Horsley,  bailiff  of  Hexham.  Thomas  Erring- 
ton,  "  with  a  sleueth  hounde,"  was  among  the  pursuers; 
and  by  him  was  Charlton  of  Shotlyngton  Hall  slain  as  he 
fled.  Noble  met  the  same  fate.  Dodd  and  Armstrong 
were  captured  and  executed,  and  hung  in  chains  at 
Alnwick  and  Newcastle ;  the  other  two  being  gibbeted  at 
Hexham  and  Haydon  Bridge.  There  is,  perhaps,  no  more 
graphic  picture  of  Border  life  in  the  time  of  the  Tudors 
than  was  penned  by  the  Earl  of  Northumberland,  after 
the  event,  for  the  eye  of  Henry  VIII.,  and  his  great 
Minister,  Cardinal  Wolsey,  when  Englishman  and 
Scot  Ivad  descended  hand  in  hand  upon  the  Bishopric, 
and  suffered  death.  The  capture  of  the  priest ;  the  chase 
by  Wolsey's  bailiff  of  Hexham  ;  the  impassable  flood  and 
the  barricaded  bridge  ;  the  hunt  with  the  bloodhound  by 
the  swollen  waters  of  the  Tyne  ;  two  of  the  fugitives 
slain,  two  captured  ;  and  all  four  hanged  in  chains  :  a 
foray  which,  as  Dr.  Charlton  remarks,  "confirms  the  say- 
ine  of  a  writer  of  the  day,  that  these  Border  thieves 
would  be  Englishmen  when  they  will,  and  Scotsmen  when 
it  suited  them,"  being  ever  ready  for  a  raid  on  either  or 
both  sides  of  the  Tweed. 

North  and  south  of  the  Border  stream,  the  bloodhound 
was  in  use  for  centuries ;  and  in  the  old  town  of  New- 
castle he  makes  his  mark  in  the  Municipal  Accounts. 
When  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth  had  yet  more  than 
ten  years  to  run,  there  was  some  one  "wanted"  by  the 
Council  of  the  North  at  York,  over  whose  deliberations 
the  Earl  of  Huntingdon  then  presided.  What  the  man  had 
done  that  he  should  be  in  such  urgent  request,  does  not 
appear.  He  must  have  greatly  offended,  or  there  would 
hardly  have  been  such  running  to  and  fro  to  lay  hold  of 
him.  Horsemen  and  pedestrians,  and  also  a  bloodhound, 
were  sent  in  hot  pursuit;  and  as  the  burgesses  of  New- 
castle had  to  bear  some  portion  at  least  of  the  cost,  and 
the  Chamberlains  made  a  note  of  the  corporate  disburse- 
ments, we  catch  a  glimpse  of  the  chase  after  the  fugitive. 
In  the  mayoralty  of  1592,  there  was  "paide  for  the 
chairges  of  3  horses  2  daies,  and  riding  to  Darneton  and 
Sheiles,  to  make  enquirie  for  James  Watson,  commanded 

by  Mr.  Maior,  6s.  6d."  Not  only  were  horsemen  abroad 
in  quest  of  him,  but  man  and  dog  were  intent  on  his  trail : 
"  Paide  for  a  sloo-hound,  and  a  man  who  led  him,  to  goe 
make  enquirie  for  James  Watson,  5s."  A  third  item 
heightens  our  curiosity  to  know  more  of  a  man  whom 
Lord  Huntingdon  and  his  colleagues  were  so  eager  to  run 
down: — "Paide  for  the  charges  of  3  men,  one  sent  to 
Anwicke,  the  2  "  (the  second)  "to  Stockton,  and  the  3" 
(the  third)  "to  Seaton  Dallywell,  with  my  Lord  Presi- 
dentes  letters,  to  make  search  for  Watson,  5s."  All  the 
payments  occur  in  the  month  of  April,  and  "  Watson  " 
was  evidently  familiar  enough  to  the  corporate  officer; 
but  he  is  only  a  name  to  us — no  more. 

In  the  days  when  Watson  was  pursued  by  horse  and 
hound,  such  chase  of  man  was  an  accustomed  thing.  In 
the  latter  years  of  Elizabeth,  we  meet  with  mention  of  the 
immemorial  employment  of  the  bloodhound  in  Weardale. 
The  institution  was  a  public  charge,  though  persons  not  a 
few  would  gladly  escape  from  the  burden.  Thus  much  we 
learn  from  a  presentment  of  May  26, 1601,  to  be  found  in 
Watkins's  "Treatise  on  Copyholds,"  under  the  head  of 
"Customs,  &c,,  of  Weardale,  in  Durham."  The  passage 
relating  to  the  bloodhound  is  this  :— 

We  find  that  there  is  a  slough-hound,  which  now  is, 
and  heretofore  hath  been,  kept  and  maintained  within  the 
said  park  and  forest  of  Weardale  ;  which  said  hound,  or 
some  other,  is  to  be  kept  and  maintained,  from  time  to 
time,  as  need  requireth. 

Whereas  we  have  given  our  charge  for  the  maintaining 
of  a  slough-hound  ;  so  it  is  that  we  have  had  and  already 
have  hail  of  keepers  upon  the  costs  and  charges  of  the  park 
and  forest  only. 

Now  there  is  sundry  that  would  withdraw  themselves 
from  bearing  and  maintaining  the  said  slough-hound,  and 
some  of  them  do  deny  any  payment  for  the  maintaining 
of  the  said  slough-hound. 

Therefore  we  do  humbly  crave  your  lawful  favour,  that 
we  be  not  separated,  but  continue  in  maintenance  in  the 
said  slough-hound,  as  ever  heretofore  it  hath  been  used 
and  continued. 

Such  was  the  presentation  made,  and  such  its  prayer,  in 
the  time  of  that  most  pleasant  of  prelates,  Tobie  Mathew, 
who  "could  as  well  not  be,  as  not  be  merry."  The  blood- 
hound of  his  park  and  forest  of  Weardale  was  not,  appa- 
rently, in  perpetual  keeping.  A  hound  was  there  ;  and 
it,  "or  some  other,  was  to  be  kept  and  maintained,  from 
time  to  time,  as  need  required." 

The  volume  from  which  we  make  the  quotation  has  a 
remark,  with  a  reference  to  Sir  John  Skene  as  the  autho- 
rity, that  "the  slough-hound  was  to  trace  the  Scots, 
who  stole  cattle  in  the  night."  When  the  owners  missed 
them,  "  the  dog  was  turned  out  to  hunt  their  footsteps  in 
the  morning." 

At  the  time  of  the  presentation,  in  the  year  1601, 
the  Tudors  were  near  the  end  of  their  reign.  They  came 
in  with  the  battle  of  Bosworth  Field,  and  their  going  out 
was  to  be  marked  by  the  peaceful  union  of  England  and 
Scotland  under  one  Crown.  Border  raids  had  gone ;  a 
Scottish  king  was  coming  in ;  and  there  were  tenants  in 
Weardale  who  chafed  under  the  charge  of  keeping  up  a 
blood-hound.  Perchance  they  had  come  to  the  conclusion 



j  January 
\     1889. 

that  co-operation  in  such  a  cause  was  no  longer  necessary, 
but  that  every  man  bereft  of  his  beeves  might  be  left  to 
look  after  the  reivers  himself.  Quite  as  likely,  however, 
they  belonged  to  the  order  of  men  who,  in  all  ages, 
whatever  be  the  public  needs,  have  been  "impatient  of 

Thirty  years,  or  thereabouts,  from  the  time  of  the  in- 
quiry into  the  customs  of  Weardale,  the  blood-hound  was 
in  requisition  in  the  county  palatine ;  and  now,  it  is  not 
the  Corporation  of  Newcastle,  but  the  Churchwardens  of 
Darlington,  who  make  the  payment.  In  1630  they  have 
an  item  in  their  accounts  running  thus  : — "For  fetching 
of  aslee-dogg,  6d."  The  historian  of  Darlington,  Mr.  W. 
H.  D.  Longstaffe,  observes  in  a  note  : — "The  use  of  the 
sleuth  or  blood -hound  was  then  much  in  vogue  ;  and  Den- 
ton,  in  Northumberland,  and  Chester-le-Street,  appear  to 
have  been  the  places  where  the  owners,  and  probably 
breeders,  of  these  animals  lived." 

How  much  such  animals  were  prized  in  former  times 
may  be  inferred  from  one  of  the  entries  of  the  Calendar 
of  State  Papers.  A  couple  had  been  lost  by  a,  Baron  of 
France  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth  ;  and  it  was  to  her  great 
Minister  that  application  was  made  for  assistance  in  their 
restoration.  On  the  21st  of  September,  1573,  Adrian  de 
Gomiecourt,  writing  to  Lord  Burleigh  from  Rochester  in 
French,  "  solicits  him  to  assist  the  Baron  de  Berlaymont 
in  the  recovery  of  a  pair  of  bloodhounds. "  Burleigh  was 
besieged  on  all  sides  for  his  good  offices  ;  he  must  befriend 
a  host  of  suitors  in  matters  small  and  great ;  and  when 
two  hounds  were  lost  the  chief  adviser  to  England's  Queen 
must  lend  a  hand  for  their  restoration  ! 


j|Nr  the  arrival  of  the  Romans  in  this  country, 
the  physical  aspect  of  Britain  was  very 
different  from  what  it  is  now.  The  uplands 
were  covered  with  heather  and  whins,  or 
shaded  by  dense  forests,  while  the  banks  of  the  rivers 
formed  impenetrable  jungles,  and  a  great  part  of  the 
low-lying  grounds  was  overspread  with  marshes,  as  were 
the  bleak -barren  table-lands  with  bogs.  One  of  the  first 
requisites  of  the  invaders,  if  they  meant  to  keep  perma- 
nent possession  of  the  island,  was  to  construct  practicable 
high  roads  through  the  interior,  affording  ready  means  of 
inter-communication.  The  Britons  had,  doubtless,  long 
before  formed  track-ways  through  the  woods,  by  means 
of  which  the  several  independent  or  allied  tribes  could 
have  intercourse  with  each  other  occasionally ;  but  these 
rude  paths  were  more  like  those  which  the  natives  of 
New  Zealand  or  New  Guinea  used  before  the  advent  of 
Europeans,  or  still  use,  than  anything  we  now  associate 

with  the  name  of  a  made  road.  They  were  neither 
levelled,  raised,  nor  paved ;  nor  were  they  always 
straight,  but  "worked  with  sinuosities  along,"  like  Col- 
man's  Toby  Tosspot,  so  as  to  avoid  the  natural  obstacles 
that  lay  in  their  way,  or  to  touch  at  the  scattered  settle- 
ments with  which  the  country  was  more  or  less  sparsely 

If  these  British  track-ways,  however,  suited  their 
purposes,  the  Romans  naturally  adopted  them ;  if  not, 
they  constructed  others ;  and  their  engineering  work 
proceeded  until  they  had  covered  South  Britain,  and 
Scotland  as  far  as  the  Grampians,  with  a  complete  net- 
work of  national  highways,  scientifically  formed,  and 
rather  to  be  compared  with  our  modern  railroads  than 
with  those  narrow  lanes  and  horse  tracks  which  sufficed 
for  our  easy-going  ancestors  down  till  within  less  than 
two  centuries  since.  These  roads  were  raised  some 
height  above  the  ground  which  they  traversed,  and  pro- 
ceeded in  as  straight  a  line  as  possible  between  the  several 
termini,  running  over  hill  and  dale  with  very  little  re- 
gard to  natural  inequalities.  Being  constructed  in  an  age 
when  the  laws  of  property,  if  they  might  be  said  to  exist 
at  all,  were  superseded  by  the  rights  of  conquest,  they 
did  not  require  to  be  diverted,  like  most  of  our  modern 
country  roads,  from  the  direct  line,  and  thrown  into  vexa- 
tious angles  and  obliquities  by  the  bias  of  private  interest. 
And  so,  except  where  some  natural  barrier  made  it  im- 
possible, the  Roman  roads  almost  invariably  pursued  a 
straight  course.  It  was  only  the  interposition  of  a  hill 
which  could  not  be  directly  ascended,  the  interruption  of 
a  river  which  was  unfordable,  or  the  intervention  of  an 
impassable  morass,  like  the  Chat  Moss,  the  Lochar  Moss, 
or  the  Dogden  Moss,  that  turned  the  Roman  military 
engineers  out  of  the  precise  route  they  had  laid  down  for 

The  road  itself  consisted  of  three  distinct  layers  of  ma- 
terials— the  lowest,  stones,  mixed  with  cement  (statumenj; 
the  middle,  gravel  or  small  stones  ( rudera},  to  prepare  a 
level  and  unyielding  surface  (without  the  least  rugged- 
ness,  "  sine  salebris-"),  whereon  to  receive  the  upper  and 
most  important  part  of  the  structure,  which  consisted  of 
large  blocks  of  stone  accurately  fitted  together.  In  the 
neighbourhood  of  towns,  they  usually  had  raised  footways 
(margincs)  on  both  sides  (convmerginaria),  which  defined 
the  extent  of  the  central  part  (agger)  for  carriages,  which 
was  paved  with  large  stones,  and  was  usually  about 
eighteen  feet  wide.  The  road  was  accurately  barrelled, 
so  that  no  water  might  lie  upon  it ;  and  where  the  nature 
of  the  ground  permitted,  the  soil  was  wholly  removed 
before  the  first  layer  was  placed,  so  as  to  ensure  perfect 
solidity.  The  roads  were  thus  said  to  be  made  "by 
delving  and  building  beneath  "  (fodiendo  ae  tubstruendoj. 

The  expense  of  their  construction  was  enormous,  but 
they  were  built  to  last  for  ever ;  and  many  of  them  con- 
tinued, under  all  the  injuries  of  predatory  barbarians, 

January  1 
1889.     I 



Vandalio  landholders,  agricultural  improvers,  and  inclem- 
encies of  climate,  wonderfully  perfect,  down  to  a  recent 
period.  Having  the  whole  power  of  the  country  at  their 
command,  and  tribes  and  nations  innumerable  to  be  their 
labourers,  the  Romans  were  not  frugal  of  the  toil  of 
others.  The  poor  natives  had  to  do  all  the  drudgery, 
from  quarrying  the  stones  out  of  the  rock  and  squaring 
them  to  serve  as  flags,  to  carrying  them  up  craggy  preci- 
pices where  no  carriages  could  go  ;  and  where  little  or  no 
road  metal  was  to  be  found  near  at  hand  (as  was  not  often 
the  case,  however,  in  the  North),  the  unhappy  drudges 
were  forced  to  bring  gravel,  sand,  or  lime,  occasionally 
from  seven  or  eight  miles  off,  either  on  their  own  backs 
or  on  those  of  their  beasts  of  burden,  arbitrarily  requisi- 
tioned for  the  purpose.  The  Caledonian  chief  Galgacus 
is  represented  by  Tacitus  as  telling  his  followers  that  the 
Romans  wore  out  the  bodies  and  hands  of  every  people 
they  subjected,  in  clearing  and  draining  woods  and 
marshes,  with  floggings  and  insults  (corpora  ipsa  ac  manus 
Sylvia  ac  paludibis  emuniendis,  vevbera  inter  et  contu- 
melias,  contereunt) ;  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  but  that 
he  spoke  the  truth. 

The  Romans,  as  is  well  known,  were  great  bridge- 
builders,  as  well  as  masterful  road-makers,  their 
commanders  usually  taking  the  title  of  pontifex  among 
their  other  high  honours.  Yet  it  is  remarkable  that  only 
three  bridges  are  mentioned  by  the  writers  of  the  Itiner- 
aries as  occurring  in  Britain,  and  one  of  them  is  Pons 
JE\i\,  or  jfElius's  Bridge,  which  is  well  known  to  have 
spanned  the  Tyne  opposite  Newcastle.  Most  of  the  roads 
in  this  country  crossed  the  rivers  they  encountered,  not 
at  bridges,  but  at  shallows  or  fords,  for  some  time  at 
least  after  they  were  constructed  ;  so  that  unless  resort 
was  had  to  rafts  or  bridges  of  boats,  the  travelling  on 
these  must  have  been  very  precarious,  having  to  be  regu- 
lated by  the  rains  and  controlled  by  the  floods.  At  every 
thousand  paces  along  the  route  there  were  mile-stones 
placed,  and  some  of  these  still  remain  in  situ,  while  the 
pedestals  of  others  are  to  be  seen  in  many  places,  with 
holes  in  them  to  receive  the  pillars. 

Of  many  of  the  Roman  roads,  not  only  in  England,  but 
in  the  greater  part  of  the  Roman  empire,  an  account  has 
been  preserved  under  the  name  of  the  Itinerary  of 
Antoninus,  which  specifies  the  towns  or  stations  on  each 
road,  and  shows  the  distance  between  them — usually  a 
day's  march.  This  record  was  long  supposed  to  be  a  pub- 
lic directory  or  guide  for  the  use  of  the  soldiers ;  but  if 
this  were  the  case,  it  is  extremely  confused  and  imper- 
fect. It  often  omits  in  one  iter  or  journey  towns  which 
are  directly  in  its  course,  and  yet  specifies  them  in 
another ;  it  likewise  traces  the  same  road  more  than  once, 
and  passes  unnoticed  some  of  the  most  remarkable  roads 
in  the  island.  History  is  silent  as  to  the  tune  and  the 
compiler  of  this  register ;  but  the  most  likely  conjecture 
is  that  it  is  merely  the  heads  of  a  journey  formed  by  some 
traveller  or  officer,  who  visited  the  different  parts  of  the 

empire  from  business  or  duty,  during  the  reign  of  the 
Emperor  Marcus  Aurelius  Antoninus,  and  that  it  was 
supplemented  in  some  parts  so  late  as  the  reign  of  Diocle- 
tian. Besides  this  Itinerary,  we  have  the  "  Description  of 
Britain, "  attributed  to  Richard  of  Cirencester,  and  taken 
from  ancient  (if  not  contemporary)  records  now  lost. 
From  these  two  sources  we  learn  that  there  were  four 
great  trunk  roads  in  Britain,  viz.,  the  Watling  Street,  the 
Erming  or  Ermine  Street,  the  Ikenild  Street,  and  the 
Fosse  Way;  and  modern  researches  have  revealed  the 
existence  of  a  great  many  more,  connecting  the  principal 
towns  with  each  other  and  with  the  coast.  For  purposes 
of  direct  communication  from  sea  to  sea,  as  well  as  inter- 
nal intercourse,  these  roads  were  infinitely  better  fitted 
than  any  that  existed  in  the  island  down  to  the  compara- 
tively recent  days  of  Marshal  Wade,  Thomas  Telford, 
and  John  London  Macadam. 

Of  the  four  great  lines  of  intercommunication   above 
named,    we  have  only  to  do  with  the  two  first,  as  the 
Ikenild   Street   and    the    Fosse    Way    ran    through    the 
southern  part  of  the  country — the  former  from  the  Land's 
End  to  the  coast  of  Suffolk,  and  the  latter  from  Exmouth, 
in  Devonshire,    or   Lyme   Regis,  in   Dorsetshire,    to  the 
Humber,  about  Saltfleet,  in  Lincolnshire.     The  Watling 
Street,  on  the  other  hand,  traversed  England  and  Scot- 
land  throughout  almost  their  whole  length,  or  at  least 
as  far  north  as  the  Grampians  and  the  Moray  Firth,  and 
sent  out  branches  in  all  directions,  connecting  the  princi- 
pal towns,  which  numbered  some  hundreds,  and  affording 
the  troops  ready  access  to  all  the  main  points,  whether 
inland  or  on  the  coast.     The  term   Ermine,   Ermyn,  or 
Herman  Street,    again,    though   primarily   applied   to  a 
great  road  leading  from  Southampton  (Clausentum)  and 
Chichester    (Regnum),    where    the    Emperor  Vespasian 
fixed  his  head-quarters  when  in  Britain,  through  London 
(Londinium)  to  Yarmouth  or  Colchester  (Camalodunum), 
coinciding,   for  a  great  part  of  the  way,  with  the  line  of 
the  South-Western   and   Eastern  Counties  Railways,  is 
also  applied  to  other  great  consular  or  military  roads — one 
of  them  at  least  in  our  district.     It  is  to  be  observed  that 
none  of  the  road-names  are  those  given  by  the  Romans 
who  constructed  them  ;  they  are  only  those  affixed  by  the 
semi-barbarous    Anglo-Saxons    and    Jutes    who     came 
in  after  the    Romans  left.     The   term    Watling  (some- 
times written  Waecling)  most  probably  is  only  a  corrup- 
tion of  the  word  "  wathol,"  a  road  or  way ;  and  street  is 
the  Latin  "stratum,"  a  pavement,  which  was  applied  to 
such  great  trunk  roads  as  were  regularly  paved  or  flagged 
(viae  strata).     The  term  Ermyn,  again,  which  was  ap- 
plied to  a  number  of  lines  in  various  parts  of  the  country, 
not  otherwise  connected  with  each  other,  but  all  usually 
taking  the  shortest  cut  between  their  terminal  points, 
may  either  signify  that  the  roads  so  designated  were  the 
quickest  marching  routes  (itinera  eelerrima),  and,  there- 
fore, specially  dedicated  to  Hermes,  the  messenger  of  the 
gods,  known  to  the  Saxons  as  Eormen,  or  it  may  merely 



I      1889 

mean  that  they  were  chiefly  used  as  military  roads  (Ger- 
man, Heerstrassen). 

Descriptions  of  the  roads  themselves  will  be  given  in 
succeeding  articles.  WILLIAM  BROCKIE. 

|NDER  date  June  15,  1757,  the  "Local 
Historian's  Table  Book  "  records  the  inter- 
ment of  Robert  Clover,  "a  young  man 
of  uncommon  parts  and  application,"  who  had  ac 
quired  "nice  skill  in  music,''  could  draw,  sketch, 
and  paint,  and  had  made  "considerable  progress  "  in 
modern  languages,  astronomy,  and  mathematics.  When 
only  fifteen  years  of  age,  we  are  told,  he  wrote  two 
poetic  pieces  in  imitation  of  Milton's  "L'Allegro, "  which 
William  Hilton,  of  Gateshead,  "published  with  his  own 
poems";  but  "by  intense  labour  he  injured  a  delicate 
constitution,  and  died  when  approaching  to  manhood,  be- 
loved and  esteemed  by  all  who  knew  him." 

Turning  now  to  Hilton's  "Poetical  Works,"  which 
form  two  thick  octavo  volumes,  published  in  1776  by 
Thomas  Saint,  Newcastle,  we  6nd  the  two  pieces  referred 
to.  They  are  entitled  "IlGiorno"  and  "LaNotte" — 
in  English,  "Day "and  "Night."  " Day" commences : — 

Thirsis  !  why  will  ye  lose 

That  precious  part  of  day,  the  morning's  prime, 

And  foolish  spend  that  time 

When  ev'ry  balmy  sweet  of  nature  flows 

In  sleep's  unmeaning  joy  ? 

Come,  rise,  receive  the  tribute  of  the  morn, 

Morpheus  and  his  visions  scorn, 

Resist  the  drowsy  god,  command  him  hence, 

Immers'd  in  indolence, 

And  taste  of  pleasures  that  will  never  cloy. 

There  are  over  a  dozen  pages,  written  in  this  high- 
pitched  tone,  evincing  most  remarkable  gifts  in  a  lad  of 
fifteen.  Accompanying  them  are  an  "  Elegy  on  Clover '' 
and  a  "Memoir "of  the  youth,  by  Hilton  himself,  who 
appears  to  have  been  a  companion  of  the  precocious  boy, 
and  to  have  regarded  his  decease  as  a  public  calamity. 

R.  W. 

^  SFteto  of  J3urftant. 

||HE  accompanying  view  of  Durham,  taken 
from  the  north-east,  is  strikingly  romantic 
and  picturesque.  The  original  drawing  was 
made  by  Thomas  Allom  more  than  half  a  century  ago. 
Many  changes  have  of  course  been  made  in  the  city  and 
its  surroundings  since  the  sketch  was  taken.  The  pre- 
dominating feature  of  the  landscape  depicted  by  Allom 
is  the  grand  old  cathedral  which  rears  its  majestic  form 
against  the  sky.  Other  cathedrals  may  present  more 
graceful  outlines,  but  few  can  compare  with  it  for  situa- 
tion. The  city  appears  to  be  scattered  over  a  number 
of  irregular  hills,  the  ground  by  which  it  is  approached 
oeing  thrown  up  into  circular  mounts.  From  the  north- 
east the  cathedral  appears  to  great  advantage,  its  northern 
and  eastern  fronts,  "  like  the  mitre  which  binds  the 
temple  of  its  prelate,  giving  the  noblest  supreme  orna- 

January  1 



ment  to  the  capital  of  the  principality."  To  the  right  of 
the  cathedral  are  the  battlements  and  tower  of  the  castle, 
and  to  the  left  is  shown  the  ancient  church  of  St. 
Nicholas.  In  the  middle  distance  is  Elvet  Bridge,  built 
by  Bishop  Pudsey  about  the  year  1170,  and  afterwards 
repaired  by  Bishop  Fox,  who  granted  an  indulgence  of 
the  Church  to  all  who  contributed  towards  defraying  the 
expense  of  the  undertaking. 

Hill,  Newcastle,  was  so  named  by  Mr.  Isaac  Cookson, 
the  owner  of  the  property,  after  his  son  Arthur !  We 
may  add  to  Dr.  Bruce's  statement  that  the  name  given  to 
the  place  originally  was  Arthur  Hill.  Other  children  of 
Mr.  Cookson  were  honoured  in  the  same  manner.  And 
so  it  comes  that  we  have  streets  close  at  hand,  and  form- 
ing part  of  the  old  estate  of  the  Cooksons,  named  John, 
Edward,  William,  and  Mary. 

Htwjj  gtrtftttr 

it  iff  it  aSri 

the  meeting  of  the  British  Association  at 
Newcastle  in  1863,  an  eminent  antiquary, 
not  connected  with  the  district,  delivered  a 
most  interesting  address  on  Arthurian  Legends.  He 
pointed  to  the  legends  regarding  the  mythic  king  in  so 
many  parts  of  the  country  and  on  the  Continent. 
Coming  nearer  home,  he  said  Arthur's  Seat,  at  Edin- 
burgh, had  its  name  undoubtedly  from  the  British 
hero;  there  was  the  Arthurian  legend  —  very  widely 
spread  —  which  connected  King  Arthur  with  Sewing- 
shields  on  the  Roman  Wall,  and  which  will  be  found  in 
Dr.  Bruce's  "Wallet  Book  of  the  Roman  Wall";  and 
there  was  still  another  legend  which  located  King  Arthur 
on  the  Derwent.  Even  in  Newcastle,  the  antiquary  said, 
he  understood  they  had  an  Arthur's  Hill,,  and  he  had 
no  doubt  it  could  be  traced  to  the  all-pervading 
monarch.  In  the  discussion  which  followed,  Dr.  Bruce, 
who  was  present  at  the  sectional  meeting,  to  the  great 
amusement  of  the  audience,  and  the  discomfiture  of  the 
enthusiastic  King  Arthurite,  quietly  stated  that  Arthur's 

I  ANY  subjects  engage  the  attention  of  the 
antiquary  and  the  painter  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Almvick.  The  Castle,  of  course, 
stands  first  in  importance,  and  it  is  this  venerable  struc- 
ture which  is  delineated  in  our  sketch,  the  standpoint 
being  the  Lion  Bridge,  itself  a  most  picturesque  object. 
From  the  battlements  of  the  bridge  a  fairly  comprehen- 
sive view  of  the  castle  may  be  obtained.  Those  who 
wish  to  include  the  bridge  and  castle  in  one  grand  scene 
will  have  to  walk  a  short  distance  along  the  river  bank. 
It  is  here  that  the  artist  may  frequently  be  seen  with 
busy  pencil.  The  bridge  figures  prominently  in  Turner's 
srreat  picture  of  AInwick  by  moonlight.  An  incident  in 
connection  with  it  is  described  by  Oliver  Wendell  Holmes 
in  his  "Autocrat  of  the  Breakfast  Table,"  as  an  illustra- 
tion of  the  strange  fact  that  trivial  things  are  often  re- 
membered when  more  important  ones  are  forgotten.  "  I 
remember,"  he  says,  "the  Percy  Lion  on  the  bridge  over 
the  little  river  at  AInwick—  the  leaden  lion—  with  its  tail 





stretched  out  straight  like  a  pump  handle — and  why? 
Because  of  the  story  of  the  village  boy  who  would  fain 
bestride  the  leaden  tail,  standing  out  over  the  water— 
which  breaking,  he  dropped  into  the  stream  far  below, 
and  was  taken  out  an  idiot  for  the  rest  of  his  life." 

antr  €ainnuntavit$. 



In  1763,  on  peace  being  declared,  after  a  war  of 
many  years  between  this  country  and  France,  a  singular 
and  exciting  incident  was  witnessed  in  Newcastle — the 
public  burial,  with  military  honours,  of  the  old  colours  of 
the  25th  Regiment  of  Foot,  then  commanded  by  Lord 
Lenox.  What  were  the  exact  proceedings  cannot  now  be 
stated,  the  records  of  the  event  being  very  scant  indeed. 
These  records  merely  state  "  that  on  Tuesday,  May  31st, 
1763,  the  old  colours  of  the  25th  Regiment,  being  so  much 
wounded  in  Germany,  and  particularly  at  the  glorious 
and  ever  memorable  battle  of  Minden  (August  1,  1759), 
were  buried  at  Newcastle  with  military  honours."  Pro- 
bably, however,  the  old  flags,  as  they  were  borne  along 
the  streets  of  the  town,  in  their  tattered  and  torn  condi- 
tion, to  the  place  of  burial,  would  be  demonstratively 
greeted  by  the  townsmen.  Doubtless,  also,  the  soldiers 
forming  the  remnant  of  the  regiment,  as  they  preceded 
and  followed  the  emblems,  would  be  welcomed  in  a 
manner  worthy  of  their  countrymen.  The  place  of  inter- 
ment is  not  stated  ;  but  possibly  it  was  one  of  the  church- 
yards of  the  town.  With  the  burial  of  the  flags  an  impor- 
tant war  period  may  be  regarded  as  having  closed,  and  it  is 
worthy  of  note  that,  on  the  following  day,  the  people 
had  their  minds  diverted  to  religion  and  peace ;  for  on 
Wednesday,  June  1,  1763,  the  Rev.  John  Wesley  arrived 
at  Newcastle  from  Scotland,  and  on  that  and  several  fol- 
lowing days  spoke  to  immense  audiences. 

J.  S.  Y..  Hull. 

The  following  curious  story  is  copied  from  "  Annals 
of  Yorkshire": — "Samuel  Sunderland,  Esq.,  who  flour- 
ished in  the  reign  of  Charles  I.  and  in  the  Common- 
wealth, resided  at  Arthing  Hill,  not  far  from  Bingley. 
He  was  one  of  the  richest  men  of  his  age,  and  had  accumu- 
lated an  immense  quantity  of  gold  coin,  which  he 
preserved  in  bags  placed  on  two  shelves  in  a  private 
part  of  his  house.  Two  individuals,  who  resided  at 
Oollineham,  determined  to  rob  Mr.  Sunderland  -of  the 
whole,  or,  at  any  rate,  a  considerable  quantity,  of  his  gold  ; 
and  in  order  to  prevent  the  chance  of  successful  pursuit, 
they  persuaded  a  blacksmith  at  Collingham  to  put  shoes 
on  their  horses'  feet  backward  way.  They  arrived  at 
Arthing  Hall  according  to  their  purpose,  took  away  as 

much  gold  in  bags  as  they  could  carry  off,  and,  notwith- 
standing the  communication  of  an  alarm  to  the  family 
before  they  left  the  house,  succeeded  in  accomplishing  their 
retreat.  The  weight  of  the  gold  they  took  away  was  too 
heavy  for  their  jaded  horses,  and  they  were  compelled  to 
leave  part  of  it  on  Blackmoor,  where  it  was  afterwards 
found  by  some  persons  of  Chapeltown.  It  so  happened 
that  the  robbers  had  taken  a  dog  with  them  on  their  ex- 
pedition, and  this  animal,  in  the  hurry  of  their  retreat, 
they  left  behind  them,  fastened  up  in  the  place  from 
which  they  had  taken  the  gold.  The  friends  and  neigh- 
bours of  Mr.  Sunderland,  who  had  determined  upon  pur- 
suit, immediately  saw  in  this  dog  the  means  of  detecting 
the  offenders.  Having  broken  one  of  its  legs,  to  prevent 
its  running  too  fast  for  their  horses,  they  turned  it  loose. 
It  proceeded,  notwithstanding  its  excruciating  pain,  to 
Collingham,  and  went  directly  to  the  house  of  its  owners. 
The  pursuers  arrived,  burst  open  the  door,  and  found 
the  thieves  in  the  very  act  of  counting  the  money.  They 
were  sent  to  York,  tried,  condemned  to  die,  and  their 
own  apprentice  was  compelled  to  act  the  part  of  execu- 
tioner. This  young  man,  though  innocent  of  any 
capital  participation  in  the  robbery,  was  so  horror-struck 
by  the  deed  he  had  been  compelled  to  perform,  that  he 
criminated  himself  and  followed  the  fate  of  his  masters." 

NIGEL,  York. 


A  six-year-old  little  boy,  residing  in  Jesmond,  was 
joked  one  night  lately  about  falling  asleep  in  the  tram- 
car.  "Oh,"  he  answered,  "I  went  to  sleep  when  I 
wasn't  looking  !" 


Tommy  Atkins  :  "  Look  here  !  I  have  known  lots  of 
camels  work  hard,  a  whole  week,  without  drinking, 
when  we  were  on  the  march."  Jack  Docker :  "  Git 
oot,  man !  that's  nowt !  Aa  knaa  lots  o'  asses  whe 
drink  hard  a  whole  fortneet,  wivoot  warkin',  and  then 
march  te  the  kitty.  Yor  camels  cuddent  de  that,  could 
they,  noo  ?" 


One  of  the  directors  of  a  local  colliery  recently  visited 
the  scene  of  his  investment.  Observing  one  of  the  work- 
men leaning  on  his  shovel,  and  thus  apparently  idling  his 
time  away,  he  addressed  him  with  some  pomposity  as 
follows :  "  My  man,  can't  you  find  something  else  to  do  ?  " 
This  query  somewhat  staggered  the  workman,  who  replied : 
"  Wey,  what  the  deuce  have  ye  te  de  wi't?  Gan  te  Jarrico, 
ye  fyul ! "  The  director  reported  the  matter  to  the  foreman, 
who  with  the  alacrity  of  an  official  who  knowi  who 
"butters  his  bread,"  hurried  off  to  the  delinquent  and 
exclaimed  :  "  Hi,  come  here,  ye  slavering  cull !  Did  ye 

Ja.'J£?r!'  1 



not  knaa  who  that  wes  whe  wes  heor  just  noo  ?  "  "Hoo 
should  aa  knaa  ?  Onny  way,  whe  is  he  ? "  was  the  reply. 
"  Oh,  ye'll  knaa  varry  syun.  Yell  hev  te  'pologise,  or 
gan  hyem."  "Weel,"  said  the  man,  "aa  divvent  want 
te  gan  hyem,  se  aa'll  'pologise."  Off  he  went.  Mean- 
while, the  director  had  reached  a  group  of  officals  to  whom 
he  told  the  story.  The  man  approached  the  director  and 
asked:  "Arn't  ye  the  chep  whe  aa  tell't  te  gan  te 
Jarrico  just  noo?  Aa's  come  te  'pologise,  se  aa'll  just  say, 
divvent  gan  noo  ! " 


An  engineman  at  Jarrow,  referring  to  his  son  who  had 
been  out  of  work,  said  to  an  inquirer  : — "  He's  making  a 
varry  canny  living  noo ;  he  hes  a  portigal  engine ! " 


More  than  twenty  years  ago,  when  the  work  of  restor- 
ing the  ancient  church  of  St.  Michael,  Alnwick,  was 
going  on,  the  Northumberland  Light  Infantry  Militia 
was  quartered  in  the  same  town  for  the  annual  training. 
In  consequence  of  the  sacred  edifice  being  closed  pending 
the  restoration,  the  Corn  Exchange  was  opened  in  its 
stead  as  a  place  of  worship  for  those  of  the  regiment  who 
attended  the  Church  of  England.  One  Sunday  morning, 
when  the  gallant  corps  was  on  church  parade,  a  bold 
Novocastrian  inadvertently  strayed  into  the  ranks  of  the 
Catholic  party.  Being  perceived  by  the  captain  in  com- 
mand, he  was  asked  by  that  officer :  "  What  religion 
are  you,  my  man  ?"  Whereupon  the  straggler,  with  a  look 
of  bewilderment,  answered  :  "If  you  please,  sor,  aa's  a 
Corn  Exchange  man  !" 

On  the  13th  of  November,  Alderman  Thomas  Gray 
died  at  his  residence,  Spital  Hill,  near  Morpeth.  About 
six  weeks  previously,  he  had  received  an  apparently 

Mr.  John  Blagdon,  one  of  the  oldest  shipowners  of 
North  Shields,  died  on  the  6th  of  November,  1888. 

On  the  6th  of  November,  the  remains  of  Mr.  William 
Isaac  Cookson,  who  had  died  at  Worksop  Manor,  Not- 
tingham, on  the  1st,  were  interred  in  the  family  vault  at 
Benwell  Churchyard,  Newcastle.  The  deceased  gentle- 
man, who  was  76  years  of  age,  was  head  of  the  firm  of 
Messrs.  Cookson  and  Co.,  coalowners  and  lead  manufac- 
turers, Newcastle,  and  formerly  lived  at  Benwell  Tower, 
now  the  residence  of  the  Bishop  of  Newcastle. 

Mr.  J.  W.  George,  printing  overseer,  who  had  been 
forty  years  in  the  service  of  the  proprietors  of  the  New- 
castle Journal,  died  on  the  9th  of  November,  aged  60. 

On  the  llth  of  November,  Mrs.  Oliver,  wife  of  Dr. 
Thomas  Oliver,  one  of  the  principal  physicians  at  the 
Newcastle  Infirmary,  died  at  the  residence  of  her  father, 
Mr.  W.  Jenkins,  J.P.,  at  Consett. 

Mr.  John  Telfer,  of  the  firm  of  Messrs.  John  Telfer 
and  Son,  wholesale  and  retail  tobacconists,  Newcastle, 
died  on  the  12th  of  November,  at  the  age  of  65  years. 

The  Rev.  Mr.  Stepney,  who  had  been  in  the  Wesleyan 
ministry  over  fifty  years,  died  at  Houghton-le-Spring  on 
the  13th  of  November,  his  age  being  77  years. 



II II  f  l!' 


'-  Thos  Grsy. 

Pied  t/ci;i3-ll$8 

slight  injury  to  his  foot  in  alighting  from  his  trap,  and 
this  was  the  origin  of  the  illnuss  which,  unfortunately, 
terminated  fatally.  A  native  of  York,  where,  for  a  time, 
he  had  been  in  the  employment  of  the  North-Eastern 
Railway  Company,  Mr.  Gray  came  to  Newcastle  in  1851. 
He  entered  upon  possession  of  the  Alexandra  Hotel, 
which  he  conducted  for  several  years  ;  and  he  also  became 
the  lessee  of  the  advertising  stations  on  the  North- 
Eastern  and  other  leading  railways  in  the  kingdom.  A 
few  years  ago,  he  commenced,  with  others,  the  issue  of 
Gray's  Time  Tables  for  Scotland,  and  he  was  head  of  the 
firm  of  Gray  and  Co.,  printers,  Edinburgh.  In  the  course 
of  a  very  active  life,  deceased  had.been  connected  with  all 
sorts  of  financial  undertakings,  and  in  most  of  them  he 
had  achieved  very  considerable  success.  Mr.  Gray  was 
elected  to  the  Newcastle  Council  as  one  of  the  representa- 
tives of  Elswick  Ward  on  the  1st  of  November,  1871. 
In  1884-85,  he  served  the  office  of  Sheriff,  and  in  1886  he 
was  raised  to  the  position  of  alderman.  He  was  one  of 
the  guarantors  in  securing  Elswick  Park  for  the  use  of 
the  public,  previous  toils  acquisition  by  the  Corporation  ; 
and  he  took  a  prominent  part  in  the  arrangements  con- 
nected wilh  the  Royal  Jubilee  Exhibition  in  1887.  The 
deceased  gentleman,  who  was  married,  was  64  years  of 

Colonel  Duncan,  C.B.,  Royal  Artillery,  and  member 
for  the  Holborn  Division  of  Finsbury,  died  on  the  16th  of 
November.  He  was  a  native  of  Aberdeen,  and  was  52 
years  of  age.  He  unsuccessfully  contested  Morpeth  against 
Mr.  T.  Burt,  and  afterwards,  with  a  like  result,  the  city 
of  Durham.  The  deceased  gentleman  was  a  D.C.L.  of 
Durham  University.  (See  vol.  ii.,  p.  144.) 



f  January 

Mr.  George  Gamsby,  who  took  a  very  prominent  part 
in  the  Chartist  movement,  along  with  Mr.  Binns,  Mr. 
James  Williams,  Dr.  Gammage,  and  others,  died  at  Sun- 
derland  on  the  21st  of  November,  in  his  82nd  year. 

Dr.  Edward  Headlam  Greenhow,  of  Reigate,  Surrey, 
formerly  of  Tynemouth,  died  suddenly  in  London  on  the 
22nd  of  November,  aged  74.  The  deceased  gentleman 
belonged  to  a  family  of  doctors.  The  first  who  settled  on 
Tyneside  was  Dr.  Edward  Martin  Greenhow,  a  native  of 
Stirling,  who  had  been  an  army  surgeon  and  served  with 
General  Elliot  at  the  siege  of  Gibraltar,  who  was  married 
at  Tynemouth  in  1786,  and  who  died  in  Dockwray 
Square,  North  Shields,  in  1835.  A  son  of  his,  Dr. 
Edward  Greenhow,  followed  the  profession  of  his  father, 
also  in  Dockwray  Square,  and  was  mentioned  in  connec- 
tion with  the  Margetts  mystery.  (See  vol.  i.,  page  58.) 
Another  son  of  the  old  army  surgeon  was  Dr.  T.  M. 
Greenhow,  a  well-known  practitioner  in  Newcastle,  who 
married  a  sister  of  Harriet  Martineau,  and  whose  sister, 
Sarah  Greenhow,  married  Harriet  Martineau's  brother 
George,  at  Christ  Church,  Tynemouth,  on  the  26th  of 
July,  1836  It  was  Dr.  T.  M.  Greenhow,  then  surgeon  to 
the  Newcastle  Infirmary,  who  recommended  Harriet 
Martineau  to  try  the  effects  of  mesmerism  for  the  cure  of 
her  ailments.  (See  vol.  i.,  page  415.) 

The  death  was  announced,  on  the  24th  of  November, 
of  Mr.  Morgan  Robinson,  mining  engineer,  Newcastle, 
and  late  manager  of  Wardley  Colliery,  from  which  he 
drew  the  first  tub  of  coals  to  bank. 

Mrs.  Leslie,  wife  of  Mr.  Andrew  Leslie,  the  well-known 
Tyne  shipbuilder,  died  at  Coxlodge  Hall,  near  Newcastle, 
on  the  28th  of  November. 

Air.  Adam  Patterson,  a  member  of  the  editorial  staff  of 
the  Newcastle  Chronicle,  died  after  a  short  but  severe 
illness,  on  the  29th  of  November.  Though  only  a  little 
over  thirty  years  of  ape,  the  deceased  gentleman  had  had 
considerable  experience  as  a  journalist.  After  a  short 
service  on  the  now  defunct  Northern  Daily  Express  he 
joined  the  literary  department  of  the  Chronicle,  and  for 
some  time  was  in  the  London  office  of  that  paper.  Re- 
turning to  Newcastle,  he  resumed  his  position  as  reporter 
on  the  Daily  Chronicle;  and  on  the  establishment  of  the 
Evening  Chronicle,  he  was  appointed  to  the  post,  which 
he  held  till  his  death,  of  its  responsible  editor.  Mr. 
Patterson's  frank  and  genial  demeanour,  combined  with 
his  honourable  and  upright  conduct,  had  endeared  him  to 
all  with  whom  he  came  in  contact. 

Mr.  William  Daggett,  of  the  firm  of  Messrs.  Ingledew 
and  Daggett,  solicitors,  Newcastle,  died  on  the  6th  of 
December.  He  was  the  eldest  son  of  the  late  Mr.  Alder- 
man Ingledew,  but,  for  family  reasons,  he  took  the  maiden 
name  of  his  mother,  who  belonged  to  Pickhill,  Yorkshire. 
The  deceased  gentleman  was  63  years  of  age,  and  was 
born  in  Dean  Street,  over  the  offices  he  occupied  up  to  his 
death.  He  served  his  articles  as  a  solicitor  with  his 
father,  and  was  admitted  a  practitioner  in  1848.  He 
represented  St.  Nicholas'  Ward  in  the  Town  Council  for 
twelve  years,  and  acted  as  Under-Sheriff  during  his 
father's  Shrievalty  in  the  year  1852-53 ;  while  he  was 
Sheriff  himself  in  1870-71.  He  retired  from  the  Council 
in  consequence  of  the  pressure  of  professional  duties  and 
delicate  health,  and  has  since  devoted  himself  exclusively 
to  his  avocations  as  a  solicitor.  He  was  Deputy-Registrar 
of  the  Newcastle  County  Court  under  the  late  Mr.  Brook 
Mortimer,  then  joint  Registrar  with  Mr.  Mortimer,  and 
on  the  death  of  that  gentleman  he  became  Registrar  in 

conjunction  with  his  brother,  Mr.  James  H.  Ingledew. 
On  the  creation  of  the  Newcastle  Bishopric,  Mr.  Daggett 
was  appointed  secretary  to  the  bishop. 

On  the  5th  of  December,  Mr.  George  Dodds,  ex-Mayor 
of  Tynemouth,  and  a  well-known  temperance  advocate, 
died  at  the  residence  of  Mr.  F.  Gascoigne,  his  son-in-law, 
in  Newcastle.  For  many  years  a  resident  at  Cullercoats, 
the  deceased  gentleman  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Tyne- 
mouth Town  Council  in  1877,  and  had  thus  served  eleven 
years  as  an  efficient  and  useful  member  of  that  body. 
He  had  been  a  Guardian  of  the  Poor  in  the  Tynemouth 

MB.   GF.OUGE  DOnilS. 

Union  for  fifteen  years,  and  was  connected  with  most  of 
the  philanthropic  and  benevolent  institutions  in  the 
borough.  Born  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Ouseburn, 
Newcastle,  on  the  19th  of  November,  1810,  he  had  entered 
upon  the  seventy-ninth  year  of  his  age.  To  the  last  he 
retained  bis  connection  with  his  native  town,  in  which 
for  a  long  period  he  carried  on,  successfully,  a  coffee- 
roasting  business.  Mr.  Dodds  first  signed  the  temperance 
pledge  on  the  24th  of  September,  1836.  He  was  the  last 
surviving  member  of  the  original  committee  of  the  New- 
castle Temperance  Society ;  and  on  the  occasion  of  his 
jubilee  as  an  abstainer,  two  years  ago,  he  received  the 
congratulations  of  that  body,  as  well  as  of  the  Tynemouth 
Council,  and  of  his  numerous  other  friends  in  the  district. 
The  deceased  gentleman  was  also  a  keen  politician,  and 
took  an  active  part  in  the  agitation  which  preceded  the 
Reform  Bill  of  1832. 

On  the  5th  of  December,  Mr.  Joseph  Jordon  died  at 
his  residence,  Burney  Villa,  James  Street,  Gateshead. 
For  the  last  quarter  of  a  century  he  took  an  active  interest 
in  the  Gateshead  Dispensary,  and  for  the  last  few  years 
acted  as  secretary.  The  deceased  gentleman  was  about 
60  years  of  age. 

Mr.  H.  J.  Trotter,  M.P.  for  Colchester,  son  of  the 
late  William  Trotter,  of  Bishop  Auckland,  died  on  the 
6th  of  December,  at  the  age  of  52  years. 

On  the  same  day,  Mr.  W.  Havelock,  land  agent  and 
timber  valuer,  died  at  his  residence  in  Hencote  Street. 

January  1 
1889.     j 



Hexham,  in  the  69th  year  of  his  age.  The  office  of 
forester  to  the  Greenwich  Hospital  Commissioners  had 
been  held  by  deceased  and  his  fore-elders  for  three  gen- 

born  at  Matfen,  Northumberland,  on  the  2nd  of  January, 
18W,  and  has  been  a  member  of  the  Council  since  1876, 
while  in  1880-81  he  occupied  the  position  of  Sheriff. 

XUorrtt  at 


NOVEMBER,  1888. 

6.  —  It  was  reported  that  some  interesting  experiments 
had  been  conducted  at  the  works  of  Messrs.  Bell,  near 
Middlesbrough,   with  a  new    blasting  material,   named 
"Bellite,  "  the  invention  of  a  Swedish  chemist. 

7.  —  It  was  announced  that  Sir  Lowthian  Bell  had  been 
appointed  by  the  Prince  of  Wales  vice-chairman  of  the 
Organising  Committee  of  the  Imperial  Institute. 

8.  —  Mr.  Joseph  Baxter  Ellis,  on  the  eve  of  the  termina- 
tion of  his  year  of  office  as  Sheriff,  was  entertained  to 


dinner  by  the  members  of  the  Newcastle  Corporation,  at 
the  Duuglas  Hotel,  the  chair  being  occupied  by  Mr. 
Alderman  Newton. 

— Dr.  F.  R.  Lees,  of  Leeds,  delivered  a  lecture  on 
"The  Philosophy  of  Temperance,"  in  the  hall  of  the 
Young  Men's  Christian  Association,  Newcastle. 

9.— The  election  of  Mayors  and  other  municipal  officers 
for  the  ensuing  year  took  place  throughout  the  North  of 
England.  In  accordance  with  an  arrangement  previously 
arrived  at,  the  choice  of  Mayor,  in  the  case  of  Newcastle, 
fell  unanimously  upon  Mr.  Thomas  Richardson,  who  was 
proposed  by  Mr.  Alderman  Hamond,  and  seconded  by 
Mr.  J.  G.  Youll.  Mr.  Richardson,  corn  merchant,  was 

Equally  unanimous  to  the  shrievalty,  on  this  occasion, 
was  the  election  of  Mr.  William  Suttun,  draper,  who  is  t\ 
native  of  Langholm,  Dumfriesshire,  where  he  was  born 
0:1  the  19th  of  December,  1837.  He  entered  the  Council 




as  a  representative  of  Jesmond  Ward  on  the  1st  of  No- 
vember, 1878.  At  Gateshead,  Mr.  Alderman  John  Lucas 
was,  without  opposition,  elected  chief -magistrate.  About 
fifty  years  of  age,  Mr.  Lucas  is  a  native  of  Eighton  Banks, 
and  was  first  elected  a  member  of  the  Town  Council, 

Gateshead,  in  1868.  The  mayoral  elections  in  the  other 
local  towns  were — South  Shields,  Mr.  Alderman  Scott : 
Stockton,  Mr.  Alderman  Nelson  ;  Darlington,  Mr.  W. 
Harding ;  Tynemouth.  Mr.  R.  Collins ;  Jarrow,  Mr. 
Alderman  Berkley  ;  Morpeth,  Mr.  William  Clarkson ; 
Sunderland,  Mr.  Alderman  Barnes  ;  Durham,  Mr.  Alder- 
man Boyd  ;  Middlesbrough,  Mr.  Raylton  Dixon  ;  Hartle- 
pool,  Mr.  R.  C.  Black ;  West  Hartlepool,  Mr.  Alderman 
Pyman  ;  and  Berwick,  Commander  Norman,  R.N. 

10. — The  usual  winter  series  of  People's  Concerts  com- 
menced in  the  Town  Hall,  Newcastle. 

— As  President  of  the  Durham  College  of  Science  in 
Newcastle,  Dr.  Lake,  Dean  of  Durham  and  Warden  of 
the  University,  issued  an  appeal  for  subscriptions  on 
behalf  of  the  College,  a  sum  of  not  less  than  £20,000 
being  required  to  place  it  in  a  sound  financial  position. 

12.— The  Rev.  Dr.  Dallinger,  the  well-known  Wesleyan 
minister  and  scientist,  lectured  on  a  scientific  topic  in 

13.— The  brig  Granite,  of  West  Hartlepool,  was 
wrecked  at  the  mouth  of  the  Tees,  all  hands,  eight  in 
number,  being  drowned.  Miss  Strover,  sister  of  the 
registrar  of  Hartlepool  County  Court,  while  witnessing 
the  ineflectual  attempts  of  the  lifeboat  to  save  the  men, 
fell  dead  from  excitement. 

— Benjamin  Dunnell,  36  years  of  age,  was  committed 
for  trial  by  the  Newcastle  magistrates,  on  a  charge  of 

attempting  to  murder  Margaret  Cooper.  On  the  24th, 
he  was  sentenced  to  five  years'  penal  servitude  by  Mr. 
Baron  Pollock. 

14-. — In  the  House  of  Commons,  in  answer  to  a  question 
by  Mr.  Milvain,  Mr.  Matthews,  Home  Secretary,  stated 
that  there  had  been  a  careful  inquiry  and  report  on  the 
subject  of  the  burglary  at  Edlingham  Vicarage,  near 
Alnwick,  in  Northumberland,  for  which  offence  two  men 
were  convicted  in  1879,  and  had  since  been  in  penal  ser- 
vitude. The  circumstances  elicited  were  most  singular 
and  unprecedented.  After  careful  consideration,  he  had 
directed  criminal  proceedings  to  be  taken  against  two 
others,  and  he  had  ordered  the  two  men  who  were  con- 
victed in  1879  to  be  released  on  license.  Michael  Bran- 
nagan  and  Peter  Murphy,  the  two  prisoners  set  at  liberty, 
arrived  at  Alnwick  from  Dartmoor  on  the  16th,  and  met 
with  a  most  enthusiastic  reception  from  their  relatives 
and  the  inhabitants  generally.  On  the  previous  day  the 
other  two  men,  George  Edgell,  46,  and  Charles  Richard- 
son, 55  years  of  age,  were  apprehended  by  the  Aluwick 
police,  and  remanded  on  the  charge  of  having,  on  their 
own  confession,  been  implicated  in  the  burglary.  The 
gentlemen  who  had  been  chiefly  instrumental  in  bringing 
to  light  the  true  circumstances  of  the  extraordinary  case 
were  the  Rev.  J.  J.  M.  Perry,  vicar  of  St.  Paul's,  Aln- 
wick, and  Mr.  C.  Percy,  solicitor,  of  the  same  town.  Eg- 
dell  and  Richardson  were  committed  for  trial  on  the  21st; 
and  on  being  brought  before  Mr.  Baron  Pollock,  at  the 
Northumberland  Assizes,  on  the  24th,  they  pleaded  guilty 
to  the  burglary,  and  were  each  sentenced  to  five  years' 
penal  servitude.  In  the  House  of  Commons,  on  the  3rd 
of  December,  in  answer  to  Mr.  Milvain,  the  Home 
Secretary  stated  that  a  "free  pardon  "  had  been  granted 
to  Murphy  and  Brannagan,  and  that  he  had  obtained  the 
sanction  of  the  Treasury,  under  the  exceptional  circum- 
stances of  the  case,  to  offer  £800  to  each  man  as  pecuniary 

15. — A  coroner's  jury  in  London  returned  a  verdict  of 
unsound  mind  in  the  case  of  Mr.  William  Snowden  Robin- 
son, one  of  the  senior  solicitors  practising  in  Sunderland, 
who  had  committed  suicide  by  shooting  himself  at  High- 
bury, whither  he  had  gone  on  a  visit. 

— At  a  meeting  of  delegates  of  the  Northumberland 
Miners'  Union,  it  was  decided  to  ask  for  an  advance  of 
wages  to  the  extent  of  15  per  cent.  The  owners  decided 
to  offer  an  advance  of  5  per  cent,  at  hard  coal  collieries, 
and  2i  per  cent,  at  soft  coal  collieries.  These  terms  were 
eventually  accepted  by  the  men. 

16. — It  was  announced  that  Mrs.  McGrady,  of  Monk- 
wearmouth,  who  had  given  birth  to  four  children,  had 
received  £4,  the  Queen's  bounty.  (See  vol.  ii.,  page  574.) 
This,  according  to  the  Newcastle  Daily  Chronicle,  was 
the  only  authenticated  instance  in  England  of  a  woman 
having  borne  four  children  at  a  birth. 

— During  a  violent  storm  of  wind,  a  little  girl  named 
Ethel  Pender,  six  years  of  age,  was  blown  into  the  middle 
of  the  street  at  Gateshead,  and  was  killed  by  a  passing 
vehicle.  A  good  deal  of  damage  was  done  to  property  in 
Newcastle  and  district.  The  gale  was  renewed  with  great 
violence  on  the  22nd,  when  a  boy  named  Young,  six  years 
old,  was  killed  by  the  fall  of  the  chimney  connected  with 
the  school  at  Stargate  Colliery  Village,  in  the  parish  of 

18. — George  Macdonald,  a  cartman,  died  at  Blaydon, 
from  the  effects  of  injuries  to  his  head,  inflicted  by 
Edward  Tench,  during  a  quarrel,  on  the  16th.  The  man 

January  | 




Tench  pleaded  guilty  to  the  charge  of  manslaughter, 
before  Mr.  Baron  Pollock,  at  Durham  Assizes,  and  was 
sentenced  to  ten  months'  hard  labour. 

19.— The  result  of  the  triennial  election  of  the  Gates- 
head  School  Board  was  announced,  the  Rev.  W.  Moore 
Ede,  Rector,  being  at  the  head  of  the  poll.  The  consti- 
tution of  the  Board  remained  practically  unchanged. 

— A  handcuffed  prisoner,  named  William  Singleton,  33 
years  of  age,  who  had  been  conveyed  to  Wallsend  Rail- 
way Station  for  removal  to  Tynemouth,  suddenly  threw 
himself  upon  the  line,  and  was  run  over  by  a  passing 
train,  his  injuries  being  such  that  he  died  in  a  few  hours 
at  the  Newcastle  Infirmary. 

— Dr.  R,  S.  Watson  sat  as  arbitrator  in  reference  to  an 
application  for  an  advance  of  Is.  per  ton  in  connection 
with  the  North  of  England  Iron  Trade.  As  the  result  of 
the  arbitration,  he  awarded  an  advance  of  5  per  cent,  on 
tonnage  rates,  and  6d.  per  ton  on  puddling.  The  men's 
claim  was  10  per  cent. 

21. — A  new  Wesleyan  Methodist  Chapel  was  opened  in 
Newport  Road,  Middlesbrough. 

— Earl  Spencer,  formerly  Lord-Lieutenant  of  Ireland, 
addressed  a  political  meeting  in  the  Assembly  Rooms, 
North  Shields. 

22. — The  steamship  Vauxhall,  of  London,  was  sunk  by 
collision  with  the  steamer  Prudhoe  Castle,  in  Shields 
Harbour,  but,  happily,  no  lives  were  lost. 

23. — Lord  Armstrong,  who  had  come  forward  as  a  can- 
didate for  the  representation  of  the  Rothbury  Division  on 
the  Northumberland  County  Council,  addressed  a  public 
meeting  at  Rothbury,  giving  some  interesting  reminis- 
cences of  his  early  connection  with  Cragside. 

24.— At  the  Newcastle  Assizes,  Edward  Tait,  21,  fitter, 
was  sentenced  to  four  months'  imprisonment  for  the  man- 
slaughter of  his  brother,  David  Tait,  in  Newcastle. 

— John  Dove  and  Elizabeth  Dove,  husband  and  wife, 
who  had  been  committed  for  trial  on  the  charge  of  the 
manslaughter  of  their  daughter,  Minnie  Dove,  were  ac- 
quitted at  Newcastle  Assizes,  before  Mr.  Baron  Pollock. 

26. — Mr.  J.  G.  Youll,  solicitor,  was  elected  an  alder- 
man of  the  Newcastle  City  Council. 

27. — During  the  prevalence  of  a  severe  storm,  a  fishing 
boat  from  Alnmouth,  belonging  to  George  Richardson, 
was  capsised,  and  Robert  Richardson,  one  of  three  bro- 
thers, was  drowned. 

— At  a  conference,  held  in  Newcastle,  of  representatives 
of  the  medical  charities  and  others,  it  was  decided  that  a 
subscription  be  opened  to  found  an  institution  to  be  de- 
signated the  North  of  England  Samaritan  Society,  with 
the  object  of  supplying  medical  and  surgical  appliances, 
&c.,  to  the  deserving  poor. 

29. — At  the  Durham  Assizes,  William  Waddle  was 
sentenced  to  death  by  Mr.  Baron  Pollock,  for  the  murder 
of  Jane  Beetmoor,  or  Savage,  at  Birtley  Fell,  on  the 
22nd  of  September.  (See  vol.  ii.,  page  526.) 

— Mr.  Gainsford  Bruce,  Q.C.,  son  of  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Bruce,  of  Newcastle,  author  of  "  The  Roman  Wall,"  was 
returned  to  Parliament,  as  member  for  the  Holborn 
Division  of  Finsbury,  in  succession  to  the  late  Colonel 

— Sir  William  Vernon  Harcourt  presided  at  the  annual 
dinner  of  the  Newcastle  Liberal  Club,  and  in  the  evening 
addressed  a  meeting  in  the  Town  Hall.  The  right  hon. 
gentleman  spoke  on  the  following  evening  at  a  meeting 
at  Darlington. 

30.— Voting  papers,  to  the  number  of  85,000,  were 
issued  to  the  owners  of  property  and  ratepayers  in  New- 
castle for  the  purpose  of  ascertaining  whether  a  majority 
were  in  favour  of  triennial  instead  of  annual  elections  of 
Guardians.  On  the  papers  being  examined,  it  was  found 
that  9,428  voted  in  favour  of  triennial,  and  5,921  for 
annual  elections. 


1.— The  Durham  Salt  Company  was  registered  at 
Somerset  House,  with  a  capital  of  £200,000. 

3.— Mrs.  Ashton  W.  Dilke,  widow  of  a  former  member 
for  Newcastle,  was  present  and  spoke  at  the  annual 

meeting  of  the  Newcastle  and  Gateshead  Women's 
Liberal  Association. 

4. — A  Jewish  Young  Men's  Improvement  Association 
was  inaugurated  in  Newcastle. 

—It  was  announced  that  Mr.  J.  Baxter  Ellis  had  ac- 
cepted the  office  of  chairman  of  the  Botanical  and  Hor- 
ticultural Society  of  Newcastle,  Northumberland,  and 

—The  first  launch  took  place  from  the  new  shipbuilding 
yard  of  Messrs.  W.  Gray  and  Co.,  West  Hartlepool. 

5. —The  shareholders  of  the  High  Gosforth  Park  Com- 
pany, at  an  extraordinary  meeting,  resolved  to  reduce  the 
capital  from  £100,000  to  £60,000,  the  shares  in  future  to 
rank  as  of  £30  instead  of  £50. 



6. — It  was  announced  that,  in  view  of  the  demand  for 
higher  education  at  a  reasonable  coat,  the  managers  of  the 
Wesleyan  Orphan  House  Elementary  Day  School,  New- 
castle, had  decided  to  replace  it  by  a  Science  and  Art 
School,  under  the  regulations  of  the  Science  and  Art 
Department,  with  Mr.  J.  S.  Chippindale  as  head  master. 

4.— Mr.  and  Mrs.  F.  J.  W.  Collingwood,  of  Glanton 
Pike,  Northumberland,  celebrated  their  golden  wedding. 

6. — The  magistrates  at  Bedlington,  on  the  application 
of  Mr.  Richard  Fynes,  as  lessee,  granted  a  full  license  to 
the  new  Theatre  Royal  at  Blyth. 

7.— At  a  special  meeting  of  the  Cowpen  Local  Board,  it 
was  unanimously  decided  to  light  Cowpen  township  with 
electricity,  at  a  cost  of  £575  per  annum. 

8.— Mr.  R.  S.  Donkin,  M.P.,  opened  a  new  Church 
of  England  Working  Men's  Club,  in  Tyne  Street,  North 

9. — In  the  Tyne  Theatre,  Newcastle,  Mr.  Arthur 
Nicols,  F.G.S.,  lectured,  under  the  auspices  of  the  Tyne- 

side  Sunday  Lecture  Society,  on  "  How  did  the  World 
liepin.  and  how  will  it  end  ?  Ancient  Beliefs  and  Modern 
Science."  There  was  a  crowded  audience,  the  chair 
being  occupied  by  Mr.  Alderman  Barkas. 

General  ©entrances. 

NOVEMBER,  1888. 

14. — Thirty  miners  were  killed  by  an  explosion  of  fire- 
damp in  the  Frederick  Pit,  Dour,  Belgium. 

— Information  was  received  that  Mr.  Jasper  Douglas 
Pyne,  M.P.  for  Waterford  West,  had  been  drowned 
whilst  crossing  in  a  steamer  from  Dublin  to  Holyhead. 

15. — The  marriage  of  Mr.  Joseph  Chamberlain,  M.P., 
with  Miss  Mary  Endicott,  daughter  of  the  American 
Secretary  for  War,  was  solemnized  at  St.  John's  Church, 
Washington,  United  States. 

19. — The  Empress  Frederick  of  Prussia,  with  her 
daughters,  arrived  in  England  on  a  visit  to  her  mother, 
Queen  Victoria. 

21. — Another  outrage  was  reported  from  the  East  End 
of  London.  An  intoxicated  woman  was  attacked  by  a 
man  in  a  lodging-house  with  a  knife.  He  only  succeeded 
in  inflicting  a  slight  wound  in  the  throat  before  she  gave 
the  alarm.  Though  followed  for  a  distance,  the  criminal 
managed  to  get  away. 

About  this  time  storms  were  frequent  on  the  East 
Coast,  many  shipwrecks  and  much  loss  of  life  being  re- 

23. — A  farmer  named  Dennis  Daly  was  murdered  near 
Gloun-na-Geentlay,  near  Tralee,  county  Kerry,  Ireland. 

23. — Death  of  Major  Purcell  O'Gorman,  who  sat  in  the 
House  of  Commons  for  several  years,  and  enjoyed  the 
distinction  of  being  the  biggest  man  in  the  House.  He 
was  one  of  the  supporters  of  Dr.  Kenealy  when  that  mem- 
ber applied  for  a  Royal  Commission  to  inquire  into  the 
Tichborne  case. 

24. — O'Connor  beat  Teemer  in  a  sculling  match  on  the 
Potomac  River,  United  States.  On  the  26th,  Beach 
defeated  Hanlan  on  the  Paramatta  River,  Australia. 

26. — At  Betley,  Staffordshire,  a  pointsman  named 
James  Jervis  murdered  his  wife  and  two  children,  and 
took  his  own  life. 

— A  boy  named  Serle,  aged  13,  was  murdered  at 
Havaut.  Suspicion  fell  upon  a  lad  named  Husband,  who 
was  arrested  and  charged  with  the  crime. 

30. — Several  sittings  of  the  Parnell  Commission  were 
held  during  November,  and  much  important  evidence 
was  given  concerning  outrages  and  murders  in  Ireland. 


2. — Mr.  Cunninghame  Graham,  M.P.,  was  ordered  to 
withdraw  from  the  House  of  Commons  by  the  Speaker, 
in  consequence  of  having  characterised  the  refusal  of 
Mr.  W.  H.  Smith  to  give  a  day  for  the  discussion  of  a 
certain  motion  as  "  a  dishonourable  trick." 

— A  demonstration  took  place  in  Paris,  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Municipal  Council,  in  honour  of  M. 
Baudin,  a  deputy  who  was  killed  at  the  time  of  the  Coup 
d'etat,  December  2,  1852. 

3. — Prompt  measures  were  taken  by  the  British 
Government  for  the  relief  of  Suakim,  on  the  Red  Sea, 
that  town  having  been  besieged  for  a  considerable  time  by 

7. — Richard  Wake,  an  artist  for  the  Graphic,  was  killed 
by  an  Arab  bullet  whilst  making  sketches  at  Suakim. 

9. — A  daring  attempt  to  carry  out  lynch  law  took  place 
in  the  mining  town  of  Birmingham,  Alabama,  United 
States.  A  mob  demanded  the  officers  of  the  gaol  to  give 
up  a  prisoner  who  had  murdered  his  wife  and  children. 
This  was  refused.  Firing  was  at  once  commenced,  and 
about  twenty  of  the  mob  were  killed  or  wounded.  During 
the  encounter  the  sheriff  turned  a  Galling  gun  on  the 

Printed  by  WALTER  SCOTT,  Felling-on-Tyne. 





VOL.  III.— No.  24. 

FEBRUARY,  1889. 


<£vtittct  milts  3mmaI0  tit  the 

ILTHOUGH  at  the  present  time  this  country, 
from  its  increased  population  and  the  waste 
lands  being  brought  under  cultivation,  is 
entirely  free  from  the  large  and  more 
dangerous  forms  of  ferae  natura?,  yet  in  days  gone 
by  the  Northern  Counties  of  England,  which  were  one 
vast  range  of  forest  and  fell,  teemed  with  animals  living  in 
a  state  of  nature. 

Long  after  the  Roman  occupation  wolves  were  so 
numerous  in  the  North  that  in  the  10th  century,  during 
Athelstan's  reign,  roadside  retreats  were  erected  in  York- 
shire for  the  protection  of  travellers  from  the  attacks  of 
the  savage  brutes.  For  some  centuries  later  the  wolds 
of  Yorkshire  and  the  great  forests  of  Lancashire 
were  over-run  with  these  animals.  Even  down 
to  the  15th  century,  during  the  reign  of  Henry  VI., 
Robert  Umfraville  held  the  castle  of  Herboteil 
and  manor  of  Otterburn,  in  Northumberland,  of  the 
King  by  the  service  of  keeping  the  valley  and  liberty  of 
Kiddesdale  free  from  the  ravages  of  wolves  which  infested 
the  great  Northumbrian  forests.  It  is  supposed  the 
last  of  these  animals  in  England  was  slain  during 
the  reign  of  Henry  VII. 

A  few  years  ago  Mr.  James  Backhouse,  ot  York, 
assisted  by  his  sons,  discovered  in  a  limestone  cave, 
situated  on  a  ridge  of  hills  separating  Weardale  and 
Teesdale,  in  the  county  of  Durham,  and  about  500  feet 
above  the  valley  of  the  Tees,  a  perfect  skeleton  of  a  wolf, 
with  bones  of  other  members  of  this  species,  besides  bones 
of  the  lynx,  wild  cat,  yellow-breasted  martin,  wild  boar, 
red  and  roe  deer,  and  other  animals  still  living  in  the 
district ;  but  no  remains  of  pre-historic  animals  were 
found  in  this  cave.  Quite  recently  bones  of  the  wolf, 
•wild  boar,  bear,  wild  cat,  and  Boi  primigenms  have 

been  discovered  in  the  peat  moss  and  the  limestone  caves 
of  Cumberland  and  Westmoreland,  thus  undoubtedly 
proving  that  these  animals  were  distributed  throughout 
the  Northern  Counties  in  former  times. 

The  wild  boar,  which  was  one  of  the  beasts  of  the  chase 
of  the  ancient  Britons,  who  had  it  represented  on 
their  coins,  roamed  contemporaneously  with  the  wolf,  as 
the  numerous  skulls  and  other  bones  found  in  the  peat 
mosses  of  Northumberland,  Cumberland,  and  Westmore- 
land, and  the  many  relics  of  these  animals  discovered  in 
Teesdale  caves  and  other  similar  limestone  caves,  bear 
testimony.  Some  immense  boars'  tusks,  now  preserved  in 
Middletou  Hall,  near  Wooler,  were  discovered  in  Cress- 
well  Moss,  Northumberland  ;  and,  on  the  discovery  of  the 
Roman  Station  at  the  La  we,  South  Shields,  several  perfect 
tusks  of  the  boar,  with  broken  antlers  and  bones  of  red 
deer,  roebuck,  oxen,  and  other  animals  were  found  and 
transferred  to  the  Public  Library  Museum  of  that  town. 

In  the  parish  church  of  Stanhope,  in  the  county  of  Dur- 
ham, is  preserved  a  Roman  altar  found  on  Bollihope  Com- 
mon, bearing  the  inscription  that  it  was  dedicated  to  the 
god  Silvanus,  by  Caius  Tetius,  Veturius  Micianus,  com- 
mander of  a  wing  of  cavalry,  in  consequence  of  his  having 
taken  a  wild  boar  of  extraordinary  size  which  many  of  his 
predecessors  had  in  vain  endeavoured  to  capture.  A 
similar  altar  has  been  discovered  in  Northumberland 
dedicated  to  the  same  deity  by  the  hunters  of  Banna. 
The  village  of  Brancepeth,  about  five  miles  south-west  of 
Durham,  is  supposed  to  have  taken  its  name  from  Brawns- 
path,  the  path  of  an  enormous  boar,  which  for  years  was 
the  terror  of  the  surrounding  district.  Ultimately  it  was 
beguiled  into  a  pit  fall,  and  slain  by  Roger  de  Ferie  with 
his  sword.  An  old  grey  stone,  supposed  to  be  the  remnant 
of  a  cross  in  the  township  of  Feery  (now  Ferry  Hill)  is  said 



to  commemorate  the  successful  adventure  of  Roger  de 
Ferie,  whose  posterity  occur  in  the  freehold  records  as  late 
as  1617.  The  village  of  Brandon,  near  Brancepeth,  is 
said  to  derive  its  name  from  Brawnsden  or  Boarsden. 

The  last  positive  information  we  have  regarding  these 
animals  in  the  above-named  county  are  from  the  accounts 
of  the  bursar  of  the  Monastry  of  Durham,  for  payments 
made  for  bringing  in  wild  boars,  dating  from  1531  to  1533. 
We  have  no  authentic  records  when  these  animals  were 
finally  extirpated  from  English  soil ;  but  that  they  existed 
in  the  great  forests  of  Lancashire  and  Westmoreland  well 
into  the  17th  century,  we  have  historic  evidence  to  show. 
Previous  to  the  introduction  of  firearms  many  a  swarthy 
tusker  flourished  in  the  vast  oak  forests  and  reedy  coverts 
of  these  Northern  Counties. 

The  stag,  or  red  deer,  now  only  met  with  in  all  its  freedom 
among  the  wild  scenery  of  the  Highlands  of  Scotland  and 
some  of  the  Western  Isles,  was  formerly  numerous  through- 
out the  extensive  forests  of  the  North-Country.  They 
must  have  been  relatively  plentiful  in  Northumberland 
and  Durham,  for  on  the  discovery  of  the  Roman  station  at 
South  Shields,  as  I  have  already  stated,  quantities  of  broken 
antlers  and  other  remains  were  found.  Thus  it  would 
appear  that  venison  had  been  largely  used  as  food  by  the 
Roman  conquerors.  A  great  many  perfect  antlers  of  red 
deer  have  been,  from  time  to  time,  brought  up  from 
the  bed  of  the  Tyne  by  the  dredgers.  Some  that  I  have 
seen  were  in  a  very  perfect  condition,  and,  judging  from 
their  partially-fossilised  state,  must  have  lain  long  in  the 
river  bed.  Red  deer  must  have  lingered  longer  in  the 
North-West  Counties  after  their  disappearance  from  the 
Northern  Counties,  for  it  is  recorded  that  the  last  of  these 
animals  were  destroyed  in  the  great  forest  of  Bowland  in 
Lancashire  in  1805. 

The  roe  buck,  like  the  red  deer,  is  unknown  in  a  wild 
state  south  of  the  Firth  of  Forth  at  the  present  day. 
Yet  it  lived  coetaneous  with  its  larger  relative,  its  bones 
and  antlers  having  been  found  in  the  same  caves  and  peat 
mosses  with  those  of  the  red  deer. 

During  the  post-glacial  age,  reindeer  roamed  throughout 
the  length  and  breadth  of  the  British  Isles,  and  they 
have  left  their  remains  in  the  peat  mosses  and  river 
deposits  of  the  North,  as  well  as  in  other  districts  of  the 
country.  Their  disappearance  would  seem  to  be  due  to 
climatic  changes,  as  several  attempts  have  been  made  to 
introduce  them  into  the  Highlands  of  Scotland  ;  but  in 
every  instance  they  have  failed.  Even  at  the  present  day 
the  reindeer  of  Swedish  and  Norwegian  Lapland  are 
gradually  retreating  further  north  within  the  Arctic 

Antlers  of  the  European  elk  (Cervus  alecs),  an  animal 
at  present  confined  to  northern  Europe,  were  found  in 
Chirden  Burn,  North  Tyne.  They  are  now  preserved  in 
the  pal;eon  tological  department  of  the  Museum  of  Natural 
History,  Newcastle-on-Tyne.  Other  remains  of  Cerna 
alecs  have  been  met  with  in  the  neighbouring  counties, 

and  a  skull  with  the  antlers  attached  was  found  in 
Whitrig  Bog,  Berwickshire.  This  find  is  now  in  the 
museum  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland  in 

Going  back  to  prehistoric  times,  we  find  that  the 
gigantic  Irish  deer  (Cervus  megaceris  giganteus),  so 
named  from  the  abundance  of  its  remains  found  in  the 
shell  marl  and  peat  bogs  of  Ireland,  once  ranged  through 
the  forests  of  the  Northern  Counties.  Its  bones  have  been 
discovered  in  Northumberland  and  Durham,  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Tees,  and  at  South  Shields.  The  jaws  and 
other  bones  of  this  beast  unearthed  at  Shields  were 
deposited  on  the  boulder-clay,  beneath  the  peat  and  brick 
earth.  They  are  now  in  the  Newcastle  Museum. 

Bos  primigeniui  (the  Urus  of  Ceesar)  must  once  have 
been  plentiful  from  the  number  of  its  remains  found  in  the 
peat  mosses  of  the  North.  Two  skulls  of  this  gigantic 
extinct  ox,  with  their  horn  cores  attached,  in  the 
possession  of  Mr.  Robert  Blair,  South  Shields,  were  dug 
out  of  Jarrow  Slake  near  that  town.  Skulls  of  the  extinct 
Bos  longifrons,  in  the  Public  Library  Museum,  South 
Shields,  were  found  amongst  other  animal  remains  at  the 
Roman  station  at  the  Lawe. 

We  have  it  in  evidence  that  the  European  lynx  had  its 
habitation  in  these  Northern  Counties,  from  its  well-pre- 
served bones  found  in  conjunction  with  the  bones  of  wolf, 
wild  boar,  wild  cat,  and  others  in  the  Teesdale  cave. 
Upwards  of  a  century  ago,  the  wild  cat  was  not  uncommon 
in  the  North  of  England,  but,  at  the  present  time,  it  is  con- 
fined to  the  Northern  Highlands  of  Scotland.  The  last 
recorded  instance  of  its  capture  in  Northumberland  was  of 
one  being  killed  on  the  Eslington  estate,  belonging  to  the 
Earl  of  Ravensworth,  nearly  fifty  years  ago. 

The  yellow-breasted  marten,  now  restricted  to  the 
Highland  forests  of  Scotland  and  Wales,  and  the  woods  of 
Lincolnshire,  with  a  few  individuals  which  still  linger 
among  the  mountainous  crags  of  Cumberland,  formerly 
inhabited  these  parts.  Its  remains  have  been  found 
in  Teesdale  cave,  and  in  the  more  recently  discovered 
sea  cave  at  Whitburn  Lizards,  near  Marsden.  A  yellow- 
breasted  martin  was  caught  in  the  grounds  of  West 
Chirton  House,  near  North  Shields,  on  May  23,  1883.  In 
the  following  week  another  animal  of  this  species  was 
taken  in  a  trap  at  Harehope,  near  Alnwick,  North- 
umberland. Doubtless  these  two  animals,  a  male  and 
female,  caught  within  a  week  of  each  other,  had  strayed 
away  from  their  haunts  in  the  Cumberland  hills.  The 
one  taken  at  Chirton  came  into  my  possession  a  few  days 
after  its  capture.  It  was  fierce  and  intractable,  burying 
itself  in  the  hay  of  its  bed,  and  refusing  all  food 
when  looked  at.  Although  it  lived  nearly  two 
years  in  confinement,  it  never  lost  its  savage  wildness. 
Previous  to  these  captures  the  last  instance  on  record  of 
the  yellow-breasted  marten  seen  in  Northumberland  was 
one  which  had  taken  up  its  abode  in  a  crow's  nest  near 
Rothbury  about  60  years  ago. 

February  I 
1889.       f 



The  foumart  or  pole  oat  is  now  almost,  if  not  already, 
extirpated  from  out  the  counties  of  Durham  and  North- 
umberland. A  few  yet  remain  among  the  crags  of  Cum- 
berland and  Westmoreland. 

The  European  bear  (Ursus  aretoi)  and  the  beaver 
existed  in  this  country  within  historic  times,  and  many  of 
the  first-named  animals  were  imported  into  Imperial 
Rome  for  the  gladiatorial  shows.  Few  remains  of  either 
of  these  animals  have  been  discovered  in  the  Northern 
Counties.  A  perfect  skull  and  some  bones  of  the 
Caledonian  bear  found  in  the  peat  at  Shaws,  Dumfries- 
shire, are  now  in  the  museum  of  the  Society  of 
Antiquaries,  Edinburgh.  The  jaws  of  the  beaver  found 
in  the  marl  in  Loch  Maree,  near  Cupar-Angus,  are 
deposited  in  the  same  museum.  Other  remains  of  the 
beaver  have  been  found  in  Dumfriesshire,  Roxburghshire, 
Berwickshire,  and  in  Sedbergh  and  other  places  in 
Yorkshire.  WM.  YELLOWLT. 




IATLING  STREET  began,  on  the  coast  of 

Kent,  with  three  short  branches  converging 
on  Canterbury,  those  from  Dover  (Dubris), 
Richborough  (Rutupium),  and  Limpnie  (Por- 
tus  Lemanus)  respectively,  and  then  it  went  on  to  London 
(Ijondinium),  from  which,  as  now,  a  number  of  distinct 
lines  of  road  diverged.  Then  by  way  of  St.  Albans, 
Dunstable,  Wroxeter,  and  other  towns,  sixteen  or  seven- 
teen in  all,  the  Watling  Street  arrived  at  Abergwyngregyn 
(now  simply  Aber),  once  the  residence  of  the  native 
princes  of  North  Wales,  and  Bangor,  on  the  banks  of  the 
Menai  Strait,  whence  there  were  ferries  across  to  the  Isle 
of  Angelsey  (Mona),  the  chief  seat  of  the  Druids.  This 
line  coincided  for  a  considerable  part  of  the  way  with  the 
old  Irish  mail  route  from  London  to  Holyhead.  At  a 
place  which  the  Romans  called  Etiocetum,  now  Wall,  in 
Staffordshire,  a  branch  called  the  Via  Devana,  left  the 
Holyhead  line,  and  proceeded  westward  to  Chester 
(Deva),  then  a  much  more  important  place  than  it  now  is. 
From  Chester  the  Watling  Street  came  on  by  Northwich, 
where  the  Romans  made  good  use  of  the  copious  brine 
springs,  and  passed  Knutsford  and  Altringham,  nearly 
on  the  line  of  the  Cheshire  Railways,  to  Manchester 
(Mancunium),  where  it  crossed  the  Mersey ;  thence  over 
the  moors  by  Ilkley  (Olicana),  Masham,  Hornby,  and 
Catterick  (Cataractonum)  to  a  ford  over  the  river  Tees 
near  Piercebridge  (Ad  Tisam),  where  it  entered  the  county 
of  Durham. 

From  Piercebridge,  the  Watling  Street  passed  away 
nearly  north,  through  a  rich  and  interesting  country,  in 
the  direction  of  Auckland,  almost  on  the  line  of  the  old 
highway,  to  Binchester  (Vinovium  or  Vinovia),  then  a 

town  of  same  extent,  said  to  have  been  the  site  of  a  pot- 
tery which  produced  ware  equal,  if  not  superior,  to  any 
made  in  Britain,  and  popularly  famous  for  the  numerous 
coins  of  the  higher  and  lower  empire  found  there,  called 
Binchester  pennies.  The  Wear  was  crossed  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Willington,  from  whence  the  road  stretched 
due  north  past  Brandon  Hill  to  the  Dearness,  and  so  on 
to  Lanchester  (Epiacum),  where  the  Roman  town  occu- 
pied a  lofty  brow  on  a  tongue  of  land  formed  by  the 
junction  of  two  small  streams  on  the  west  side  of  the 
modern  village.  This  was  a  very  important  place  four- 
teen hundred  years  ago,  as  evidenced  by  the  numerous 
antiquities  dug  up  on  its  site.*  It  had  a  court-house 
(basilica),  aqueducts,  and  public  baths,  and  likewise  an 
arsenal  and  commodious  barracks,  which  latter,  we  are 
told,  were  rebuilt  by  the  Emperor  Gordiauus  when  they 
had  fallen  into  decay.  After  leaving  this  noble  station, 
the  road  ran  past  Leadgate,  and  to  the  westward  of 
Pontop  Pike,  to  Ebchester  (Vindomora),  where  it  crossed 
the  Derwent  into  Northumberland,  and  where  the  re- 
mains of  it  are  still  plainly  to  be  seen,  both  near  the 
modern  village,  and  as  it  ascends  the  hill  opposite,  lead- 
ing to  the  Corstopitum,  now  Corchester,  close  beside  Cor- 
bridge,  where  the  Tyne  was  crossed. 

Corstopitum  was  one  of  the  most  important  towns  on 
the  banks  of  the  Tyne,  not  only  during  the  Roman  period, 
but  for  several  ages  afterwards,  even  down  to  the  terrible 
times  of  the  Scottish  wars.  From  it  the  Watling  Street 
ran,  in  a  generally  straight  line,  nearly  north-north-west, 
through  Northumberland,  over  the  Cheviots,  into  Scot- 
land ;  and  during  the  Middle  Ages  and  down  till  last 
century,  when  other  roads  were  made,  it  continued  to  be 
the  great  central  route  of  communication  between  Eng- 
land and  Scotland.  On  this  account  it  is  probable  that 
the  great  fair  for  live  stock  held  at  Stagshawbank,  near 
Corbridge,  immediately  south  of  the  Roman  Wall,  at 
stated  periods  through  the  year,  has  come  down  to  us 
from  the  time  of  the  Roman  occupation. 

The  Roman  Wall  was  crossed  at  a  place  called  Portgate, 
near  Halton  Chesters  (Hunnum) ;  and  then  the  Watling 
Street  stretched  away,  almost  as  straight  as  the  crow  flies, 
to  Risingham  (Habitancum),  near  Woodburn,  on  the 
Reed.  This  famous  place,  the  name  of  which  signifies 
the  home  of  the  giant,  is  mentioned  by  Sir  Walter  Scott 
in  the  notes  to  "  Rokeby, "  as  it  had  previously  been  by 
Warburton  in  his  account  of  Northumberland,  published 
in  1726,  as  distinguished  by  the  possession  of  the  celebra- 
ted "antic  figure"  of  Robin  of  Reedsdale,  who  is  sup- 
posed to  have  been  a  great  Roman  hunter  in  the  primeval 
British  forest,  t  The  river  Reed  was  here  crossed  over 
to  the  right  bank,  along  which  the  road  proceeded  for  six 
or  seven  miles,  mostly  in  the  line  of  the  old  turnpike, 
past  Troughend,  till  it  crossed  the  river  once  more  at 

*  See  Monthly  Chroniclt,  vol.  it,  page  73. 
t  For  Robin  of  Risineham  gee  Monthly  Chronicle,  vol.  ii.,  p.  63. 



f  February 

The  next  station  was  Bremenium,  now  High  Rochester, 
or  Riechester,  near  Burnhope  Craig,  placed  on  the  brow 
of  a  steep  rugged  hill,  with  walls  seven  feet  in  thickness, 
chequered  with  ashlar  work,  and  defended  by  triple  ram- 
parts of  earth.  It  was  the  strongest  fortress  the  Romans 
possessed  in  Northumberland,  commanding,  as  it  did,  the 
pass  over  the  Cheviots  into  Reedsdale ;  and  before  they 
took  possession  of  it,  it  was  the  chief  fortress  of  that  tribe 
of  the  Brigantes  known  as  the  Ottadini,  whose  couutry  is 
believed  to  have  extended  from  the  Tyne  to  the  Forth, 
along  the  sea  coaat,  and  for  some  distance  inland,  where 
they  bordered  on  another  British  tribe,  inhabiting  Jed 
Forest  and  Teviotdaie — the  Gadeni. 

After  leaving  Rochester,  the  road  ran  straight  north, 
and  made  for  the  border  line  between  England  and  Scot- 
land at  the  head  of  Coquet,  following  the  course  of  the 
Sills  Burn,  crossing  the  wide  waste  of  Thillmoor,  by 
way  of  Gemmelscleugh,  or  Gemmelspath,  reaching  Chew 
Green,  the  Ad  Fines  of  the  Itinerary,  at  the  foot  of  the 
Brown  Hart  Law,  on  a  gently  sloping  hill,  at  the  base  of 
which  the  two  heads  of  the  Coquet  have  their  rise. 
This  is  a  most  wonderful  place,  almost  bewildering  in  the 
intricacy  of  its  fortifications. 

Beyond  Ad  Fines  the  road  bends  round  Brown  Hart 
Law  ;  and  while  doing  so  it  crosses  the  border  line,  and 
from  thence  proceeds  northward,  on  the  back  of  the  range 
of  hills  which  send  down  their  streams  into  the  Cayle, 
near  the  Hindhopes,  on  the  west  of  Blackball  Hill  and 
Resby  Fell ;  thence  by  the  head  of  Skerrysburghope,  and 
onwards  for  Wodenlaw,  the  eastern  base  of  which  it 
skirts,  and  descends  the  mountains  to  the  Cayle,  which 
it  passes  at  Towford.  On  the  top  of  Wodenlaw  there  have 
been  two  forts,  defended  on  the  south-east  by  triple  ram- 
parts for  the  purpose  of  guarding  the  mountain  pass. 
This  elevated  station  commands  a  magnificent  prospect 
on  the  west,  north,  and  east.  Westward  the  whole 
northern  slopes  of  the  Cheviot  range  are  exposed  to  view. 
On  the  north,  the  lofty  range  of  the  Lammermoors  limits 
the  vision,  while  eastward  the  German  Ocean  is  visible. 
Between  Wodenlaw  and  the  summit  of  Soltra  lies  a  beau- 
tiful country,  encircled  by  alpine  summits,  extending  to 
nearly  forty  miles  in  diameter.  Almost  in  the  middle  of 
the  magnificent  scene  the  three-peaked  Eildons  are 
seen  from  base  to  crest. 

The  Watling  Street,  leaving  the  valley  of  the  Cayle 
and  traversing  that  of  the  Oxnam,  past  Street  House  and 
Pennymuir,  reaches  the  Jed,  near  its  junction  with  the 
Teviot,  at  Bonjedward  (Gadanica),  where  there  was 
another  great  central  station.  Then,  crossing  the  Teviot, 
it  runs  over  Lilliard's  Edge,  the  scene  of  the  battle  of 
Ancrurn  Moor,*  to  a  station  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
Eildon  Hills  (the  Trimontium  of  the  Romans).  This 
station  is  understood  to  have  been  at  Eildon,  where  the 
headquarters  of  the  troops  were  established;  and  at 

*  See  vol.  ii.,  page  245. 

Newstead,  a  mile  or  BO  further  on,  immediately  below 
Melrose,  the  numerous  Roman  antiquities  which  are 
found  demonstrate  it  to  have  been  a  large  town  at  least 
down  till  the  close  of  the  fifth  century,  when  the  Romans 
abandoned  Britain.  The  Tweed  was  here  crossed,  it  is 
thought,  by  a  stone  bridge  of  which  the  abutments  were 
once  traceable  on  both  sides  of  the  river. 

Thence  the  Watling  Street  proceeded  northwards  up 
the  west  bank  of  the  Leader,  past  Chester  Lee  and  Black 
Chester  to  Channelkirk,  situated  on  the  southern  slopes 
of  the  Lammermoors.  From  Channelkirk,  where  the  re- 
mains of  the  Roman  camp  are  still  to  be  seen,  the  great 
road  pursued  its  way  over  Soutra  Hill  across  Midlothian 
to  the  site  of  the  modern  city  of  Edinburgh. 

In  many  parts  of  its  course,  both  northwards  and  south 
wards,  the  Watling  Street  is  still  open.  During  the  last 
three-quarters  of  the  eighteenth  century,  and  the  first 
quarter  of  this,  the  cattle  trade  from  Scotland  mostly 
passed  along  it;  and  the  traffic  at  some  times  of  the  year — 
as  after  the  Doune  and  Falkirk  Trysts,  the  largest  fairs  in 
Britain — was  enormous,  the  herds  of  black  Highland 
kyloes  following  one  another,  without  intermission,  for 
days,  on  their  long,  weary  way  southwards  to  the  great 
fair  at  Chipping-Barnet,  near  St.  Albans,  if  not  disposed 
of  elsewhere  on  the  route.  One  need  not  wonder  to  find 
the  road  much  out  up  in  many  places,  considering  for 
what  a  length  of  time  it  continued  to  be  thus  used  with- 
out the  least  pains  being  taken  to  keep  it  in  order  :  con- 
sidering also  that  every  farmer  in  the  vicinity  felt  no 
manner  of  scruple  in  carting  off  stones  from  it,  and  that 
the  county  surveyors  used  the  same  freedom  when  form- 
ing new  statute-labour  or  turnpike  roads. 


CSftcreto  at 

j]ANY  long  years  ago,  before  there  were  any 
ironworks  in  or  near  the  pleasant  village 
of  Tudhoe,  or  any  paper  manufactory  in 
the  neighbourhood,  or  ladies'  seminary, 
or  gentlemen's  boarding  school,  or  even  a  public-house — 
when  the  township  was  entirely  rural,  and  the  principal 
inhabitants  besides  the  vicar  were  the  farmers  who  occu- 
pied the  eight  farms  of  Tudhoe  Hall,  Tudhoe  North 
Farm,  High  Butcher  Race,  Black  Horse,  York  Hill, 
Coldstream,  Tudhoe  Moor,  and  Tudhoe  Mill — a  company 
of  reapers  assembled  at  the  last  named  place,  in  the 
farmer's  kitchen,  to  regale  themselves  on  the  evening  of 
the  concluding  reaping  day  with  a  "  mell  supper  " — the 
North  Country  term  for  the  feast  of  harvest  home.  The 
mell  dolly  or  kirn  babby,  made  of  the  last  cuts  of  corn 
reaped,  gaily  decorated  with  ribbons,  had  been  carried 
home  in  triumph  by  the  women  from  the  harvest  field. 

February  1 


with  merry  shouting,  singing,  and  dancing,  and  duly 
fixed  up  above  the  dresser,  to  remain  there  till  the  next 
year ;  and  the  farmer's  wife  had  had  her  week's  ohurnins' 

hat  forenoon,  so  as  to  have  plenty  of  fresh  butter  to 
regale  the  company  with,  and  there  was  a  whole  pile  of 
barmy  fadges,  of  beef  and  mutton  and  pork  and  home- 
made cheese — everything,  in  short  to  constitute  a  hearty 
hearty,  wholesome,  substantial  supper — while  the  good- 
man  had  laid  in  what  he  deemed  an  adequate  supply  of 
liquids  to  cheer  the  hearts  and  raise  the  spirits  of  the 
assembled  company.  But  either  the  party  was  larger 
than  had  been  expected,  or  they  drank  more  freely  than 
their  host  had  anticipated,  for  the  liquor  was  exhausted 
before  the  thirst  of  some  of  the  older  hands  had  been  fully 
satisfied  ;  so  it  was  agreed  that  each  of  them  should  con- 
tribute a  small  sum,  and  that  one  of  the  company  should 
be  despatched  forthwith  to  the  nearest  public  house  for  a 
fresh  supply.  The  mission  was  entrusted  to  a  poor 
fellow,  a  sort  of  half-wit,  who  was  always  ready  to  go 
on  anybody's  chance  errands.  He  was  directed  to  go  to 
Sunderland  Bridge,  which  was  about  a  mile  and  a  half 
distant,  and  get  a  couple  of  quart  bottles  of  whisky  filled 
at  the  public  house,  and  come  back  as  fast  as  his  legs 
could  carry  him.  But  when  he  had  been  absent  nearly 
three  hours,  the  thirsty  souls  naturally  began  to  be  very 
impatient.  As  he  seemed  likely  to  be  loitering  by  the 
way,  one  of  the  men  at  length  swore,  with  a  deep  oath, 
that  he  would  go  and  bring  him  back  by  "  the  lug  and 
the  horn,"  but,  on  second  thoughts,  he  resolved  to 
give  him  such  a  fright  that  he  would  run 
straight  to  the  mill-house,  without  once  daring 
to  look  over  his  shoulder.  Accordingly  he  procured 
a  sheet,'  drew  it  round  him,  and  stalked  out  to  meet 
"Simple  Simey."  His  thirsty  compotators  waited  long, 
but  neither  the  messenger  nor  the  man  in  search  of  him 
appeared.  Some  of  the  company  went  home  disgusted, 
but  a  good  many  sat  still  in  expectation.  At  last  day 
began  to  break,  and  they  could  sit  no  longer.  But  just 
when  they  were  on  the  point  of  departing  the  poor  half- 
wit rushed  in  among  them,  pale  and  trembling ;  and  when 
they  asked  him  why  he  had  stayed  so  long,  and  whether 
he  had  seen  anything  uncanny,  he  replied,  "  Aye,  that  aa 
have  I  As  aa  was  coming  past  the  Nicky-Nack  Field,  a 
white  ghost  came  out  upon  me,  and  aa  was  sair  freeten'd  ; 
but  when  aa  looked  aa  saw  a  black  ghost  ahint  it ;  so  aa 
yowled  as  loud  as  aa  could  to  the  black  ghost  to  catch  the 
white  ghost ;  and  the  white  ghost  leukt  about,  and  when 
it  saw  the  black  yen,  it  screamed  cot  amain  and  tried  to 
run  away ;  but  blackey  was  ower  clivvor  for't,  and  ran 
like  a  hatter,  till  it  gat  haud  o'  whitey,  and  ran  away  wiv 
him  aalltogether  !"  When  day  dawned,  and  the  men 
ventured  forth  to  seek  their  companion,  they  discovered 
in  the  Nicky-Nack  Field  a  few  fragments  of  the  sheet  in 
which  he  had  been  wrapped,  but  what  had  become  of  the 
man  himself  could  never  be  ascertained. 

Another  Tudhoe  tradition  relates  to  an  incident  that 

happened  to  the  occupier  of  Tudhoe  Mill  about  the  end 
of  the  last  century.     He  is  represented  to  have  been  a 
quiet,  steady  man,  who  always  came  home  sober  from 
Durham,    Bishop    Auckland,    or   elsewhere   on  market 
days.  On  one  occasion  he  had  been  at  Durham  on  business, 
and  had  been  detained  till  night-fall.    He  was  returning 
home  on  foot,  and  had  reached  Sunderland  Bridge,  when, 
looking  up  the  bank  before  him,  he  espied,  at  the  distance 
of  about  twenty  paces,  a  stiff-built  man  trudging  along 
the  road.    As  the  place  was  lonely,  he  felt  glad  that  he 
was   likely  to   get  a   companion    to  walk    home  with, 
although  he  wondered  that  he  had  not  observed  the  per- 
son before,  as  the  road  was  quite  straight  at  the  place. 
The  stranger  seemed  to  be  a  tallish  man,  wearing  a  broad- 
brimmed  hat,  which  made  the  farmer  suspect  he  must  be 
a    Qnaker.    While    this   increased    his   wonder   that  a 
member  of  that  respectable  society  should  be  travelling 
alone  there  at  that  time  at  night,  he  quickened  his  steps 
so  ae  to  overtake  him.     It  was  very  strange,  however ;  the 
quicker  he  walked,  so  much  the  quicker  glided  on  the 
person  in  advance,  and  yet  without  appearing  to  exert 
himself  in  the    least.      They  kept  at  about  the    same 
distance  from  each  other,   while   both  accelerated  their 
pace,  until  they  arrived  at  Nicky-Nack  Bridge,  and  the 
miller  was  about  to  turn  off  to  the  gate  on  the  right  hand. 
In  doing  so  he  withdrew  his  eyes  from  the  object  before 
him,  it  might  be  just  for  a  moment,  and  when  he  looked 
again  there  was  nothing  on  the  bridge,  nor  on  the  slight 
ascent    beyond  it,   nor  yet  in  the  lane    further   away. 
Astonished  at  this,  and  determined  to  solve  the  mystery, 
he  turned  and  examined  every  place  where  it  was  possible 
the  man  might  have  concealed  himself.    But  it  was  in 
vain  that  he  did  so.     A  suspicion  now  for  the  first  time 
flashed  through  the  miller's  mind,  that  it  might  possibly 
be  an  apparition  ;  but,  as  he  had  never  knowingly  harmed 
anybody,  he  had  no  apprehension  that  any  "ill  thing" 
could  have  been  sent  to  haunt  or  frighten  him ;  and  so, 
without  feeling  in  the  least  nervous,  but  much  puzzled 
what  to  think  of  the  affair,  he  went  straight  home,  where 
he  told  his  wife  what  he  had  seen.     He  got  little  satisfac- 
tion, however,  from  the  good  dame,  who  was  a  very  matter- 
of-fact  woman,  and  who  assured  him  that  he  must  have 
been  dreamingwith  his  eyes  open.  Till  the  day  of  his  death, 
however,  the  miller  remained  unconvinced.     It  was  some- 
thing supernatural  he  had  seen ;  there  could  be  no  doubt 
about  it.     But  why  it  should  have  been  sent  to  him,  at 
that  particular  time  and  place,  he  knew  no  more  than 
the   man    in   the   moon.    And    so  the   matter  had   to 
rest.     Nevertheless,    if   we    might    venture   to  suggest 
an     explanation,     we     should      be     inclined    to     say 
that  the  honest  man    had    only  seen  his  own  shadow 
thrown  upon  the  road  right  in  front  of  him  by  that 
mighty  mother  of   enchantments,   the  moon,   who  had 
coyly  popped  in  behind  a  cloud  at  the  moment  when  the 
Eidolon  disappeared. 
Many  similar  legends  (some  of  which  are  mentioned  in 



I  February 
\      1889. 

Charles  Waterton's  Autobiography,  quoted  on  p.  450  of 
this  volume  of  the  Monthly  Chronicle),  lingered  long 
among  the  old  inhabitants  of  Tudhoe,  but  with  the  spread 
of  education,  and  the  great  influx  of  strangers  into  the 
district  to  carry  on  the  coal-mining  and  iron  industries, 
they  have  now  mostly  faded  out  of  recollection,  and  are 
beyond  hope  of  recovery. 

jfaatball  in  tft*  J!0rtft, 

HE  cannot  pretend  to  determine  at  what 
period  the  game  of  football  originated. 
That  of  hand-ball,  as  we  learn  from  the 
"  Iliad,"  was  practised  in  Ionia  and  the 
Troad  before  the  days  of  Homer.  We  also  find  it  alluded 
to  in  many  passages  of  the  Latin  classics.  Thus  Plautus 
says:  "The  gods  have  men  for  their  balls  to  play  with." 
Seneca  speaks  of  "skilfully  and  diligently  catching 
the  ball,  and  aptly  and  quickly  sending  it  on." 
And  *'  the  ball  is  mine "  (Mea  pila  est)  was  pro- 
verbial among  the  Romans  for  "  I've  won  !  "  In  this 
country  football  has  been  a  favourite  winter  game 
from  a  very  remote  date — how  far  back  neither  Strutt 
nor  any  other  writer  on  sports  and  pastimes  can  tell 
us.  King  Edward  III.  prohibited  it  by  public  edici 
in  1349,  because  it  was  supposed  to  impede  the  pro- 
gress of  archery,  then  all-important  as  a  branch  of 
national  defence  ;  and  King  James  I.,  in  his  "Basilicon 
Doron,"  fulminated  against  the  game,  as  he  did  against 
the  use  of  tobacco,  in  the  following  strain  : — "  From  this 
court  I  debar  all  rough  and  violent  exercises  as  the 
football,  meeter  for  lameing  than  making  able  the  users 
thereof."  But,  notwithstanding  this  interdict,  con- 
firmed as  it  was  under  the  Commonwealth,  merry- 
makers continued  to  play  at  .the  heroic  old  game,  even 
in  the  narrow  and  crooked  streets  of  London, 
which,  as  Sir  William  Davenant  wrote,  was  "not 
very  conveniently  civil."  One  of  Hone's  correspondents, 
writing  in  the  "Every  Day  Book,"  says  that  when  he 
was  a  boy  football  was  commonly  played  on  the  Sunday 
mornings  before  church  time  in  a  village  in  the  West 
of  England  ;  and  he  adds  that,  at  the  time  when  he  wrote, 
it  was  played  during  fine  weather  every  Sunday  after- 
noon by  a  number  of  Irishmen  in  some  fields  near 

There  is  a  short  description  of  a  country  wake  in  the 
Spectator,  wherein  the  writer,  believed  to  be  Addison,  says 
that,  after  findine  a  ring  of  cudgel-players,  "  who  were 
breaking  one  another's  heads  in  order  to  make  some  im- 
pression on  their  mistresses'  hearts,"  he  came  to  a  football 
match,  and  afterwards  to  a  ring  of  wrestlers,  and  also  a 
group  engaged  in  pitching  the  bar.  And  he  concludes 
by  saying  that  the  squire  of  the  parish  always  treated 
the  company  every  year  with  a  hogshead  of  ale. 

Football  was  very  common  on  the  Borders  during  the 

long  wars  between  England  and  Scotland.  Whenever  a 
foray  was  contemplated,  as  it  often  was,  in  time  of  truce, 
a  match  would  be  got  up,  under  cover  of  which  great  num- 
bers would  assemble  without  exciting  suspicion,  and 
concert  a  plan  for  making  a  raid  over  to  the  English  or 
Scotch  side,  as  the  case  might  be.  At  other  times, 
persons  not  friendly  to  the  existing  Government  would 
meet  at  football,  and  there  talk  treason  without  being 
suspected.  Each  district  had  rules  of  its  own;  but  in 
almost  every  parish,  and  in  every  town  or  village, 
some  particular  saint's  day  was  set  apart  for 
"playing  a  gole "  at  camp-ball,  field-ball,  or  foot- 
ball, as  the  game  was  variously  named.  The  usual 
time  was  at  Shrovetide,  when  sports  and  feast- 
ing were  in  full  vogue  all  over,  previous  to  the 
commencement  of  Lent.  The  regular  custom  was  to  have 
a  cockfight  as  well  as  a  football  match  on  Shrove  or  Pan- 
cake Tuesday.  At  some  places  every  man  in  the  parish, 
gentry  not  excepted,  was  obliged  to  turn  out  and  support 
the  side  to  which  he  belonged,  and  any  person  who  neg- 
lected to  do  so  was  fined ;  but  this  custom,  being  attended 
with  inconvenience,  has  long  since  been  abolished. 

At  Inveresk,  in  Midlothian,  there  used  to  be  a  standing 
match  at  football  en  Shrove  Tuesday,  there  called 
Fastern's  Een,  between  the  married  and  unmarried 
women,  and  the  former,  it  is  said,  were  always  victorious. 
This  was  a  peculiar  case,  however. 

In  most  places  the  contest  was  between  the  bachelors 
and  the  married  men.  In  towns  where  there  was  a 
market  cross,  the  parties  drew  themselves  up  on  opposite 
sides  at  a  certain  hour,  say  two  o'clock  p.m.,  when  the 
ball  was  thrown  up  and  the  play  went  on  till  sunset  or 
later,  fast  and  furious,  the  combatants  kicking  each 
others'  shins  without  the  least  ceremony,  though  it  might 
be  against  the  rules. 

At  Scone,  the  old  residence  of  the  Kings  of  Scotland, 
handball  and  not  football  was  the  favourite  game  pre- 
ferred ;  and  there,  though  no  person  was  allowed  by  the 
conventional  law  to  kick  the  ball,  but  only  to  run  away 
with  it,  and  throw  it  from  him  when  stopped,  there  was 
generally  some  scene  of  violence  before  the  game  was 
won,  which  caused  it  to  be  proverbial  in  that  part  of  the 
country — "  All  was  fair  at  the  Ball  of  Scone." 

The  conqueror  at  a  handball  match  was  entitled  to 
keep  the  ball  till  the  next  year,  when  he  had  the  much 
coveted  honour  of  being  the  first  to  throw  it  up.  A  man 
belonging  to  Hawick,  named,  if  we  mistake  not,  Glen- 
dinning — being  a  crack  runner,  who  had  often  come  off 
victor  in  his  native  town  in  the  matches  there,  where  the 
opposing  players  are  the  residents  east  and  west  of  the 
Slitrig,  locally  known  as  the  Eastla'  and  Westla'  Water 
Men — was  in  the  habit  of  crossing  the  Border  every 
year  about  Shrovetide,  and  taking  a  part  in  the  ball 
quisition  during  the  day,  together,  of  course,  with  lashings 
of  drink. 
Such  are  some  of  the  historic  features  of  a  pastime 

February  1 



play,  sometimes  in  Northumberland,  and  at  other 
times  in  Cumberland  ;  and  he  generally  managed  to 
bring  home  the  ball  with  him  in  triumph.  In  some 
places  the  prize  for  the  victor  was  a  new  beaver  hat,  and 
when  Glendinning  knew  that  to  be  the  case,  he  always 
went  away  with  as  shabby  an  old  head-covering  as  he 
could  find,  confident  that  he  would  come  back  with  a 
much  better  one  after  a  new  victory. 

Brand  tell*  us  that  it  was  once  customary  among  the 
colliers  and  others  in  the  North  of  England  for  a  party 
to  watch  at  a  wedding  for  the  bridegroom's  coming  out 
of  church,  after  the  ceremony,  in  order  to  demand  money 
for  a  football — a  claim  that  admitted  of  no  refusal,  for,  if 
it  was  not  complied  with,  the  newly-married  couple  were 
liable  to  be  grossly  insulted,  with  loud  hootings  at  least, 
if  not  getting  bespattered  with  mud. 

In  several  places,  it  was  the  custom  to  carry  the  foot- 
ball from  door  to  door,  and  beg  money  to  be  spent  in 
refreshments ;  and  here  likewise  it  was  dangerous  to 
refuse,  because  the  recusants'  windows  were  very  likely 
to  be  broken  by  the  lads  as  soon  as  it  was  dark.  Where 
the  game  was  played  in  the  High  Street,  people  generally 
took  the  precaution  to  shut  their  shops  and  barricade 
their  front  windows  in  the  course  of  the  forenoon.  The 
scene,  when  the  players  got  fully  heated,  would  baffle 
description,  old  and  young  contending  as  keenly  as  if  the 
prize  had  been  a  kingdom.  Sometimes,  where  a  river 
intervened,  as  it  does,  say,  at  Hawick,  Jedburgh, 
Alnwick,  Wooler,  Chester-le-Street,  and  other  places,  the 
players  considered  it  no  obstacle  whatever,  but  rather 
thought  it  the  best  of  the  fun  to  plunge  in  tumultuously, 
be  the  water  deep  or  shallow,  and  rather  risk  being  half- 
drowned  than  interrupt  the  game. 

On  Shrove  Tuesday  there  was  always  a  great  game  at 
football  in  many  parishes  in  the  North  of  England. 
Chester-le-Street,  Rothbury,  Alnwick,  Wooler,  and  other 
towns,  were  particularly  famous.  The  game  is  still 
played  with  great  vigour  in  the  former  place  between  the 
up-towners  and  the  down-towners.  Brand  describes  the 
ceremonial  as  observed  at  Alnwick  in  the  year  1762.  The 
waits  belonging  to  the  town  came  playing  to  the  castle  at 
2  p.m.,  when  a  football  was  thrown  over  the  wall  to  the 
populace  congregated  before  the  gates.  Then  came  forth 
the  tall  and  stately  porter  dressed  in  the  Percy  livery, 
blue  and  yellow,  plentifully  decorated  with  silver  lace, 
and  gave  the  ball  its  first  kick,  sending  it  bounding  out 
of  the  barbican  of  the  castle  into  Bailiffgate  ;  and  then 
the  young  and  vigorous  kicked  it  through  the  principal 
street*  of  the  town,  and  afterwards  into  the  pasture, 
which  had  been  used  from  time  immemorial  for  such 
enjoyments.  Here  it  was  kicked  about  until  the  great 
struggle  came  for  the  honour  of  making  capture  of  the 
ball  itself.  The  more  vigorous  combatants  kicked  it  away 
from  the  multitude,  and  at  last  some  one,  stronger  and 
fleeter  than  the  rest,  seized  upon  it  and  fled  away  pursued 
by  others.  To  escape  with  the  ball,  the  river  Aln  was 

waded  through  or  swam  across,  and  walls  were  scaled  and 
hedges  broken  down.  The  victor  was  the  hero  of  the  day, 
and  proud  of  his  trophy. 

When  Lord  John  Russell,  in  the  year  1835,  introduced 
the  Municipal  Reform  Bill  into  the  House  of  Commons, 
its  provisions  created  much  excitement  throughout  the 
country,  and  numerous  meetings  were  held  all  over  Eng- 
land, either  in  support  of  or  in  opposition  to  the  measure. 
The  Duke  of  Northumberland,  jealous  of  any  interference 
with  his  manorial  rights,  gave  the  most  determined 
opposition  to  the  bill,  and  left  no  stone  unturned  to  pre- 
vent Alnwick  from  being  included  within  its  scope.  As 
one  cheap  and  ready  means  of  effecting  his  object,  he  gave 
the  sum  of  £10  that  year  to  the  ball  players  to  be  spent  in 
seasonable  refreshments.  A  man  named  Joe  Ramsay 
was  running  down  the  street  proclaiming  the  glad  news, 
when  an  old  woman  cried  aloud  that  it  would  have 
been  wiser  like  if  his  Grace  had  given  the  money  to 
the  poor.  "Damn  the  poor  !  they  want  everything," 
was  Joe's  sharp  rejoinder.  There  were  a  good 
many  Chartists  at  that  time  in  Alnwick,  and  they 
managed  to  get  up  a  petition  in  favour  of  the  bill ;  but 
the  bulk  of  the  freemen,  either  of  their  own  spontaneous 
accord,  or  seeking  to  curry  favour  with  the  duke  and  his 
agents,  sent  up  petitions,  much  more  numerously  signed, 
for  the  withdrawal  of  the  borough  from  the  bill;  and 
Alnwick  was  accordingly  erased  in  the  House  of  Lords, 
and  remains  to  this  day  outside  the  area  of  reformed  muni- 
cipal corporations.  With  the  money  given  by  the  duke, 
several  barrels  of  strong  ale  were  purchased,  and  a  regular 
jollification  took  place  in  the  Town  Hall,  after  the  ball 
play  was  over.  There  was  "  dancing  and  deray"  to  the 
heart's  content  of  the  lads  and  lasses,  and  "guttling  and 
guzzling"  among  the  elders,  till  the  small  hours  of  the 
morning  ;  and  the  solid  and  liquid  stuffs  left  over  were 
consumed  next  day  by  all  who  felt  inclined  to  come.  An 
unlucky  Chartist,  who  had  the  temerity  to  intrude  him- 
self into  the  jovial  company,  thinking  there  was 
no  reason  why  he  should  not  have  his  share  of 
the  good  things  that  were  going,  was  detected 
as  soon  as  he  showed  his  face,  laid  violent  hands  upon, 
and  would  have  been  tossed  over  the  outside  stone  stair 
of  the  hall,  if  some  of  the  more  sober  guests  had  not  inter- 
fered. The  venturesome  Chartist's  name  was  Will 

At  Wooler,  the  game  was  played  between  the  married 
and  unmarried  men ;  »nd  after  kicking  the  ball  through  the 
town,  one  party  endeavoured  to  kick  it  into  the  hopper 
of  Earl  Mill,  and  the  other  over  a  tree  which  stood  at  the 
"crook  of  the  Till."  In  the  days  of  yore,  this  contest 
sometimes  continued  for  three  days. 

In  many  of  the  villages  in  North  Northumberland,  as 
well  as  in  Yetholm,  Morebattle,  and  other  places  on  the 
Scottish  Border,  there  was  always  a  dance  after  the  ball 
play,  and  a  general  feasting  on  currant  dumplings,  to 
cook  which  most  of  the  kail  pots  were  put  In  re- 




which  has  in  our  own  day  become  more  popular  in  all 
parts  of  the  country  than  any  other  winter  amuse- 
ment. W.  B. 

[  EXHAM,  with  its  historic  associations,  affords 
a  fair  field  for  the  antiquary  and  archaeologist, 
and  the  lover  of  nature  is  delighted  with  its 
picturesque  surroundings.    Few  parts  of  Northumberland 

can  compare  with  it  for  delightful  walks,  not  the  least 
attractive  being  that  from  the  old  town  to  Swallowship. 
This  is  the  name  of  a  small  promontory  round  which  the 
Devil's  Water  peacefully  flows  in  marked  contrast  to  its 
previous  noisy  career.  On  both  sides  of  the  stream,  for  a 
short  distance,  vertical  cliffs,  clothed  with  verdure,  add 
dignity  to  the  scene.  The  place  is  much  frequented  by 
holiday  parties  and  is  a  favourite  subject  with  local  artists 
and  photographers.  Our  drawing  is  reproduced  from  .a 
photograph  by  Mr.  J.  P.  Gibson,  the  well-known  land- 
scape photographer  of  Hexhana. 

February \ 



fiidttntf  tit  tfte 

j]T  is  now  more  than  eighteen  years  since 
Charles  Dickens,  "  the  most  popular 
novelist  of  the  century,  and  one  of  the 
greatest  humourists  that  England  has  pro- 
duced," passed  away,  amidst  the  deep  sorrow  and  regret 
of  the  whole  English  nation,  and  indeed  of  almost  every 
civilized  people.  Turning  over  the  leaves  of  Forster's 
life  of  the  great  writer  the  other  day,  I  was  struck  with 
his  evident  liking  for  Newcastle  and  Newcastle  people. 
That  this  liking  was  genuine,  and  not  assumed  to 
please  his  friend  Forster,*  seems  plain  enough,  for  he 
gives  many  eood  reasons  why  he  was  so  fond  of  North- 
Country  men. 

But  first  a  word  about  Dickens's  birthplace,  and  the 
house  in  which  he  died  at  Gad's  Hill.  The  great  novelist 
was  born  in  the  end  house  at  Mile  End  Terrace  (a  short 
terrace  of  six  houses)  in  Commercial  Road,  Landport, 
Portsmouth.  Curiously  enough,  the  house  was  owned  and 

Bir/A  f/ace 

if  CAtr/ls  DtcJrens. 

occupied  by  a  Newcastle  gentleman,  as  he  himself  lately 
stated  in  the  Newcastle  Weekly  Chronicle,  for  about 
fifteen  years.  It  is  now  in  the  same  state,  and  has  the 
same  appearance,  as  when  Dickens  first  saw  the  light 
within  its  walls.  Gad's  Hill  Place,  where  Dickens  died 
suddenly  on  the  9th  of  June,  1870,  is  famous  also  for 

*  For  some  account  of  John  Forster,  see  vol.  ii.,  page  49. 

its  association  with  the  exploits  of  Shakspeare's  Sir  John 
Falstaff.  Indeed,  there  is  an  inn  near  it  bearing  the 
name  of  the  redoubtable  knight.  It  was  at  this  inn  that  a 
waiter  lamented  the  death  of  Charles  Dickens  because 
"he  used  to  have  all  his  beer  there."  The  dining-room 
of  Gad's  Hill  Place  is  depicted  in  Fildes's  celebrated 

picture,  "The  Empty  Chair. "  Here  it  was  that  Dickens 
died.  Seized  with  a  fit  during  dinner,  he  was  laid  on  a 
couch  in  a  corner  of  the  room,  and  never  rose  more. 

The  first  time  Charles  Dickens  visited  Newcastle  was 
at  the  end  of  August,  1852.  Some  little  while  before  that 
it  was  proposed  that  a  series  of  amateur  dramatic  per- 
formances should  be  given  by  the  most  eminent  authors 
and  artists  in  behalf  of  the  "Guild  of  Literature  and 
Art,"  which  had  just  been  established  for  the  benefit 
of  poor  members  of  those  crafts  who  had  been  over- 
taken by  sickness,  old  age,  or  misfortune.  Sir  Bulwer 
Lytton  had  written  a  comedy — "Not  so  Bad  as  we 
Seem  " — for  the  amateurs,  and  this  was  first  played  at 
Devonshire  House,  her  Majesty  and  the  Prince  Consort 
being  present.  Amongst  the  actors  were  Mark  Lemon, 
John  Forster,  Wilkie  Collins,  Douglas  Jerrold,  Charles 
Knight,  John  Tenniel,  Augustus  Egg,  &c.  Stanfield, 
Maclise,  Grieve,  Telbin,  and  other  eminent  artists 
painted  the  scenery,  and  the  distinguished  company — the 
most  remarkable  company  of  actors  that  ever  "starred" 
through  the  provinces — set  out  on  their  tour  through  the 
large  provincial  towns.  Everywhere  the  enterprise  was 
a  big  success.  Whether  the  room  was  large  or  small— 
they  did  not  perform  in  a  licensed  theatre— it  was  always 
packed  from  floor  to  ceiling. 

Before  the  company  arrived  at  Newcastle,  John  Forster 
had  to  return  to  London  on  some  important  business 
or  other.  This  was  a  disappointment,  and  so  was 
the  absence  of  Douglas  Jerrold,  who,  from  some  cause 
which  I  cannot  make  out,  did  not  appear  in  Newcastle. 
The  comedy  was  performed  in  the  Assembly  Rooms  on 
the  27th  August,  1852.  "Into  the  room,"  writes  Dickens, 
"where  Lord  Carlisle  was,  by-the-bye,  they  squeezed  600 
people  at  12s.  6d.  into  a  space  reasonably  capable  of  holding 
300."  Of  the  performance  as  a  whole,  the  Newcattle 





Chronicle  has  a  well-written  criticism.  After  lamenting 
the  absence  of  Forster  and  Jerrold,  that  paper  goes  on  to 
say : — "The  play  itself  is  loosely  hung  together,  the  plot 
is  insufficient  and  meagre,  and  does  not  furnish  adequate 
motives  for  the  development  of  the  conclusion  ;  but  with 
the  aid  of  fine  music,  costly  costumes,  magnificent 
scenery,  and  really  respectable  acting,  it  went  off  exceed- 
ingly well,  and  was  most  enthusiastically  applauded." 
The  Chronicle  speaks  very  highly  of  the  acting  of  Charles 
Dickens,  especially  in  the  farce,  where,  along  with  Mark 
Lemon,  he  kept  the  audience  in  a  continual  roar  of 
laughter.  The  farce,  I  believe,  was  a  new  one, 
entitled  "  Mr.  Nightingale's  Diary, "  and  was  played  for 
the  first  time  at  Newcastle.  An  unfortunate  accident 
had  occurred  at  the  Central  Station  on  the  arrival  of  the 
company,  a  pair  of  runaway  horses  upsetting  one  of  the 
vans  containing  the  scenery,  every  atom  of  which  was 
turned  over.  By  good  luck,  however,  there  was  no 
damage  done. 

The  Guild  of  Literature  and  Art  Company  were  at 
Sunderland,  August  28,  the  night  after  the  Newcastle 
performance.  Writing  from  the  Wear  borough  to 
Forster,  Dickens  says : — "  Last  night,  in  a  hall  built  like 
a  theatre,  with  pit,  boxes,  and  gallery,  we  had  about  1,200 
people — I  dare  say  more.  They  began  with  a  round  of 
applause  when  Coote's  white  waistcoat  appeared  in  the 
orchestra,  and  wound  up  the  farce  with  three  deafening 
cheers.  I  never  saw  such  good  fellows.  Stanny  (Stan- 
field)  is  their  fellow-townsman,  was  born  here,  and  they 
applauded  his  scenes  as  if  it  was  himself."  Dickens  had 
walked  from  Newcastle  to  Sunderland  that  morning. 

The  hall  engaged  by  the  amateurs  at  Sunderland 
was  a  perfectly  new  one,  having,  in  fact,  had  the  slates 
put  on  only  overnight.  As  Dickens  was  manager  of 
the  company,  and  responsible  for  everything  before  and 
behind  the  curtain,  his  anxiety  and  "  worrit "  lest  the 
place  should  prove  unsafe,  and  an  accident  should 
happen  to  the  immense  audience  assembled  within  its 
walls,  nearly  made  him  ill,  and  all  but  caused  him  to  stop 
the  performance.  But  Dickens  always  got  fun  out  of  the 
most  serious  difficulties,  and  we  cannot  help  smiling  at  his 
own  description  of  his  dilemma,  "  I  asked  W.,"  he  says, 
"what  he  thought,  and  he  consolingly  observed  that  his 
digestion  was  so  bad  that  death  had  no  terrors  for  him !  " 
"The  only  comfort  I  had,"  he  continued,  "was  in  stum- 
bling at  length  on  the  builder,  and  finding  him  a  plain,  prac- 
tical North- Country  man,  with  a  foot  rule  in  his  pocket. 
I  took  him  aside,  and  asked  him  should  we,  or  could  we, 
prop  up  any  weak  part  of  the  place.  He  told  me  there 
wasn't  a  stronger  building  in  the  world  ;  that  they  had 
opened  it  on  Thursday  night  to  thousands  of  the  working 
people,  and  induced  them  to  sing  and  make  every  possible 
trial  of  the  vibration. "  This  somewhat  pacified  Dickens  ; 
the  performance  took  place,  and,  as  we  have  seen,  was  a 
great  success. 

Mr.  Dickens's  earliest  public  readings  were  given  at 

Birmingham  on  behalf  of  a  new  literary  institute  there, 
and  his  services  were  of  course  gratuitous.  This  was  in 
the  middle  of  December,  1853.  Although  he  insisted 
that  a  number  of  seats  should  be  reserved  for  working 
men  at  threepence  each,  the  institution  was  bene- 
fited by  these  readings  to  the  extent  of  between  £400 
and  £500.  In  the  following  year,  for  a  similar 
purpose,  he  read  at  Bradford  in  a  carpenter's  shop, 
with  equally  satisfactory  results,  the  price  of  admission 
being  5s.,  though  he  again  stipulated  that  a  number  of 
threepenny  seats  should  be  reserved  for  workmen.  The 
natural  result  of  Dickens's  kindness  was  to  over- 
whelm him  with  applications  from  all  parts  of  the  king- 
dom to  read  (without  pay,  we  may  be  sure)  for  all  sorts  of 
institutions  and  objects,  which  in  self-defence  he  was 
obliged  to  decline.  From  the  great  interest  taken  in  his 
readings,  however,  and  the  enthusiasm  with  which  they 
were  always  received,  he  conceived  the  idea  of  paid  read- 
ings for  the  benefit  of  Charles  Dickens  himself.  It  was 
not  till  after  much  doubt  and  hesitation  that  he  came  to 
this  resolution  ;  indeed,  it  took  him  years  of  anxious 
thought  before  he  finally  decided.  In  April,  1858,  how- 
ever, he  began  with  a  series  of  sixteen  readings  in  Lon- 
don, and  in  August  of  the  same  year  he  took  his  first 
provincial  tour. 

He  visited  Newcastle  in  its  turn  on  the  24th  and  25th 
September,  1859,  and  gave  three  readings  in  the  Tcwn 
Hall.  The  first  evening  he  read  his  "Christmas  Carol.' 
On  the  following  afternoon  he  read  "Little  Dombey," 
and  the  " Trial  "  from  "Pickwick";  and  at  night,  the 
"Poor  Traveller,"  "Boots  at  the  Holly  Tree,"  and 
"Mrs.  Gamp."  I  was  present  at  the  first  reading,  when 
the  room  was  full,  but  by  no  means  crowded.  Dickens 
did  not  read  from  the  orchestra  platform,  but  from  his 
own  table,  constructed  for  the  purpose,  which  was  placed 
on  the  floor  at  the  organ  end  of  the  hall.  Afterwards  he 
expressed  himself  as  being  much  pleased  with  his  visit, 
both  as  regards  the  audience  and  the  hearty  way  in 
which  he  was  received. 

In  1861  Dickens  was  again  in  Newcastle,  and  gave  three 
readings  in  the  Music  Hall,  Nelson  Street,  on  the  21st, 
22nd,  and  23rd  November,  "before  an  audience  (said  the 
Daily  Chronicle)  which  any  author,  however  distin- 
guished, might  feel  proud  to  appear. "  The  people  were 
packed  as  close  almost  as  apples  in  a  barrel,  and  the 
hall,  which  had  just  been  enlarged  and  decorated,  looked 
brilliant,  fully  one  half  of  the  audience  being  eaily  dressed 
ladies.  The  readings  were  from  "David  Copperfield," 
"Nicholas  Nickleby,"  "Little  Dombey,"  and  the 
"Trial"  from  "Pickwick."  I  cannot  forbear  quoting 
Dickens's  opinion  of  a  Newcastle  audience,  which  he 
gives  in  a  letter  to  Forster  : — "  At  Newcastle,  against 
the  very  heavy  expenses,  I  made  more  than  a  hundred 
guineas  profit.  A  finer  audience  there  is  not  in  England, 
and  I  suppose  them  to  be  a  specially  earnest  people  ;  for, 
while  they  can  laugh  till  they  shake  the  roof,  they  have  a 

February  } 



very  unusual  sympathy  with  what  is  pathetic  or  passion- 

Bravo !  Charles  Dickens.  I  was  myself  present  on  the 
"Dombey"  night,  and  could  not  help  remarking  how 
deeply  affected  the  late  Mr.  Lockey  Harle  seemed  to  be 
when  the  reader  came  to  the  death  of  little  Paul.  He 
could  not  conceal  his  emotion,  and  indeed  made  no  effort 
to  do  so.  He  was  affected  in  quite  another  fashion  how- 
ever, when  the  "  Trial  "  from  "  Pickwick  "  came  to  be 
read.  No  schoolboy  at  a  pantomime  could  laugh  more 
heartily  at  the  eccentricities  of  clown  or  the  mishaps  of 
pantaloon  than  did  Mr.  Harle  at  the  rich  humour  of  the 
trial  scene,  and  his  merriment  at  times  rose  to  a  perfect 
shout  at  the  turgid  eloquence  of  Serjeant  Buzfuz. 

An  accident,  which  might  have  been  very  serious, 
occurred  on  the  second  night,  an  account  of  which 
Dickens  wrote,  not  only  to  Forster,  but  to  his 
friends  at  home.  I  will  give  his  own  words :— "  An 
extraordinary  thing  occurred  on  the  second  night. 
The  room  was  tremendously  crowded,  and  my  gas 
apparatus  fell  down.  There  was  a  terrible  wave  among 
the  people  for  an  instant,  and  God  knows  what  destruc- 
tion of  life  a  rush  to  the  stairs  would  have  caused.  Fortu- 
nately a  lady  in  the  front  of  the  stalls  ran  out  towards 
me,  exactly  in  a  place  where  I  knew  that  the  whole  hall 
could  see  her.  So  I  addressed  her,  laughing,  and  half 
asked  and  half  ordered  her  to  sit  down  again ;  and  in 
a  moment  it  was  all  over.  It  took  five  minutes  to  mend, 
and  I  looked  on  with  my  hands  in  my  pockets." 

Early  in  March,  1867,  Dickens  was  once  more  in 
Newcastle,  and  gave  three  readings  in  the  Music 
Hall,  which  was  again  densely  crowded.  Writ- 
ing to  his  friend  Forster,  he  pays  another  high  compli- 
ment to  Newcastle  people,  which  I  think  is  worth 
giving  : — "The  readings  have  made  an  universal  effect  in 
this  place,  and  it  is  remarkable  that,  although  the  people 
are  individually  rough,  collectively  they  are  an  unusually 
tender  and  sympathetic  audience ;  while  their  comic 
perception  is  quite  up  to  the  high  London  standard." 

As  far  as  I  can  discover,  this  was  Charles  Dickens's  fourth 
and  last  visit  to  Newcastle,  and  as  I  have  only  undertaken 
to  give  a  brief  account  of  his  visits  to  the  North  of  England, 
his  future  career,  however  interesting,  has  no  place  here. 
Everybody  knows  now  that,  although  these  readings 
were  a  splendid  success,  they  undoubtedly  shortened  the 
life  of  the  great  novelist.  There  has  been  nothing  like 
them,  as  regards  their  financial  results,  either  before  or 
since.  Including  America,  the  readings  yielded  him,  in 
two  years,  the  magnificent  sum  of  thirty  thousand 
.pounds ;  but  the  earning  of  that  large  sum  of  money  cost 
us  the  life  of  the  most  genial  and  popular  writer  that 
England  has  yet  seen,  or  in  all  probability  ever  will  see. 

W.  W.  W. 

OTarrf  of  $0i*tftttnt&rta. 



j|FTER  Severus  had  completed  his  astounding 
defensive  works  in  the  North,  there  was  a 
long  interval  of  profound  peace.  Not  a  few 
of  the  native  tribes  embraced  the  religious 
faith  of  their  masters,  and  the  entire  country  displayed 
unmistakable  signs  of  progress.  Many  noble  towns 
sprang  into  existence  on  the  five  great  highways  that  the 
Romans  had  constructed  ;  and  as  these  important  settle- 
ments contained  spacious  baths,  handsome  theatres,  and 
highly  ornamented  seats  of  learning,  the  condition  of  the 
people  was  vastly  improved.  On  the  death  of  Constan- 
tino the  Great,  however,  in  337,  there  was  a  renewal  of 
the  warlike  troubles,  though  this  time  they  originated 
from  a  somewhat  different  source.  Frank  and  Saxon 
were  ravaging  the  unprotected  coasts,  and  the  Picts  and 
Scots — a  rapidly  rising  power — were  continually  coveting 
possession  of  the  Tyneside  wall.  After  allying  them- 
selves with  the  Ottadini,  they  broke  through  in  367,  and 
carried  devastation  far  south  of  the  barrier.  Theodosius 
repulsed  them,  strengthened  his  positions,  and  for  a  time 
restored  order.  But  the  power  of  Rome  was  now  de- 
cidedly on  the  wane.  A  critical  state  of  affairs  on  the 
Continent  led  to  the  withdrawal  of  many  of  her  garrisons 
in  403,  and  the  Southern  Britons— having  been  weakened 
by  frequent  drafts  of  their  finest  men  to  the  foreign  wars 
of  their  conquerors — were  left  to  shift  pretty  much  for 
themselves.  In  426,  the  legions  of  the  Empire,  under  the 
command  of  Gallic,  came  to  their  assistance  for  the  last 
time,  and  endeavoured,  though  fruitlessly,  to  repair  the 
grand  works  of  Hadrian  and  Severus.  On  their  final 
retirement,  in  436,  the  attacks  of  the  Northern  allies  were 
renewed  more  fiercely  than  ever ;  and  as  they  were  now 
able  to  swarm  over  the  wall,  or  outflank  it  by  boating 
expeditions  across  the  Solway,  its  use  for  defensive  pur- 
poses was  no  longer  worth  a  thought.  The  flourishing 
settlements  along  its  course  were  deserted,  the  hunted 
natives  fled  in  despair,  and  hundreds  of  them  perished  of 
hunger,  in  the  caves,  hills,  and  woodlands  to  which  they 
turned  for  shelter.  Further  south,  the  aspect  of  affairs 
was  not  less  desponding.  Instead  of  uniting  against  the 
allies  of  the  Borderland,  the  Britons  made  bad  worse  by 
quarrelling  and  fighting  amongst  themselves.  Driven  at 
last  to  despair,  Vortigern,  their  leader,  addressed  an 
abject  prayer  to  Rome  for  help.  "The  barbarians,"  he 
pitifully  wrote,  "chase  us  into  the  sea.  The  sea  throws 
us  back  upon  the  barbarians,  and  we  have  only  the  hard 
choice  left  us  of  perishing  by  the  sword  or  the  wave*." 
Rome,  however,  was  now  powerless  to  help,  and  hence 
followed  that  cry  for  assistance  to  another  land  which 



(  February 

led  to  the  Saxon  invasion  and  the  gradual  effacement  of 
the  British  race. 


The  invitation  to  these  hardy  rovers  is  said  to  have  been 
given  to  Hengist  and  Horsa — a  couple  of  chieftains  who 
were  on  a  piratical  cruise  in  the  English  Channel — and 
they  were  allowed  to  land  in  Kent,  about  the  year  470,  as 
a  recompense  for  the  aid  they  were  expected  to  render. 
It  would  be  a  long  story  to  describe  how  they  treacher- 
ously turned  upon  their  British  allies,  sent  them  flying 
into  the  interior,  and  then,  having  brought  over  large 
numbers  of  their  Jutish  and  Anglian  friends,  gradually 
established  themselves  along  the  entire  eastern  seaboard 
to  Lincoln.  It  is  only  necessary  for  our  purpose  to  refer 
to  these  invasions  as  the  forerunner  of  others  that  speedily 
took  place  to  the  north  of  the  Humber,  and  kept  the 
natives  constantly  on  the  war  path.  The  Brigantes  and 
the  Ottadini  were  still  the  most  formidable  races  along 
that  portion  of  the  coast  which  stretches  from  Spurn 
Head  to  the  estuary  ;of  the  Forth ;  while  the  Gadeni 
occupied  the  hilly  west  country  from  the  Clyde  to  the 
Mersey.  When  the  Ottadini,  about  the  year  470,  began 
to  be  seriously  molested  by  the  Angles,  they  were  readily 
joined  by  their  neighbours  in  an  effort  to  repel  the 
invaders.  So  successful  were  they  in  this  enterprise,  that 
they  retained  their  independence  long  after  the  more 
southerly  tribes  had  succumbed.  There  is  much  con- 
fusion amongst  historians  as  to  the  points  that  were 
first  attacked,  and  as  to  the  dates  of  the  rapidly  repeated 
inroads.  The  only  thing  clear  is  that  for  a  century 
after  the  Roman  departure  the  inhabitants  of  this 
northern  land  were  assailed  by  foes  who  were  quite  as 
valiant  as  their  predecessors,  and  that  the  condition  of 
the  people  sadly  deteriorated.  The  new  comers  possessed 
an  abundance  of  good  arms.  Every  warrior  had  his  spear, 

his  battle-axe,  and  his  sword — all  of  sound  and  well- 
tempered  metal.  Some  had  bows  and  arrows  for  distant 
conflict;  some  were  protected  by  a  species  of  leathern 
armour;  and  most  of  the  leaders  wielded  ponderous 
clubs,  pointed  with  spikes  of  iron,  that  were  as  effective 
in  a  melee  as  the  better-known  mace  of  the  middle  aces. 

Their  helmets,  too,  were  far  in  advance  of  anything  pre- 
viously seen.  They  were  elaborately  ornamented,  mainly 
constructed  of  hard  metal,  and  seem  to  have  supplied  a 
pattern  for  the  nose-piece,  or  face-protector,  that  was 
afterwards  so  generally  adopted. 


With  such  aids,  and  with  a  constant  augmentation  of 
recruits,  there  could  be  little  doubt  as  the  ultimate  suc- 
cess of  the  strangers.  They  do  not  appear  to  have  known 
the  meaning  of  a  reverse,  and  one  horde  followed  another 
in  ever  increasing  numbers.  Landing  at  Flamborough 
Head,  in  547,  the  famous  Ida  marched  a  well-disciplined 
force  of  warlike  Angles  towards  the  North.  They 
passed,  with  difficulty,  through  the  wild  woodlands  that 
covered  the  surface  of  our  present  Durham,  and,  after 
gaining  a  secure  footing  across  the  Tyne,  began  systema- 
tically to  make  themselves  masters  of  the  land.  Either 
by  sword  or  by  torch,  Ida  swept  away  every  British  and 
Roman  settlement  he  discovered,  and  earned  for  him- 
self the  terribly  significant  title  of  the  "Flame-bearer." 
His  career  was  many  times  checked,  though  only  for 
brief  periods.  Urien,  the  hero  of  so  many  stirring 
legends,  is  said  to  have  offered  a  strenuous  resistance  and 
to  have  wreaked  vengeance  on  many  a  raiding  band ;  but 
the  foreign  invaders,  fighting  with  the  utmost  steadiness 
and  bravery,  and  strengthened  by  vast  reinforcements 
from  Jutland,  gradually  won  their  way  to  a  kingdom.  It 
occupied  a  belt  of  country — about  forty  miles  wide — 
extending  from  the  Tyne  to  the  Forth,  and  was  after- 
wards known  by  the  name  of  Bernicia.  To  overawe  the 
natives  and  to  secure  his  own  possessions,  the  new  ruler 
at  once  erected  a  strong  castle  on  the  cliffs  at  Barn- 
borough,  and  from  this  commanding  altitude,  for  over  a 
dozen  years,  launched  his  thunderbolts  at  all  who  dared 
to  question  his  supremacy. 


While  Ida  was  busily  engaged  in  establishing  his  autho- 
rity in  Bernicia,  Ella,  another  of  the  Angles,  also  effected 
a  landing  on  the  Yorkshire  coast.  The  Brigantes,  in 
many  skirmishes,  disputed  his  passage  from  the  sea;  but, 
though  they  harried  and  impeded  him,  he  drove  them 
right  back  to  the  Pennine  chain  of  hills,  and  eventually 
brought  under  his  influence  all  the  territory  that  lies 
between  the  Humber  and  the  Tees.  The  new  possession 
was  called  Deira,  and  included  in  its  area  the  most  im- 
portant city  that  the  Romans  ever  held  in  this  country. 
At  this  period,  the  desolate  district  between  the  Tees  and 
Tyne  does  not  appear  to  have  belonged  to  either  of  the 
Anglian  conquerors.  It  had  been  studded  by  the  camps 
and  stations  of  the  Ceesars ;  but,  whether  from  design  or 
accident,  it  now  remained  as  a  neutral  zone  between  the 
armies  of  two  powerful  chieftains.  With  the  death  of  Ida, 
in  559,  Ella  lost  no  time  in  seizing  the  hitherto  neglected 
land,  and  when  the  frontiers  of  the  rapidly  growing  states 
thus  lost  their  buffer,  and  became  contiguous,  warlike 
operations  were  not  long  delayed. 

February  \ 



For  some  years  Ella  is  said  to  have  waged  a  fierce  fight 
against  the  twelve  sons  of  Ida,  and  with  very  fluctuating 
results.  Professor  Veitch,  in  his  "Border  History," 
asserts  that  the  southern  leader  was  ultimately  successful, 
and  a  large  portion  of  Bernicia  was  added  to  the  kingdom 
of  Deira.  Whether  this  was  really  the  case  or  not — and 
most  authorities  are  against  him — it  is  quite  evident  that 
the  Angles  of  the  two  principalities  formed  the  aggressive 
•element  in  the  country,  and  were  either  constantly  in  con- 
flict with  each  other  or  with  the  Britons  to  the  west  of 
them.  In  567,  Hussa,  of  Bernicia,  took  advantage  of  the 
sadly  disorganized  condition  of  the  native  tribes,  and 
made  several  highly  profitable  forays  into  their  settle- 
ments. The  losses  thus  caused  had  the  effect  of  bringing 
the  different  races  to  their  senses.  They  seemed  to  realise, 
.at  last,  that  they  were  powerless  while  divided ;  and, 
therefore,  as  a  great  tribal  battle  near  Carlisle,  in  573, 
had  established  the  supremacy  of  the  hardy  Gadeni,  the 
leaders  of  that  people  succeeded  in  bringing  about  a  union 
for  mutual  defence.  The  Britons  of  Lancashire,  Cumbria, 
and  the  whole  of  the  western  lowlands  were  included  in 
this  new  confederacy,  and  it  was  thenceforth  known  as 
the  Kingdom  of  Strathclyde.  It  was  separated  from 
Angle-land  on  the  north-west  by  the  great  forest  of 
Ettrick  ;  and  by  that  formidable  earthen  rampart,  called 
the  Cattrail,  which  runs  from  near  Galashiels,  through 
the  county  of  Selkirk,  to  Peel  Fell  on  the  south  side  of 
Liddesdale.  Every  available  hill  was  at  once  strength- 
ened by  earthen  terraces  ;  stores  were  accumulated  for 
the  men  who  had  to  defend  them;  and  the  passes  all 
along  the  frontier  were  placed  in  readiness  for  the  deci- 
sive struggle  that  was  so  speedily  to  ensue. 


If  the  men  of  Strathclyde  had  boldly  assumed  the 
offensive,  it  is  probable  that  a  march  into  Coquetdale,  or 
a  determined  dash  down  the  valley  of  the  North  Tyne, 
would  have  enabled  them  to  wrest  much  of  their  lost  ter- 
ritory from  the  Anglian  holders.  But  though  secretly 
preparing  for  a  great  battle,  they  could  not  restrain  their 
ardour,  and  a  series  of  small  but  annoying  raids  served  to 
acquaint  their  enemies  with  what  was  going  forward.  It 
thus  happened  that,  while  the  Britons  were  gradually 
concentrating  for  an  attack  that  should  be  irresistible,  the 
Angles  were  made  acquainted  with  all  their  movements, 
and  were  in  that  way  enabled  to  take  precautions  against 
the  expected  onslaught.  It  was  not  until  the  autumn  of 
580  that  the  native  allies  decided  upon  a  general  advance. 
The  harvest  season  had  just  concluded  when  they  began 
to  assemble  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Cattrail,  and  every 
British  tribe  was  represented  by  its  most  trusty  "braves." 
The  combined  force  was  under  the  command  of  Urien — a 
chivalrous  old  chieftain  from  the  foot  of  Helvellyn— who 
had  oft  before  taken  the  initiative  against  the  Angles. 
He  is  reputed  to  have  been  a  nephew  of  the  Southern 
Arthur,  and  to  have  performed  deeds  that  even  the 

Knights  of  the  Round  Table  had  never  surpassed.  When 
he  took  charge  of  his  followers  in  the  present  instance, 
he  found  a  mighty  array  of  warriors  around  him.  They 
had  an  abundance  of  provisions  ;  a  numerous  camp  fol- 
lowing; and  made  merry,  over  their  bright  and  pleasantly 
tasted  mead,  in  many  a  torchlight  glen.  But  "  the  yel- 
low beverage,  though  sweet,  was  ensnaring."  It  made 
the  reapers  sing  of  war — war  with  the  shining  wing — but 
it  was  as  fatal  as  poison  in  the  action  they  were  preparing 
to  fight.  It  raised  their  courage  and  enthusiasm  to  the 
utmost ;  but  it  dulled  the  cunning  of  their  brain.  And 
yet  they  never  needed  their  acuteness  more  than  in  the 
enterprise  before  them.  The  antagonist  they  were  about 
to  meet  was  the  wily  Theodoric,  one  of  the  most  powerful 
sons  of  Ida,  and  a  man  who  never  lost  a  chance.  Like 
his  father,  he  also  had  gained  an  unenviable  reputation 
as  the  Flamddwyn,  or  Flame-bearer,  and  his  acts  afforded 
ample  justification  for  the  title.  No  sooner  did  he  learn 
that  the  Britons  were  leaving  their  homes  for  the  ren- 
dezvous in  the  Cheviots,  than  he  sent  his  emissaries  to 
plunder  the  deserted  settlements,  and  to  destroy  all  that 
could  not  be  carried  away.  But  while  numerous  bands  of 
his  savage  adherents  were  thus  employed,  he  did  not 
forget  the  danger  which  threatened  his  own  frontier. 
Many  of  the  abandoned  hill  retreats  were  quietly  occu- 
pied, and,  having  greatly  improved  their  defensive  works, 


strong  garrisons  were  left  in  charge  of  them.  Sloping 
entrenchments  became  in  this  way  very  noticeable  fea- 
tures on  every  piece  of  rising  ground,  and  serious  ob- 
stacles they  must  have  proved  to  any  assailants.  Having 
thus  provided  places  that  would  check  the  pursuers — in 
case  of  an  unexpected  reverse  to  his  arms — Theodoric 
headed  his  finely  equipped  forces  in  the  direction  of  his 
carousing  adversaries.  He  found  them  gathered  near  the 
fort  of  Guinion— which  was  the  key  to  the  kingdom  of 
Bernicia  on  the  north-west — and  around  this  spot  the 
clang  of  battle  resounded  for  an  entire  week.  The  posi- 
tion of  the  stronghold  is  not  very  clearly  defined.  Some 
writers  give  the  locality  as  on  the  side  of  Peel  Hill,  near 
the  source  of  the  Liddel ;  others  near  the  head  of 
Stanhope  Burn ;  and  others,  again,  at  a  secluded  spot 
near  the  junction  of  the  Tweed  and  Gala  water.  A  few, 
without  much  evidence  to  sustain  their  contention,  have 
asserted  that  the  scene  of  the  conflict  was  at  Ewart,  on 
the  south-east  corner  of  Millfield  Plain,  and  that  it  took 



I  February 

place  "against  Ida  in  570."  A  battle  may  very  likely 
have  been  (ought  against  the  Britons  in  Glendale ;  but  aa 
the  digging  up  of  bronze  swords  appears  to  be  the  principal 
evidence,  it  is  nearly  certain  that  the  date  of  such  a 
struggle  must  be  fixed  a  century  or  a  century  and  a  half 
earlier  than  the  period  under  notice.  Contact  with 
Rome  had  quickly  proved  the  inutility  of  bronze  as  a 
material  for  defensive  weapons,  and  the  Britons,  even 
before  the  Saxon  advance,  were  nearly  as  well  armed  as 
their  piratical  invaders.  But  there  is  another,  and 

Turnpike  Ijoai 

equally  strong,  objection  to  the  Ewart  theory.  There 
could  be  no  battle  with  the  famous  Ida  in  570,  as  that 
ruler  died  after  a  reign  of  only  twelve  years,  and  had 
been  succeeded  by  Hussa  and  other  of  his  sons  before  the 
advent  of  Theodoric.  It  is  not  wise,  however,  to  dogma- 
tise about  an  era  so  remote.  All  that  can  be  fairly  said 
is  that  the  probabilities  seem  to  favour  580  as  the  date  of 
this  eventful  campaign,  and  that  it  was  continued  to  its 
bitter  end  amid  the  splendidly  fortified  slopes  of  the 
Cheviots.  Many  of  the  ancient  bards  have  dealt  with  its 
stirring  incidents,  and  have  conjured  up  ghastly  pictures 
of  the  scenes  that  were  enacted.  Their  accounts  do 
not  always  harmonize — especially  as  to  the  name  of 
the  British  leader — but  if  we  accept  the  version  of 
Taliessin,  who  was  a  friend  of  Urien,  there  can 
be  little  doubt  that  this  fierce  old  warrior  was  chief 
among  the  heroes  who  struggled  so  long,  and  so 
tenaciously,  for  supremacy  at  the  deep  war  ditch.  He 
was  the  "  guledig  "  around  whom  the  Britons  gathered 
at  the  rosy  dawn,  and  who  saw  so  many  of  them 
cold  in  death  before  sundown.  We  are  told  that  there 
was  a  "brow  covered  with  rage"  on  Urien,  when  he 
furiously  attacked  his  foes  at  the  White  Stone  of  Galy- 
stein;  and  that  many  men  were  "gory-tinted"  in  front 
of  the  slanting  mounds  they  strove  to  win.  Both 
leader  and  lieutenants  were  conspicuous  for  heroic  deeds ; 
but  it  was  for  the  grand  old  chief  that  the  highest  appro- 
bation of  the  chroniclers  was  reserved.  Exultingly  they 


If  there  is  a  cry  on  the  hill, 
IB  it  not  Urien  that  terrifies  ? 
If  there  is  a  cry  in  the  valley, 
Is  it  not  Urien  that  pierces  ? 
If  there  is  a  cry  in  the  mountain, 
IB  it  not  Urien  that  conquers  ? 
If  there  is  a  cry  in  the  slope, 
IB  it  not  Urien  that  wounds  ? 

But  prodigies  of  valour  are  powerless  against  a  well  dis- 
ciplined foe.  There  were  doubless  many  Saxons  who, 
"with  hair  white- washed  and  a  bier  their  destiny,"  would 
stand  shivering  and  trembling  with  a  bloody  face.  They 
were  not  alone,  however,  in  their  grief.  Hundreds  of 
stalwart  Britons  bad  dropped  beside  them,  and  were 
already  wailing  on  the  gravel  bank  of  Garanwynyon, 
when  the  noble  Urien  fell.  One  of  the  old  bards  tells  us 
how  the  truncated  body  of  this  hero  was  buried  on  the 
slope  of  Fennock,  and  how  the  head,  with  "its  mouth 
foaming  with  blood,"  was  carried  in  sorrow  from  the  field. 
Owain,  the  son  of  this  Cumbrian  Bayard,  also  met  hia 
death  at  the  hand  of  the  Flamddwyn,  and,  when  he  did 
so,  "there  was  not  one  greater  than  he  sleeping."  But 
the  fate  of  the  old  chieftain  and  his  son  was  shared  by 
many  other  mighty  warriors.  Of  the  363  tribal  leaders 
who  followed  him  so  furiously  to  the  onslaught,  there 
were  only  two  who  came  safely  from  the  "  funeral  fosse." 
Though  they  had  gone  forth  "flushed  with  mirth  and 
hope, "  and  had  dashed  repeatedly  through  the  Anglian 

None  from  Cattraeth's  vale  returned, 
Save  Aeron  brave,  and  Conan  strong. 

Their  golden  torques,  and  their  chains  of  regal  honour, 
were  collected  from  the  dead 
warriors  as  trophies  of  the 
hardly-won  victory,  and  their 
valuable  stores  were  plundered 
or  destroyed.  The  poorer  fight- 
ing men  had  little  but  their 
weapons  to  lose,  and  these, 
together  with  the  lifeless  hands 
that  had  wielded  them,  lay  for  many  a  long  day  after- 
wards amid  the  "  sweet  flickering  play  of  sunshine  on  the 
grass."  The  survivors,  utterly  dispirited  and  demorlized, 
fled  again  to  the  dreary  hills  and  moors  of  the  west,  and, 
for  a  generation  at  least,  never  again  ventured  to  question 
the  conquerors'  sway.  Like  thousands  of  their  brethren 
in  the  South,  they  were  compelled  to  seek  a  means  of  sub- 
sistence far  from  their  old  homes,  and  leave  to  the 
stranger  the  wooded  lands  they  loved  so  well,  and  for 
which  they  had  "  fought  with  such  sublime  tenacity." 


The  fortified  hill,  as  shown  above,  is  from  a  sketch 
in  Roy's  "Military  Antiquities."  It  is  known  as  the 
White  Cather  Thun,  and  is  situated  in  Strathmore. 
Though  not  directly  referred  to  in  our  article,  it  furnishes 
an  admirable  illustration  of  the  class  of  defences  which 
the  Britons  constructed  so  largely  in  all  parts  of  the 

We  are  indebted  for  our  ground  plan  of  an  entrenched 
hill  to  the  "Local  Historian's  Table  Book,"  by  Mr.  M. 
A.  Richardson.  It  represents  a  defensive  work  of  the 
Saxons— constructed  probably  on  a  site  from  which  the 
Britons  had  been  ejected— and  must  have  been  of  con- 
siderable strength  and  importance.  It  is  situated  on  the 
Coquet,  a  little  below  Harbottle,  and  doubtless  played  a 
prominent  part  in  many  of  the  early  campaigns  on  the 
Northumbrian  frontier.  In  addition  to  the  splendid 
protection  afforded  by  the  river  and  its  tributaries,  the 

February  1 
1889.      f 



triple  rampires  are  all  very  formidable  objects — being 
nine  feet  at  the  bottom  and  six  at  the  top,  and  having  a 
fifteen  feet  ditch  in  front  of  each  of  them.  On  the 
weakest,  or  west  side,  there  is  a  fourth  line  of  entrench- 
ments ;  but  on  the  north-east  the  face  of  the  hill  is  inac- 
cessible. The  interior  length  of  the  fortress  is  130  yards, 
and  its  breadth  90  yards,  so  that  it  was  capable  of  accom- 
modating a  large  number  of  fighting  men. 

The  drawing  of  the  torque  is  taken  from  a  sculptured 
monument.  The  outer  ring  is  only  an  enlarged  view  of 
the  ornament  round  the  neck  of  the  figure,  and  it  shows 
very  clearly  how  the  flexible  bars  of  bronze,  silver,  or 
gold  were  twisted  into  the  requisite  form. 

||T  was  customary  in  the  last  century  for  the 
men  of  the  village  of  Ford,  every  Shrove 
Tuesday  evening,  to  play  a  football  match, 
married  versus  single.  The  village  at  that  time  stood 
much  nearer  the  church  than  it  does  now — in  fact. 
under  the  very  shadow  of  Ford  Castle— and,  we  are 
told,  the  married  men  played  towards  the  church,  and 
the  unmarried  from  it.  Before  commencing  the  match, 
all  the  men  who  had  been  married  during  the  previous 
year  were  compelled  to  jump  over,  or  wade  through, 
the  Gaudy  Loup ;  otherwise  they  were  not  allowed 
to  join  in  the  game.  The  custom  long  ago  fell  into 
abeyance,  and  now  is  entirely  forgotten;  but  another 
custom  connected  with  the  Gaudy  Loup  is  yet  remem- 
bered, and  possibly  had  its  origin  in  that  connected 
with  football,  as  Brand  speaks  of  the  custom  in  the 
North  of  England  of  demanding  money  from  newly- 
married  couples,  at  the  church  doors,  for  footballs. 

The  Gaudy  Loup  was  a  pit  filled  with  water,  and 
generally  full  of  rushes,  that  stood  somewhere  on  the  site 
of  the  plantation  known  as  Neville's  Plantin',  and  in  close 
proximity  to  the  Delavals'  cock-pit.  The  Castle  Quarry 
in  this  plantation — so-called  from  its  supplying  the  stone 
for  the  rebuilding  of  Ford  Castle  by  Sir  J.  H.  Delaval — 
eventually  swallowed  up  this  pit,  and  another  and  the 
last  "gaudy  loup"  was  found  in  a  field  on  Ford  Hill 
Farm,  which  field  is  now  glebe  land,  on  the  south  of 
Ford  Rectory.  Some  years  ago,  the  custom  having  died 
out,  and  the  pit  being  a  nuisance,  Mr.  Ralph  Chisholm, 
the  tenant  of  the  farm,  had  it  filled  up.  Within  the  recol- 
lection of  old  people  still  living,  the  bridegroom  was 
required,  on  the  occasion  of  a  wedding  at  Ford  Church, 
to  jump  over,  or  wade  through,  the  Gaudy  Loup,  or  forfeit 
money  to  be  expended  in  drinking  to  the  health  of  the 
newly-married  couple. 

A  little  picture,  "Going  to  the  Gaudy  Loup,"  repre- 
senting Lord  Delaval  on  one  of  hia  two  favourite  white 
ponies,  Abraham  and  Isaac,  was  long  a  memento  of  the 
custom  to  the  villagers  of  Ford.  When  Lord  Delaval 
returned  to  Ford  Castle  in  1803  from  Seaton  Delaval, 
where  he  had  been  married,  in  his  old  days,  to  his  second 

wife,  Miss  Knight,  some  one  was  bold  enough  to  remind 
him  of  the  Gaudy  Loup,  and  his  lordship,  taking  the  hint 
in  good  part,  rode  up  the  hill  to  view  the  hole ;  but,  it  is 
needless  to  say,  preferred  paying  the  forfeit,  which  he 
did  in  a  very  handsome  manner.  The  little  picture,  in  its 
black  frame,  hung  for  years  over  the  fireplace  in  the 
cottage  of  Molly  Swan,  at  Ford,  until,  it  is  said,  it  was 
presented  to  the  Marchioness  of  Waterford  when  she 
went  to  reside  at  Ford  Castle. 

The  Gaudy  Loup  being  some  distance  from  the  church, 
the  paten  stick  seems  to  have  been  eventually  found  more 
convenient.  This  stick  was  placed  before  the  church  door 
when  a  newly-married  couple  was  leaving  the  sacred 
edifice,  and  the  bride  as  well  as  the  bridegroom  was  re- 
quired to  leap  it,  or  forfeit  the  usual  money.  This 
practice  not  being  in  conformity  with  the  ideas  of  the 
rector,  he  tried  to  discourage  it.  Other  influence  was 
also  brought  to  bear,  and  the  villagers,  not  wishing  to 
give  up  old  "  rights, "  abandoned  the  churchyard  for  the 
outside  of  the  churchyard  gates.  Here,  on  the  king's 
highway  (close  to  the  old  mounting  steps  for  pillion 
riders),  fearing  no  interruption,  they  tried  the  paten 
stick  again  ;  but,  the  stick  not  being  long  enough,  a  rope 
was  substituted,  either  end  being  held  at  one  of  the  gate 
piers.  Although  difference  of  opinion  exists  in  the 
parish  as  to  the  desirability  of  discontinuing  this  custom, 
the  young  people  who  scramble  for  "coppers"  on  such 
occasions  do  not  appear  inclined  to  let  it  drop.  Nor  is  it 
altogether  certain  that  the  bridal  parties  are  averse  to 
it,  for  not  long  since,  on  the  occasion  of  a  double 
wedding,  the  brides  and  bridegrooms  seemed  to  enjoy 
the  fun  as  much  as  any  of  those  present. 


A  "  Gaudy,"  or  "  Gaady  day,"  as  it  is  called,  is  a  high 
day  or  holiday  familiar  to  the  pitmen  of  Northumberland, 
as  to  the  authorities  of  the  University  of  Oxford.  At  the 
latter,  the  term  is  applied  to  the  day  when  the  governors 
dine  together  in  their  hall.  This  dinner  happens  only  on 
the  "  gaudies,"  or  feast  days.  Charles  Lamb,  in  his  "  Re- 
collections of  Christ's  Hospital,"  tells  us  how  the  lads 
there  saved  up  for  a  "gaudy  day."  In  Northumberland, 
a  day  devoted  to  holiday,  festivals,  or  revelry  is  known 
by  the  same  name. 

When  the  pitman  heard  the  notes  of  the  cuckoo  for  the 
first  time,  there  was  no  work  that  day,  for  all  hands  kept 
it  as  a  "gaudy."  And  so  the  observances  of  Shrove 
Tuesday,  or  the  festivities  of  a  great  wedding,  were 
equally  made  the  occasion  for  a  "gaudy  day." 

The  origin  of  the  word  is  plainly  from  the  Latin 
gaudium,  joy.  So  we  have  "  to  gaud,"  to  sport,  to  keep 
festival;  "gaudery,"  the  finery  worn  on  such  occasions ; 
and  the  "  gaudy  loup,"  or  leap  compulsory  on  the  festive 

The  custom  of  obstructing  the  exit  of  a  newly-married 



(  February 

couple  from  the  church  until  payment  is  made  to  the 
clamouring  villagers  is  a  very  common  one.  In  Cumber- 
land, the  gates  of  the  churchyard  are  all  locked,  and  the 
bridal  party  remain  prisoners  till  ransom  can  be  arranged. 
At  Bamborough  and  at  Holy  Island,  there  is  what  is 
called  "  the  petting  stone, "  over  which  the  bride  is  lifted 
as  she  leaves  the  church.  The  ceremony  is  said  to  be  a 
specific  against  her  "taking  the  pet";  but,  like  the 
"  paten  "  or  "  petting  stick  "  at  Ford,  the  object  of  the 
obstruction  is  to  obtain  a  money  equivalent  for  com- 
muting the  ordeal.  R.  OLIVER  HESLOP. 

JCtocr  jfamcrutf 
ilnircrrc  airtf 

K  Lake  District  is  celebrated  for  its  beau- 
tiful waterfalls.  Two  of  them  are  pictured 
in  the  accompanying  engravings,  one  of 
which— the  Falls  of  Lodore— is  copied  from 

a  photograph   by  Mr.   Alfred  Pettitt,  the  Art  Gallery, 

Lodore  is  situate  near    the 

head    of   Derwentwater,    and 

about  three  miles   from    Kes- 
wick on  the  road   leading  to 

Borrowdale.      The  locality  is 

strikingly  picturesque,  and  by 

some    writers  has  been  com- 
pared   to    the    Trossachs     in 

Scotland.      The    approach    to 

the   fall   is   from   the  rear  of 

an  hotel,  past  fish  preserves, 

over  a  foot  bridge,  to  a  wide 

chasm  filled  with   huge  boul- 
ders.     Above  tower  the  rocky 

heights  of  Gowder  Crag  and 

Shepherd's  Crag,  both  adorned 

with  many  varieties  of  foliage. 

The  view  of  the  chasm  with 

its  buttresses  of  rocks  is  the 

real  sight  of   the  place,   and 

not  the  stream  which  courses 

through  it.      Seen  on  a  sum- 
mer evening,  when  the  lights 

are  rich  and  the  shadows  deep, 

the  scene  is  grandly  imposing, 

whatever  may  be  the  state  of 

the  stream.    Lodore  is  oftenest 

visited  when  the  water  is  low, 

and  much   disappointment  is 
then  experienced.     To  see  it 

in    its     full    glory    the    fall 

should  be  viewed  immediately  after  a  storm,  when  the 
water  comes  down  with  a  thundering  sound  that  may  be 
heard  as  far  away  as  the  Friar's  Crag,  near  Keswick. 
Lodore  cannot  be  called  a  cascade,  being  an  intricate 
series  of  little  falls,  not  continuous  as  a  cataract,  but  split 
and  disjointed  by  rocks.  It  is  not  an  easy  matter  to 
arrive  at  the  exact  height,  but  in  the  aggregate  it  may  be 
about  150  feet.  The  instrinsic  merits  of  the  waterfall  are 
granted  by  all,  but  it  undoubtedly  owes  much  of  its  popu- 
larity to  the  rhyming  description  of  it  by  Southey,  which, 
extravagant  as  it  may  be  in  language,  is  not  far  from  a 
true  description.  Here  is  the  poem : — 

How  does  the  water  come  down  at  Lodore  ? 

My  little  boy  asked  me  thus,  once  on  a  time. 

Moreover,  he  tasked  me  to  tell  him  in  rhyme ; 
Anon  at  the  word  there  first  came  one  daughter, 

And  then  came  another  to  second  and  third 
The  request  of  their  brother,  and  hear  how  the  water 

Comes  down  at  Lodore,  with  its  rush  and  its  roar, 
As  many  a  time  they  had  seen  it  before. 

So  I  told  them  in  rhyme,  for  of  rhymes  I  had  store. 
And  'twas  in  my  vocation  that  thus  I  should  sing, 
Because  I  was  Laureate  to  them  and  the  King. 

From  its  sources  which  well 

In  the  tarn  on  the  fell, 

From  its  fountain  in  the  mountain, 

Its  rills  and  its  gills, 

Through  moss  and  through  brake, 


February  I 
1889.       [ 



It  runs  and  it  creeps, 
For  a  while  till  it  sleeps 
In  its  own  little  lake, 
And  thence  at  departing. 
Awakening  and  starting, 
It  runs  through  the  reeds, 
And  away  it  proceeds, 
Though  meadow  and  glade, 
In  sun  and  in  shade, 
And  through  the  wood  shelter. 
Among  crags  and  its  flurry, 
Helter-skelter — hurry -skurry. 

How  does  the  water  come  down  at  Lodore? 
Here  it  conies  sparkling, 
And  there  it  lies  darkling  : 
Here  smoking  and  frothing, 
Its  tumult  and  wrath  in, 
It  hastens  along,  conflicting  and  strong, 
Now  striking  and  raging. 
As  if  a  war  waging 
Its  caverns  and  rocks  among. 

Rising  and  leaping. 

Sinking  and  creeping, 

Swelling  and  flinging. 

Showering  and  springing, 

Eddying  and  whisking, 

Spouting  and  frisking, 

Twining  and  twisting, 
Around  and  around, 

Collecting,  disjecting, 

With  endless  rebound  ; 
Smiting  and  fighting, 
A  sight  to  delight  in  ; 
Confounding,  astounding, 
Dizzing  and  deafening  the  ear  with  its  sound. 
Reeding  and  speeding. 
And  shocking  and  rocking, 
And  darting  and  parting, 
And  threading  and  spreading, 
And  whizzing  and  hissing, 
And  dripping  and  skipping, 
And  whitening  and  brightening. 
And  quivering  and  shivering, 
And  hitting  and  splitting. 
And  shining  and  twining, 
And  rattling  and  battling 

And  shaking  and  quaking. 
And  pouring  and  roaring, 
And  waving  and  raving, 
And  tossing  and  crossing, 
And  flowing  and  growing, 
And  running  and  stunning, 
And  hurrying  and  skurrying, 
And  glittering  and  frittering, 
And  gathering  and  feathering, 
And  dinning  and  spinning, 
And  foaming  and  roaming, 
And  dropping  and  hopping, 
And  working  and  jerking, 
And  heaving  and  cleaving, 
And  thundering  and  floundering ; 

And  falling  and  crawling  and  sprawling. 

And  driving  and  riving  and  striving, 

And  sprinkling  and  twinkling  and  wrinkling, 

And  sounding  and  bounding  and  rounding, 

And  bubbling  and  troubling  and  doubling, 

Dividing  and  gliding  and  sliding, 

And  grumbling  and  rumbling  and  tumbling, 

And  clattering  and  battering  and  shattering ; 

And  gleaming  and  steaming  and  streaming  and  beaming 
And  rushing  and  flushing  and  brushing  and  gushing, 
And  flapping  and  rapping  and  clapping  and  slapping, 
And  curling  and  whirling  and  purling  and  twirling, 
Retreating  and  beating  and  meeting  and  sheeting,  ' 
Delaying  and  straying  and  playing  and  spraying, 
Advancing  and  prancing  and  glancing  and  dancing 
Recoiling  turmoiling  and  toiling  and  boiling. 
And  thumping  and  Humping  and  bumping  and  jumping, 
And  dashing  and  Hashing  and  splashing  and  clashing,— 


And  this  way  the  water  comes  down  at  Lodore. 

Colwith  force  is  a  waterfall  or  series  of  cascades,  on 
the  Little  Langdale  River,  situate  about  five  miles  west- 
south-west  of  Ambleside.     The  stream  is  broken  by  pro- 
jecting rocks,   rushing  amongst  them  in  four  falls  and 
intermediate  cataracts  to  the  aggregate  depth  of  152  feet, 
the  last  fall  being  about  70  feet.     It  is  hardly  possible  to 
see   the    whole   of  the    cascade  from  one 
point  of  view  :    hence  the  artist  has  been 
able  to  give  only  a  sketch  of  the  last  fall. 
The  view  from  below   is   very  grand,  the 
mountain  known  as  the  Wetherlam  rising 
grandly    above.      Colwith   force  is  much 
visited    by    tourists    during   the    summer 
months,  and  a  guide  who  keeps  the  key 
of    the  door  leading  to  it  generally  calls 
attention  to  the  remains  of  a  bridge  which 
was  thrown  across  the  chasm  for  the  conve- 
nience of  visitors  at  the  suggestion  of  Mr. 
Ruskin,  who  regards  Colwith  Force  as  one 
of  the  finest  of  its  kind  in  the  Lake  District. 
The  bridge,  however,  was  not  allowed  to 
remain  intact  very  long,  as  it  was  thought 
that  tourists  would  commit  depredations 
in  the  woods  on  the  opposite  bank  of  the 
chasm :     so     that    portion     immediately 
adjoining   the  south  side  was    destroyed. 
Sufficient,    however,    remains  to  afford  a 
standpoint  from  which  a  fine  view  can  be 




at  JHarft  'artoijrt 


!lid).u-t)  SMelforb. 

tr  Robert 


Like  as  the  brand  doth  flame  and  burn, 
So  we  from  death  to  life  must  turn. 

— Ancient  Brandling  Epitaph. 

j]F  we  could  trust  one  of  those  "  fables  and 
endless  genealogies,"  against  which  St.  Paul 
warned  Timothy,  it  would  appear  that  the 
Brandlings  of  Gosforth  enjoyed  "  the  claims 
of  long  descent."  For,  according  to  an  elaborate  family 
tree,  compiled  by  some  veracious  flatterer,  they  could  be 
traced  back,  through  seven  English  kings,  three  Scot- 
tish monarchs,  an  emperor  of  Germany,  and  a  noble 
assortment  of  dukes  and  marquises,  earls  and  baronets, 
not  to  mention  knights  and  esquires,  to  William  the 
Conqueror  and  Malcolm  the  Third  of  Scotland  !  But, 
whencesoever  they  came,  or  whatsoever  may  have  been 
their  relationship  to  the  high  and  mighty  personages 
above  noted,  the  Brandlings  were  undoubtedly  a  race  of 
strong-minded  and  courageous  men,  who,  from  the 
beginning  of  the  sixteenth  century  down  to  our  own  day, 
helped  to  make  local  history,  and  to  impress  their  works 
and  ways  upon  successive  generations  of  North-Country 
people.  In  the  old  times  they  were  distinguished  by 
strength  of  will,  tenacity  of  purpose,  and  a  kind  of 
blustering  independence  which  sometimes  mounted  to 
heroism  and  at  other  times  degenerated  into  obstinacy. 
At  a  later  period  they  were  leaders  in  political  warfare, 
pioneers  in  coal-mining  and  railroad  enterprise,  dis- 
pensers of  unstinted  hospitality,  and  either  promoters  or 
supporters  of  nearly  every  scheme  that  promised  to  bring 
substantial  benefit  to  the  industries  of  Tyneside. 

Robert  Brandling,  who  may  be  said  to  have  laid  the 
foundation  of  the  family  fortune,  was  one  of  the  sons  of 
John  Brandling,  Sheriff  of  Newcastle  in  1505-6,  Mayor 
during  the  first  year  of  Henry  VIII.,  and  thrice  after- 
wards. He  commenced  the  active  business  of  life  as  a 
merchant  adventurer,  and,  interesting  himself  in  muni- 
cipal matters  under  the  auspices  of  his  father,  was 
elected  to  the  Shrievalty  on  Michaelmas  Monday,  1524-. 
The  office  of  Mayor  was  conferred  upon  him  in  1531,  and 
he  was  chosen  to  occupy  the  same  high  position  (being 
also  Governor  of  the  Merchants'  Company)  for  the 
municipal  year  1536-7— the  year  which  saw  the  beginning 
of  the  Reformation  in  England,  and  the  end,  as  well  as 
the  beginning,  of  a  rebellion  against  it,  known  through- 
out the  Northern  Counties  as  the  "  Pilgrimage  of  Grace." 
At  a  muster  of  the  whole  population  of  Newcastle 
capable  of  bearing  arms,  taken  in  1539,  he  appears  as  an 

alderman  of  four  wards— Ficket  Tower,  Monboucher 
Tower,  the  New  Gate,  and  Andrew  Tower— able  to  offer 
for  the  king's  service  (besides  himself)  eight  servants  well 
furnished  in  all  points  with  bows,  halberts,  and  harness, 
"and  more  if  need  be."  He  was  Mayor  for  the  third 
time  in  15434,  when  the  Earl  of  Hertford,  coming  to 
Newcastle  with  an  army  for  the  invasion  of  Scotland, 
reported  the  town  to  be  "utterly  disfurnished,  and  un- 
provided of  all  manner  of  grain  "  suitable  for  the  victual- 
ling of  troops.  About  this  time,  too,  he  obtained  from 
the  master  and  brethren  of  the  Mary  Magdalene  Hospital 
a  long  lease  of  their  lands  at  the  north  end  of  the  town, 
including  a  coal  mine  in  "St.  James's  Close,"  with 
liberty  to  sink  pits  at  "Spittel  Tongs"  and  Jesmond 
Fields,  and  became  the  purchaser  of  the  tract  of  land 
belonging  at  the  Suppression  to  the  Nunnery  of  St. 
Bartholomew,  known  as  the  Nun's  Moor. 

Occupying  the  important  position  which  repeated 
occupancy  of  office  and  gradual  acquisitions  of  property 
indicate,  Robert  Brandling  was  able  to  entertain  at  his 
mansion  in  the  Bigg  Market,  called  "The  Great  Inn," 
Lord  Protector  Somerset,  who,  upon  the  accession  of 
Edward  VI.,  brought  another  army  to  Newcastle  to 
chastise  the  Scots.  Somerset  marched  away  to  the 
victory  of  Pinkie  Cleuch  (or  Musselburgh),  and  when 
in  honour  of  that  achievement  he  was  conferring  knight 
hoods  upon  the  chief  men  of  his  army,  he  remembered 
his  Newcastle  host,  and  made  him  a  knight  also.  On 
the  day  that  the  troops,  facing  homewards,  crossed  the 
Teviot,  Sir  Robert  Brandling  became  for  the  fourth 
time  Mayor  of  Newcastle,  and  shortly  afterwards  one 
of  the  town's  representatives  in  the  House  of  Commons. 

It  was  the  first  Parliament  of  King  Edward  VI.  to 
which  Sir  Robert  Brandling  was  elected — a  Parliament 
which,  following  the  policy  of  the  previous  reign, 
placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  Crown  the  chantries, 
chapels,  and  lay  guilds  of  the  kingdom.  Commissioners 
were  appointed  in  the  various  counties  by  royal  letters 
patent  to  survey  and  value  them,  and  Sir  Robert  Brand- 
ling was  one  of  those  who  acted  for  a  part  of  the 
bishopric  of  Durham.  The  closing  days  of  this  Parlia- 
ment (April,  1552)  were  marked  by  a  proceeding  which 
long  afterwards  was  cited  as  an  illustration  of  the  power 
of  the  House  of  Commons  to  punish  offences  against 
its  members.  Sir  Robert  Brandling  charged  Sir  John 
Widdrington,  Henry  Widdrington,  and  Ralph  Ellerker 
with  an  assault,  and  Henry  Widdrington  confessing  that 
he  "began  the  fray  upon  Mr.  Brandling,"  was  committed 
to  the  Tower,  his  alleged  accomplices  being  released 
Before  the  year  was  out  Sir  Robert  Brandling,  in  a  con- 
test of  a  different  character,  received  a  vast  addition 
to  his  already  considerable  territorial  possessions.  To 
understand  the  matter  aright,  it  is  necessary  to  turn 
back  the  pages  of  local  history  for  the  better  part  of  half 
a  century. 

On  the  26th  November,   1510,  Thomas   Surtees,  the 

February  1 
1889.      j 



last  of  a  long  line  of  his  name  who  had  held  the  manors 
of  North  Gosforth,  Felling,  and  Middletou-in-Teesdale, 
died.  His  father  had  been  twice  married.  Thomas  and 
a  sister  named  Catherine  were  the  children  of  the  first 
marriage;  from  the  second  union  came  a  half  brother 
named  Marmaduke.  On  the  death  of  Thomas,  his  sister 
Catherine,  who  had  married  John  Place,  of  Halnaby, 
claimed  the  estates  as  heir  (of  the  whole  blood)  to  her 
brother,  and  Marmaduke  claimed  them  as  heir  (of  the 
half  blood)  to  his  father.  While  these  claims  were 
pending,  Robert  Brandling  married  Catherine  Place's 
daughter  Anne,  and  became,  in  right  of  his  wife,  a 
party  to  the  contention.  Forty  years  passed  away, 
and  then,  on  the  5th  October,  1552,  the  suit  ended  in 
Sir  Robert  Brandling's  favour. 

The  acquisition  of  these  fruitful  estates,  while  they 
added  to  his  wealth  and  importance,  did  not  improve  Sir 
Robert  Brandling's  position  at  Court.  He  was  not  a  Refor- 
mer, or  a  friend  of  Reformers,  and  when,  in  the  begin- 
ning of  1553,  a  new  Parliament  was  ordered  to  assemble, 
and  the  King's  Council  "recommended  "  suitable  persons 
to  the  constituencies,  Robert  Levvin  and  Bertram  Ander- 
son were  elected  members  for  Newcastle.  Their  tenure  of 
office  was  not  of  long  continuance,  though  it  was  marked 
by  the  annexation  of  Gateshead  to  Newcastle,  and  the 
division  of  the  bishopric  of  Durham.  Queen  Mary  came 
in  during  the  summer,  and  the  Reformers  went  out.  Her 
Council,  adopting  the  tactics  of  their  predecessors, 
"  recommended  "  their  nominees  so  strongly  that  "very 
few  Protestants  were  chosen,"  and  Sir  Robert  Brandling 
regained  his  seat. 

Twice  more — in  1555,  under  Queen  Mary,  and  in  1563, 
under  Queen  Elizabeth — the  lord  of  Gosforth  and  Felling 
was  sent  to  represent  bib  native  town  of  Newcastle  in  the 
House  of  Commons ;  once  more — in  the  municipal  year 
1564-5 — he  was  elected  Mayor  of  the  town  and  Governor  of 
the  Merchants'  Company.  Between  whiles  he  served  on 
commissions  and  inquisitions,  and  discharged  the  various 
duties  attaching  'oo  his  office  as  an  alderman  and  magis- 
trate. From  a  complaint  made  against  him  at  the  Privy 
Council  by  Cuthbert  Bewicke,  it  would  appear  that  in 
March,  1562,  he  was  accused  of  treason ;  if  so,  the  charge 
must  have  broken  down,  for  it  was  in  the  following 
December  that  he  received  the  honour  of  election  for  the 
last  time  to  Parliament. 

Shortly  after  the  feast  of  Pentecost,  1568,  when  his 
younger  brother,  Henry,  was  Mayor  of  Newcastle,  Sir 
Robert  Brandling  died.  He  left  no  lawful  issue,  and  he 
had  made  no  proper  will.  A  paper  writing,  purporting  to 
be  a  testamentary  deed,  but  apparently  a  forgery,  was  ex- 
hibited by  the  Mayor  at  the  Consistory  Court  of  Durham, 
and  the  examination  which  followed  led  to  some  remark- 
able and  not  very  creditable  disclosures  respecting  family 
affairs,  all  of  which  may  be  read  in  "Depositions  and  other 
Ecclesiastical  Proceedings  from  the  Courts  of  Durham, " 
published  by  the  Surtees  Society.  William  Brandling. 

nephew  of  Sir  Robert,  who  was  away  at  the  time,  having 
"  suddenly,  upon  a  displeasure,  departed  into  Flanders, " 
was  declared  to  be  the  true  and  undoubted  heir  to  his 
extensive  possessions,  and  he  obtained  them,  and  held 
them  in  spite  of  the  efforts  of  his  relatives  to  dislodge 
him.  About  this  somewhat  obtrusive  member  of  the 
Brandling  family,  his  drunken  brawl  in  St.  Andrew's 
Churchyard,  and  other  immoralties,  there  is  enough,  and 
more  than  enough,  in  the  same  Surtees  Society's  volume. 



Luxurious,  avaricious,  false,  deceitful, 
Sudden,  malicious,  smacking  of  every  sin 
That  has  a  name.  i>h,akspearc. 

William,  son  of  Thomas  Brandling,  who,  as  we  have 
seen,  succeeded  in  1569  in  establishing  his  claim  to  the 
estates  of  his  uncle,  Sir  Robert,  did  not  long  outlive 
his  victory.  Having  sown  his  wild  oats,  and  married 
a  daughter  of  the  Newcastle  family  of  Holey,  he  settled 
down  to  enjoy  his  fortune.  But  he  had  been  no  more 
than  six  years  lord  of  Gosforth  and  Felling  when  he 
died.  On  the  2nd  October,  1575,  he  was  buried  at 
Jarrow,  leaving  a  wife  with  two  infants,  a  girl  and  a  boy, 
to  succeed  him.  The  younger  born  of  the  two  children,  a 
boy  aged  nine  months  at  the  date  of  his  father's  death, 
inherited  the  property,  and,  unfortunately,  he  inherited 
at  the  same  time  a  large  share  of  his  father's  quarrel- 
some disposition,  " Robert  Brandling,  heire  of  Felling,'' 
as  the  baptismal  register  of  Jarrow  names  him,  grew 
up  to  be  an  exceedingly  headstrong,  wilful,  and  turbulent 
personage — a  man  who  terrified  the  clergy,  astonished 
the  populace,  and  disturbed  everything  and  everybody 
that  came  within  the  range  of  his  influence. 

When  he  was  about  thirty  years  of  age,  Robert 
Brandling  did  homage  for  his  manor  of  Felling  to  the 
Dean  and  Chapter  of  Durham.  In  1610  he  obtained 
from  King  James  I.  a  grant  of  the  site  of  the  Abbey  of 
Newminster;  six  years  afterwards  he  added  the  ancient 
patrimony  of  the  Lisles  in  South  Gosforth  to  his  North 
Gosforth  manor,  and  about  the  same  time  obtained  the 
fertile  lands  of  Alnwick  Abbey.  The  shrievalty  of 
Northumberland  came  to  him  in  1617 ;  he  was  elected 
M.P.  for  Morpeth  in  1620  ;  from  which  date  his  public 
life  and  noisy  career  may  be  said  to  have  begun. 

One  of  his  early  manifestations  involved  the  Corpora- 
tion of  Newcastle.  The  journals  of  the  House  of 
Commons  report  that  on  the  26th  March,  1621,  he  moved 
that  the  patent  of  Newcastle  coals  might  be  brought  in 
"whereby  they  have  received  £500,000,  and  the  hostmen 
impose  2d.  upon  a  chaldron,  whereby  they  have  raised 
£200,000."  This  was  a  hostile  movement  against  a  local 
monopoly.  It  did  not  succeed  at  the  moment,  but 
within  a  month  the  Commons  had  included  the  *(coal 
monopoly  by  Newcastle  "  in  a  list  of  grievances  which 
they  sought  to  have  redressed.  Meanwhile,  the  Mayor 




and  Aldermen  revenged  themselves  by  reporting,  as  con- 
servators of  the  Tyne,  that  they  had  failed  to  obtain 
reformation  of  abuses  at  Felling  Wharf,  which  was  in  a 
state  of  decay,  and  had  had  soil  thrown  upon  it,  some  of 
which  had  fallen  into  and  obstructed  the  river.  Then  he 
set  the  Government  at  defiance,  for,  being  appointed  in 
1629  for  the  second  time  High  Sheriff  of  Northumberland, 
he  refused  to  serve,  and  fled  into  Scotland.  From  thence 
he  returned,  and,  making  his  peace  with  the  Privy 
Council,  accepted  the  office,  in  order,  as  was  believed,  to 
annoy  the  burgesses  of  Alnwick  and  the  ecclesiastical 
authorities,  with  whom  he  had  been  for  some  time  at 
variance.  Among  other  high-handed  proceedings,  being 
lay  impropriator  of  the  parish  of  Alnwick,  he  claimed  the 
pews  on  the  north  side  of  the  chancel  of  Alnwick  Church, 
and  went  and  occupied  the  seats  of  the  Duke  of  North- 
umberland— defying  both  the  duke  and  the  church- 
wardens to  remove  him.  For  this  and  similar  offences  he 
was  excommunicated — a  penalty  which  he  held  in 
contempt  and  openly  disregarded.  Then  he  dragged 
sixteen  burgesses  of  Alnwick  before  the  Star  Chamber, 
and  they  in  return  went  the  length  of  petitioning  the 
Privy  Council  to  take  him  in  hand,  alleging  that  not  only 
did  he  abuse  the  Church  and  Churchmen,  but  had 
"  several  times  laboured  to  take  the  life  of  his  own 
children."  He  had  become,  in  fact,  unmanageable  and 
unbearable,  and  the  whole  county  rang  with  his  offences 
and  misdemeanours. 

What  these  were  may  be  gathered  from  the  "  Acts  of 
the  High  Commission  Court  at  Durham"  (Surtees  Society, 
vol.  34. )  He  was  cited  to  appear  before  the  Court  on 
the  9th  of  August,  1633,  charged  with  various  offences. 
Remarkable  evidence  was  given  against  him.  For 
example,  at  Shilbottle  Church,  one  Sunday  after  prayers, 
he  called  the  vicar  a  "scabt  scounderell,  priest,  or 
fellow.''  To  Alnwick  Church  he  took  a  Scotchman, 
and  insisted  upon  his  preaching  there,  and  when  the 
curate  remonstrated  he  called  him  "  base  rascall,  idle, 
druncken  rogue,"  and  did  "  jumpe  him  on  the  breast  with 
a  little  staffe,"  and  struck  him  over  the  shoulder. 
Another  clergyman  of  Alnwick  he  abused  in  the  street, 
telling  him  he  was  a  "  druncken  rogue,  rascall,  hedg- 
rogue,  and  the  sonne  of  a  hedg-rogue, "  and  that  he  would 
draw  both  him  and  his  father  "at  horse  tayies  and 
banish  them  the  countrie."  To  Lesbury  Church,  where 
venerable  Patrick  Makilvian  (who  lived  to  be  a  cen- 
tenarian) was  vicar,  he  went  on  a  Sunday  afternoon,  and 
laying  claim  to  the  chancel,  ordered  the  clerk's  stall  to 
be  pulled  down.  The  vicar  told  him  that  no  one  had 
a  right  to  displace  the  clerk  but  the  Bishop  and  his 
court,  to  which  Brandling  answered  that  the  proudest 
bishop  in  England  durst  not  meddle  with  his  inheritance, 
and  if  the  vicar  interfered  he  would  pull  down  his  seat 
and  reading  pew,  and  as  for  the  "  usurping  bishops  "  and 
their  courts  they  were  but  "bawdy"  courts  to  oppress 
people  and  get  money  for  themselves,  while  the  High 

Commission  Court  at  Durham  was  "the  most  wicked 
court  in  England. "  He  further  abused  him,  calling  him 
a  "Gallaway  rogue,"  and  threatening  to  "ly  him  in 
prisonn  till  he  sterved  and  stincked."  The  Dean  of 
Durham  he  called  "Mr.  Devill  of  Durham,"  and  so  on. 
All  the  evidence  went  to  show  that  this  degenerate 
descendant  of  Sir  Robert  Brandling  was  a  most  quarrel- 
some, abusive,  and  immoral  man. 

It  does  not  appear  that  the  delinquent  paid  much  atten- 
tion to  the  proceed  ines  of  the  Commission.  He  appeared  at 
one  or  two  of  the  early  sittings,  and,  being  contumacious, 
was  committed  to  gaol ;  but  he  broke  the  prison,  and  set 
subsequent  citations  at  defiance.  So  witnesses  were 
examined,  and  the  judgment  of  the  Court  was  pro- 
nounced in  1634-  in  his  absence.  The  Commissioners 
sentenced  him  to  imprisonment  during  the  king's  pleasure, 
to  be  excommunicated,  to  make  public  submission  in  the 
church  of  Alnwick,  and  in  St.  Nicholas',  Newcastle,  on 
several  Sundays,  and  to  pay  a  fine  of  £3,000  and  costs. 

Whether  Robert  Brandling  paid  the  fine,  or  whether 
he  remained  contumacious  to  the  last,  are  questions  that 
cannot  be  answered.  Crown  and  Church  had  soon  more 
serious  matters  on  their  hands  than  the  punishment  of  a 
reprobate  Northumbrian,  and  it  is  possible  that,  in  the 
troubled  times  which  followed,  the  delinquent  and  his 
delinquencies  were  overlooked  and  forgotten.  The  date 
of  his  death  is  also  unknown.  One  "Robert  Branling  " 
was  buried  in  St.  Nicholas'  Church,  Newcastle,  in  1636, 
but  there  is  no  evidence  to  identify  him  as  the  turbulent 
squire,  and  conjectures  are  useless.  All  that  can  be  said 
for  certain  is  that,  having  been  twice  married,  first  to 
Jane,  daughter  of  Francis  Wortley,  of  Wortley,  and 
secondly  to  Mary,  daughter  of  Thomas,  Baron  of  Hilton, 
he  left  six  sons,  the  eldest  of  whom,  afterwards  Sit 
Francis  Brandling,  of  Alnwick  Abbey,  succeeded  him, 
and  that  none  of  them  inherited,  in  any  marked  degree, 
their  father's  propensities. 


Brandling  for  ever  and  Ridley  for  aye, 
Brandling  and  Ridley  carries  the  day  : 
Brandling  for  ever  and  Ridley  for  aye. 
There's  plenty  of  coals  on  our  waggon  way. 

—Pitman's  Sony. 

Sir  Francis  Brandling,  eldest  of  the  six  sons  born  of 
the  marriages  of  the  quarrelsome  Alnwick  squire,  was 
elected  M.P.  for  Northumberland  during  his  father's 
lifetime.  He  sat  in  the  last  Parliament  of  King  James 
I.,  and  the  first  Parliament  of  King  Charles  I.  (Feb., 
1624,  to  Aug.,  1625),  and  in  1627  was  High  Sheriff  of  the 
county.  Like  his  father,  he  was  twice  married.  Like 
him,  als»,  he  had  six  sons.  There  was  no  immediate 
fear,  therefore,  of  the  race  dying  out.  His  heir,  Charles 
Brandling  (1)  wedded  Annie  Pudsey,  of  Plessy — an 
heiress,  whose  mother  was  a  Widdrington.  The  third 
son  of  this  marriage,  Ralph  Brandling,  sold  Alnwick 




Abbey  to  John  Doubleday,  a  Quaker,  and  brought  (by 
marriage)  the  estate  of  Middleton,  near  Leeds,  into 
the  family.  Dying  without  progeny,  as  two  elder 
brothers  had  done  before  him,  he  left  Middleton  to  the 
next  heir — his  brother  Charles  Brandling  (2),  who  had 
married  Margaret,  daughter  of  John  Grey,  of  Howick, 
ancestor  of  Earl  Grey.  Ralph  Brandling  (2)  the  only  SOD 
•of  Charles  Brandling  (2)  inherited  Felling,  Gosforth,  and 
Middleton,  and  transmitted  them  to  his  second  son, 
Charles  Brandling  number  three. 

A  considerable  interval  of  abstinence  from  public 
affairs  on  the  part  of  the  Brandling  family  had  occurred 
since  Sir  Francis  held  high  office  in  the  county  of 
Northumberland.  Charles  Brandling  the  third  was 
destined  to  end  it.  He  was  united  on  the  1st  September, 
1756,  to  Elizabeth,  heiress  of  John  Thompson,  of 
Shotton,  and  shortly  afterwards,  finding  the  old  seat 
of  the  Brandlings  at  Felling  inadequate  to  his  ideas 
of  a  family  residence,  he  erected  Gosforth  House,  and 
took  up  his  permanent  abode  there.  During  twenty 
years,  surrendering  most  of  his  time  to  local  business, 
and  making  himself  useful  and  popular  in  town  and 
county,  he  prepared  himself  for  more  responsible  duties. 
In  1784,  having  a  couple  of  years  earlier  filled  the  office 
of  High  Sheriff  of  Northumberland,  he  was  elected  with 
Sir  Matthew  White  Ridley  to  represent  Newcastle  in 
Parliament.  Opposition  to  his  return  had  been  threat- 
ened by  Stoney  Bowes,  the  profligate  husband  of  Lady 
Strathmore,  who  had  represented  the  town  in  the 
previous  Parliament,  but  it  did  not  reach  the  polling 
booth.  Such  was  the  influence  of  the  united  names  of 
Ridley  and  Brandling  in  Newcastle,  that  for  many 
years  no  one  ventured  upon  a  hostile  candidature.  When 
Mr.  Brandling  retired,  at  the  close  of  1797,  the  seat 
was  taken,  as  a  matter  of  course,  by  his  son,  Charles 
John,  born  February  4,  1769. 

Charles  John  Brandling  entered  public  life  with  every 
possible  advantage  in  his  favour.  The  family  influence 
was  far-reaching ;  the  family  relationships  were  wide- 
spreading.  Four  of  his  sisters  were  married — Eleanor  to 
William  Ord,  of  Fenham  ;  Margaret  to  Rowland  Burdon, 
of  Castle  Eden,  the  builder  of  Wearmouth  Bridee  ;  Eliza- 
beth to  Ralph  William  Grey,  of  Backworth  ;  Sarah  to 
Matthew  Bell,  of  Woolsington.  He  himself  had  been 
united,  four  years  previous  to  his  election,  to  a  daughter 
of  the  ancient  house  of  Hawksworth,  of  Hawksworth  in 
Yorkshire.  His  wealth,  too,  if  not  profuse,  was  abund- 
ant. Improved  methods  of  cultivating  the  soil  and  a 
growing  demand  for  mineral  fuel  were  increasing  the 
revenues  of  his  inheritance;  and  Gosforth  and  Felling 
were  taking  their  place  among  the  most  profitable  estates 
upon  Tyneside.  Riches,  county  influence,  and  the  un- 
bounded confidence  of  a  powerful  borough  constituency 
form  admirable  stepping  stones  to  a  useful  and  prosperous 
career.  Possessing  all  these,  young  Mr.  Brandling  be- 
'Came  the  rising  hope  of  the  Tory  party  in  this  district ; 

justifying  their  expectations,  he  was  returned  unopposed 
to  three  successive  Parliaments— those  of  1802,  1806,  and 
1807.  It  does  not  appear  that  he  made  any  great  figure 

Chas  Jni    Brandling. 

in  the  House  ;  but  he  kept  his  party  well  together  in 
Newcastle,  and  became  a  recognised  leader  of  Conserva- 
tive thought  and  feeling  in  Southern  Northumberland. 

At  the  dissolution  in  1812,  when  he  had  been  fifteen 
years  M.P.  for  Newcastle,  Mr.  Brandling  withdrew  from 
Parliament.  Not  that  he  was  tired  of  political  life,  for  he 
continued  to  inspire  the  local  adherents  of  his  party,  and 
to  guide  them  by  his  counsel  as  before.  But  other  and 
equally  important  matters  demanded  his  attention.  All 
over  the  North  of  Engrland  men's  minds  were  occupied 
by  the  growing  power  of  steam  —  perplexed  by  problems, 
and  sustained  by  possibilities,  of  applying  that  subtle  and 
potent  agent  to  purposes  of  locomotion,  both  by  land  and 
water.  At  the  Yorkshire  collieries  of  the  Brandlings 
John  Blenkinsopp  was  already,  as  we  have  seen,  working 
his  patent  "  iron  horse";  nearer  home  George  Stephenson 
and  William  Hedley  were  experimenting  in  the  same 
direction.  It  was  evident  that  with  every  fresh  appli- 
cation of  steam  to  engineering  more  coal  would  be 
required,  and  Mr.  Brandling  found  it  necessary  to 
curtail  his  Parliamentary  course  in  order  to  watch  over 
his  great  mining  enterprises,  and  prepare  for  their  exten- 
sion and  development. 

George  Stephenson  lived  at  this  time,  and  for  many 
years  afterwards,  at  the  village  of  West  Moor,  adjoining 
the  eastern  entrance  to  Gosforth  House.  Mr.  Brandling 
was  a  watchful  observer  of  his  proceedings,  and  became 
one  of  his  earliest  friends  and  supporters.  A  disastrous 
explosion  at  Mr.  Brandling's  Felling  Colliery,  in  1812, 
led  to  the  invention  of  the  safety  lamp,  and  when  the 
rival  claims  of  Sir  Humphrey  Davy  and  George  Stephen- 




son  to  the  honour  of  that  invention  were  being  discussed, 
Mr.  Brandling  took  the  side  of  his  humble  neighbour.  A 
sum  of  £2,000  had  been  presented  to  Sir  Humphrey,  and 
one  hundred  guineas  to  Stephenson — a  distinction  which 
gave  the  friends  of  the  latter  offence.  Mr.  Brandling 
was  consulted,  and  advised  Stephenson  to  publish  a 
statement  of  the  facts  upon  which  his  claim  was  founded. 
The  latter,  with  the  aid  of  his  son  Robert,  drew  up  a 
narrative,  and  when  it  was  finished,  after  many  correc- 
tions, and  fairly  copied  out,  father  and  son,  Dr.  Smiles 
tells  us,  set  out  to  put  the  joint  production  before  Mr. 
Brandling  at  Gosforth  House.  Glancing  over  the  letter, 
Mr.  Brandling  said,  "George,  this  will  never  do."  "It 
is  all  true,  sir,"  was  the  reply.  "  That  may  be,  but  it  is 
badly  written,"  and,  taking  up  his  pen,  the  squire  revised 
the  letter  and  fitted  it  for  publication  in  the  local  news- 
papers. He  took  the  chair  at  a  public  meeting  which 
followed,  and  when  a  subscription  for  Stephenson, 
amounting  to  £1,000,  had  been  raised — towards  which 
he  and  his  various  partners  contributed  275  guineas — he 
presided  and  made  the  presentation.  The  Newcastle 
Chronicle,  reporting  the  proceedings,  adds  : — "  The 
cheerful  and  convivial  spirit  displayed  by  the  chairman 
soon  infused  itself  into  the  company,  and  rendered  this 
meeting,  from  its  commencement  till  its  close,  a  scene  of 
festivity  and  good-humour  seldom  witnessed." 

The  "  convivial  spirit  displayed  by  the  chairman"  was 
a  characteristic  of  the  English  gentleman  in  those 
roystering  days  of  the  Prince  Regent.  People  dined 
together,  not  wisely  perhaps,  but  well  and  often  ;  and 
there  were  public  gatherings  and  patriotic  demonstra- 
trations,  which  always  meant  unlimited  health-drinking 
and  song-singing — the  "feast  of  reason  and  the  flow  of 
soul."  In  this  way  every  year,  by  organizations  called 
Pitt  Clubs,  "the  immortal  memory  of  William  Pitt" 
was  revered.  Of  the  Northumberland  and  Newcastle 
Pitt  Club,  started  in  1813,  Mr.  Brandling  was  a  founder 
and  the  first  President. 

The  martial  ardour  that  found  expression  at  these 
convivial  clubs  was  consolidated  shortly  after  their 
formation  by  commercial  depression  and  general  dis- 
content. Riot  and  tumult  broke  out  all  over  the 
country,  and  the  moneyed  classes  feared  a  general  in- 
surrection. To  allay  these  fears  and  prepare  for  eventu- 
alities in  the  North  of  England,  there  was  formed  in 
December,  1819,  under  Mr.  Brandling's  command,  "  The 
Northumberland  and  Newcastle  Volunteer  Cavalry," 
to  which  was  attached  a  troop  of  dismounted 
yeomanry  raised  in  Newcastle.  Before,  however,  the 
movement  could  be  made  effective  the  death  of 
George  III.  involved  a  dissolution  of  Parliament, 
and  Mr.  Brandling's  military  aspirations  were  engrossed 
in  political  warfare.  At  the  previous  general  election 
(1818)  Mr.  Thomaa  Wentworth  Beaumont  had  been  re- 
turned, in  succession  to  his  father,  as  the  colleague  of  Sir 
C.  M.  L.  Monck,  in  the  representation  of  the  county,  and 

his  conduct  in  Parliament  had  given  his  Conservative 
supporters  good  ground  for  dissatisfaction,  for,  as  ex- 
plained in  the  sketch  of  that  ardent  politician  (Monthly 
Chronicle,  vol.  ii.,  p.  194),  Mr.  Beaumont,  instead  of  sup- 
porting the  Conservative  Government,  voted  frequently 
with  the  Whigs.  It  was  determined,  therefore,  that  a 
candidate  whose  views  and  votes  could  be  trusted  should 
be  brought  out  to  oppose  him.  No  one  was  considered  so 
capable  of  overcoming  the  territorial  influence  of  the  Beau- 
mont family  as  Mr.  Brandling,  and  he  was  induced  to 
come  out  of  his  retirement  and  fight  for  his  principles  and 
his  party.  Preparations  were  made  for  a  severe  con  tes 
but  the  call  to  battle  had  barely  become  audible  when 
Sir  Charles  Monck  declined  to  renew  his  candidature, 
and  Mr.  Brandling  was  returned  to  Parliament  as  the 
colleague  of  the  man  whom  he  had  intended  to  exclude. 

On  the  13th  of  December,  1823,  the  Town  Moor  of 
Newcastle  was  the  scene  of  an  interesting  event.  The 
Volunteer  Cavalry  assembled  there  at  an  extraordinary 
parade,  and  with  admiring  ladies  and  civilian  friends 
massed  around,  Major  Sir  Charles  Loraine,  presented 
"the  lieutenant  -  colonel  commanding,  Charles  John 
Brandling,  M.P.,"  with  a  copy  of  "the  celebrated 
Warwick  vase,  found  in  Herculaneum, "  weighing  "  up- 
wards of  three  hundred  ounces,"  and,  adds  the  chronicler, 
with  visions  of  conviviality  flitting  through  his  brain, 
capable  of  holding  "about  eight  quarts"!  This  was 
almost  his  last  public  appearance.  In  little  more  than 
two  years  afterwards,  within  three  days  of  his  fifyy- 
seventh  birthday,  he  was  summoned  to  a  higher  court 
than  the  High  Court  of  Parliament,  and  a  few  days 
later  his  remains  were  buried  at  Gosforth. 

Summarising  Mr.  Brandling's  political  and  social  life, 
the  editor  of  the  Newcastle  Magazine  for  June,  1826,  states 
that,  although  he  never  made  any  pretensions  to  literary 
power,  his  conversation  was  that  of  a  man  of  cultivated 
taste,  and  of  an  enlarged  and  well-informed  mind.  He 
was  remarkably  quick  in  his  perception  of  genius  in 
the  fine  arts,  and  equally  eager  to  patronise  it.  To 
William  Nicholson  he  gave  commissions  to  paint  groups 
of  old  servants,  portraits  of  friends,  and  pictures  of 
favourite  animals.  He  purchased  Henry  Perlee  Parker's 
painting  of  celebrated  characters  in  Newcastle,  and  em- 
ployed him  to  paint  a  companion  picture  of  a  merry- 
making in  the  servants'  hall  at  Gosforth  House,  intro- 
ducing portraits  of  the  domestics.  In  private  life,  his 
hospitality  and  his  urbane  and  generous  disposition  were 
proverbial.  "  His  manly  and  candid  manner,  his  cour- 
teous behaviour  to  his  friends  and  acquaintances,  and 
his  affable  demeanour  to  all  ranks  were  such  as  it  would 
be  difficult  to  parallel  amongst  men  of  similar  wealth  and, 
connexions.  His  was  the  unostentatious  and  expansive 
and  all-embracing  hospitality  of  an  ancient  English 
Baron.  He  carried  you  back  to  the  welcome  and  the- 
cheer  of  feudal  times,  without  reminding  you  of  their 
servility. " 




Mr.  Brandling  left  three  brothers,  the  eldest  of  whom, 
the  E«v.  Ralph  Henry,  succeeded  to  the  property.  To 
this  clerical  representative  of  the  Brandlings  came  the 
misfortune  of  seeing  the  estates,  which  his  family  had 
held  for  300  years,  pass  into  the  hands  of  strangers.  He 
outlived  his  younger  brother,  Robert  William,  projector 
of  the  Brandling  Junction  Railway,  chairman  of  the  coal 
trade,  and  one  of  the  receivers  of  Greenwich  Hospital ; 
outlived  also  his  brother  John,  Sheriff  of  Newcastle  in 
1828-29,  and  Mayor  in  1832-33 ;  and  died  in  Newcastle  on 
the  26th  of  August,  1853,  at  the  venerable  age  of  81  years 
— "  the  last  of  the  long  roll  of  Brandlings  "  of  Gosforth 
and  Felling. 


j]HOLLERFORD  is  a  hamlet  in  the  township 
of  Humshaugh  and  parish  of  Simonburn 
thirteen  minutes'  ride  by  rail  N.W.  from 
Hexham,  on  the  Waverley  Routa  to  Edin- 
burgh. It  stands  on  the  west  side  of  the  North  Tyne,  in 
the  midst  of  lovely  scenery.  The  village  itself  has 
nothing  particular  about  it,  but  it  is  much  frequented 
by  anglers,  and  the  inn,  which  is  a  conspicuous  object 
in  our  engraving,  is  one  of  the  most  comforable  in 
Northumberland.  Moreover,  Chollerford  is  a  capital 
starting  point  for  tourists  bent  on  surveying  the  Roman 
Wall,  and  particularly  the  neighbouring  station  of 
Cilurnum,  or  Walwick  Chesters,  the  proprietor  of 
which,  Mr.  John  Clayton,  has  unearthed  a  "rowth"  of 
Roman  antiquities  such  as  is  scarcely  to  be  met  with 
anywhere  else. 

The  modern  name  Chollerford  is  a  mere  modification  of 
the  ancient  British  appellative  of  the  place— Coill-uirin, 
"wood  and  water,"  corrupted  by  the  Romans  into 
Cilurnum— and  with  the  Anglian  "  ford  "  added.  In 
long-past,  pre-historic  times,  sun  and  moon  worship  must 
have  been  prevalent  here,  for  the  Romans,  whose  usual 
practice  it  was  to  incorporate  in  their  theology  and  place 
in  their  pantheon  the  gods  whom  they  found  worshipped 
in  the  lands  they  conquered,  raised  altars  at  Cilurnum  to 
the  Moon  goddess,  known  to  the  Britons  as  Comh-bhan- 
teinne,  Latinized  Coventina,  "  the  lady  companion  of  the 
God  of  Fire,"  the  Sun. 

As  the  Tyne  is  subject  to  sudden  floods,  which  come 
down  almost  like  a  wall  of  water,  with  little  or  no  warn- 
ing, when  there  has  been  heavy  rain  up  among  the  fells, 
the  fords  and  stepping-stones  by  which  it  could  ordinarily 
be  crossed  must  have  been  always  unsafe  ;  and  so  the  pro- 
vident Romans  would  lose  no  time  in  setting  about  the 
building  of  a  bridge,  by  which  to  keep  open  their  com- 
munications east  and  west  in  all  seasons  and  weathers. 
It  had  long  been  known  that  the  vestiges  of  a  Roman 
bridge  were  to  be  seen  in  the  river  opposite  to  Cilurnum, 
and  within  a  short  distance  south  of  the  modern  village ; 

but  the  land  abutment  on  the  eastern  side,  which  is  by 
far  the  most  striking  feature  of  the  work,  was  not  dis- 
covered till  the  year  1860.  Successive  beds  of  sand  and 
gravel  had  for  ages  encumbered  it ;  and  at  the  time  of  its 
discovery  a  fir  plantation  grew  upon  this  deposit,  which 
had  the  fallacious  appearance  of  a  moraine,  or  glacier- 
debris  heap.  The  river,  too,  which  runs  very  rapidly, 
and  is  subject,  as  already  observed,  to  great  floods,  for- 
saking for  some  distance  at  this  place  its  ancient  bed,  had 
left  the  abutment  dry,  completely  submerging  the  corres- 
ponding work  on  the  opposite  side.  Dr.  Bruce  tells  us 
that  it  was  at  the  suggestion  of  Mr.  William  Coulson,  of 
Corbridge,  that  Mr.  Clayton  engaged  in  the  explorations 
which  revealed  to  archaeologists  this  fine  specimen  of  the 
engineering  skill  of  the  Romans.  Alexander  Gordon,  in 
his  "Itinerarium  Septentrionale,"  published  in  172b, 
describes  the  bridge  as  he  saw  it  in  the  beginning  of  last 
century ;  and  a  plan  of  the  whole  structure,  and  a 
bird's-eye  view  of  the  eastern  abutment,  is  given  in  Dr. 
Bruce's  great  work  on  the  Roman  Wall.  There  were 
three  water  piers,  the  foundations  of  two  of  which  are 
still  easily  discerned  when  the  water  is  low  ;  and  the 
third,  lying  under  the  east  bank  of  the  stream,  was  some 
time  ago  partly  exposed  ;  but  to  prevent  the  river  from 
encroaching  upon  the  erections  immediately  behind  it,  it 
was  found  necessary  to  restore  the  bank  to  its  original 

Agricola  is  believed  to  have  first  formed  the  adjoining 
station,  and  also  to  have  thrown  some  sort  of  bridge 
across  the  Tyne ;  but  the  works  were  certainly  recon- 
structed or  partly  repaired  by  the  Emperor  Lucius  Sep- 
timus Severus  and  his  undutiful  sons,  in  the  beginning  of 
the  third  century.  The  Notitia  place  the  prefect  of  the 
second  wing  (ala)  of  the  Astures  at  Cilurnum ;  and  these 
"  Sons  of  Somebody  "  (hidalgos)  from  the  skirts  of  the 
bleak  snow-clad  Vinnian  Mountains,  in  Northern  Spain, 
would  find  here,  though  in  a  latitude  twelve  degrees 
nearer  the  Pole,  a  climate  milder  than  their  native  air, 
and  scenery  unsurpassed  for  beauty  by  any  to  be  found  in 
their  native  valleys.  That  it  was  an  important  station 
plainly  appears  from  the  number  of  Roman  roads  that 
converged  upon  it,  and  the  great  variety  of  inscribed 
stones,  altars,  votive  tablets,  &c.,  dug  up  on  its  site. 
Some  have  conjectured  that  it  was  here  the  Emperor 
Alexander  Severus  was  murdered  by  the  mutinous 
soldiers  in  the  year  235,  and  that  Elfwald,  King  of 
Northumbria,  called  by  Simeon  of  Durham  "  a  pious  and 
upright  king,"  was  slain  in  A.D.  788 ;  the  locality,  at  any 
rate,  was  "near  the  Wall,"  and  Elfwald  was  buried  at 

During  the  troublous  times  that  succeeded  the  fall  of 
the  Roman  Empire,  the  bridge  over  the  Tyne  at  Cilur- 
num must  have  been  destroyed ;  and,  when  better  days  at 
length  dawned  on  Nortumberland,  another  bridge  on 
another  site  was  erected.  In  the  reign  of  Richard  II., 
Bishop  Skirlaw  granted  a  release  from  penance,  for  thir- 



(  February 



February  \ 
1889.     / 



r-^-n^^      |-  ^-^=£-^^-^i 
^  ^jt  ^J!jr_: 


teen  days,  to  all  who  would  contribute  by  labour  or 
money  to  the  repair  of  this  bridge,  which  had  fallen  into 
decay  "by  the  inundation  of  the  waters,"  "  whereby  the 
inhabitants  of  the  neighbourhood"  were  "in  great  dan- 
ger. "  It  would  seem  that  an  appeal  had  been  made  on 
behalf  of  the  bridge  three  years  before,  but  that  it  had 
nought  availed.  Repaired,  however,  it  now  must  have 
been ;  and  it  continued  to  be  serviceable  down  till  the 
year  1771,  when  the  ever-memorable  great  flood  carried  it 
away,  along  with  most  of  the  other  bridges  on  the  Tyne. 
Four  years  afterwards,  the  present  structure  was  raised. 
It  consists  of  five  arches,  four  of  which  are  seen  in  our 

23irritarTy  Castle. 

I  HIS  ancient  seat  of  the  proud  Norman  family 
of  the  Baliols  is  finely  situated  on  the 
north  or  Durham  bank  of  the  river  Tees. 
The  ruins  occupy  more  than  six  and  a 
half  acres.  The  rock  on  which  the  keep  of  this  superb 
relic  of  feudal  grandeur  stands  is  eighty  feet  perpendicu- 
lar from  the  bed  of  the  river.  From  the  highest  part  of 
the  ruins  the  visitor  enjoys  a  commanding,  beautiful, 
and  most  extensive  prospect  in  every  direction.  Imme- 
diately adjacent  to  the  river  the  banks  are  thickly 
wooded ;  at  a  little  distance  they  are  more  open  and  cul- 
tivated ;  but,  being  interspersed  with  hedge-rows  and 
isolated  trees  of  great  sire  and  age,  they  still  retain  the 
richness  of  woodland  scenery.  The  river  itself  flows  in  a 
deep  trench  of  solid  rock,  chiefly  limestone  and  marble. 

The  oldest  part  of  the  ruins  is  believed  to  date  from  at 
least  the  eleventh  century  ;  and  tradition  ascribes  the 
erection  of  the  castle  to  Count  Bernard,  son  of  Guy 
Baliol,  who  came  into  England  in  the  train  of  William 
the  Conqueror.  He  is  said  to  have  been  famous  for  feats 
of  arms  against  the  Saracens,  and  was  the  ancestor  of  the 
short  and  unfortunate  Baliol  dynasty,  which  succeeded 
to  the  Scottish  throne  at  two  different  epochs,  under  the 
patronage  of  the  first  and  third  Edwards,  kings  of  Eng- 
land. The  castle  often  changed  masters  during  the 
Middle  Ages.  Upon  the  forfeiture  of  the  unfortunate 
John  Baliol,  Edward  I.  seized  the  place,  as  well  as  the 
other  English  estates  of  his  refractory  vassal.  Bishop 
Bek  laid  claim  to  it,  as  belonging  to  the  regalia  of  his 
Palatinate ;  but  Edward,  instead  of  allowing  the  validity 
of  his  pretensions,  seized  upon  the  Palatinate  itself,  with 
all  its  pertinents,  and  bestowed  Barnard  Castle  upon 
Guy  Beauchamp,  Earl  of  Warwick,  in  whose  family  it 
continued  for  five  generations,  till  it  passed  into  the 
hands  of  the  Nevilles,  on  the  marriage  of  Anne  of  War- 
wick to  Richard  Neville,  the  King-Maker.  Warwick's 
daughter  Anne  brought  the  castle  once  more  into  the 
hands  of  the  Crown,  through  her  marriage  with  the  Duke 

of  Gloucester,  afterwards  Richard  III.  This  over-ambi- 
tious prince  made  it  his  chief  residence,  and  strengthened 
its  fortifications  for  the  purpose  of  bridling  and  suppress- 
ing the  Lancastrian  faction  in  the  Northern  Counties. 
Richard's  cognizance  of  the  "  bloody  and  devouring  boar" 
still  appears,  not  only  on  the  walls  of  the  castle,  but  in 
several  parts  of  the  adjoining  town. 

During  the  reign  of  Henry  VII.,  an  Act  of  Parliament 
was  passed  enacting  that  "  Barney  Castelle, "  which  was 
"in  theKyng'senheritaunce,"but  was  "a  lawless  place," 
in  consequence  of  the  disputed  jurisdiction  which  the 
bishopric  of  Durham  and  the  counties  of  York  and  North- 
umberland claimed  over  it,  should  in  future  be  deemed  to 
be  within  the  county  of  York  only,  "that  ys  to  sey  par- 
cell  of  the  Northryddyne  of  the  same  countie,  any  use, 
custom,  privilege,  or  other  matter  or  thynge  to  the  con- 
trarie  notwithstandynge. "  This  Act,  however,  does  not 
appear  in  any  of  the  statute  books,  but  a  copy  of  it  oa 
parchment  is  preserved  in  the  Harleian  Collection  in  the 
British  Museum.  How  long  it  remained  in  force  does 
not  appear. 

In  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  the  castle  waa 
amongst  the  wide  possessions  of  Charles  Earl  of  West- 
moreland ;  and  on  the  rumour  of  his  and  the  Earl  of 
Northumberland's  rebellion,  known  as  "  the  Rising  of  the 
North,"  Sir  George  Bowes,  of  Streatlam,  possessed  him- 
self of  the  fortress,  and  resisted  the  whole  power  of  the 
insurgents  for  eleven  days,  surrendering  at  length  on 
honourable  terms.  The  bridge  over  the  Tees  leading  to 
Startforth,  which  consisted  in  Leland's  time  of  three 
arches,  is  said  to  have  been  broken  down  during  the 
siege,  and  the  present  bridge,  consisting  of  two  arches 
only,  was  subsequently  built,  dating  from  1569.  The 
castle  was  afterwards  leased  to  Sir  George  Bowes ;  but 
James  I.  granted  it,  on  the  expiry  of  the  lease,  to  his 
guilty  and  unhappy  favourite,  Robert  Viscount  Brans- 
peth  and  Earl  of  Somerset,  on  whose  attainder  it  again 
reverted  to  the  Crown,  and  was  appropriated  for  the  main- 
tenance of  the  Prince  of  Wales's  household.  For  this 
purpose  it  was  demised  to  Sir  Francis  Bacon,  attorney- 
general  (the  celebrated  Lord  Bacon),  and  others,  for  a 
term  of  ninety-nine  years,  in  trust,  to  empower  them  to 
grant  leases  of  the  lordship  or  manor  for  twenty-seven 
years,  or  three  lives,  under  certain  rents,  for  the  prince's 
benefit ;  and  the  survivors  of  these  grantees  afterwards 
assigned  their  rights  to  Sir  Henry  Vane,  cofferer  to  the 
king,  who  obtained,  in  the  year  1635,  from  Charles  I.,  a 
grant  of  free  warren,  with  the  offices  of  Master-Forester 
and  Chief  Warden  of  all  Forests  and  Chases  within  the 
demesne  of  Barnard  Castle,  for  him  and  his  heirs.  Four 
years  later,  he  had  sundry  additional  privileges  conferred. 
William  III.,  in  1699,  created  Barnard  Castle  a  barony, 
and  it  now  supplies  one  of  the  titles  of  its  holder,  the 
Duke  of  Cleveland,  who,  besides  being  Earl  of  Dar- 
lington and  Baron  Raby  of  Raby  of  Castle,  is  likewise 
Viscount  and  Baron  Barnard  of  Barnard  Castle. 

February } 


During  the  Civil  Wars,  the  castle  was  held  for  King 
Charles,  but  Oliver  Cromwell  forced  the  garrison 
to  surrender,  having,  by  the  advice  of  a  deserter 
from  the  royal  army,  erected  batteries  on  a  command- 
ing eminence  on  the  Yorkshire  side  of  the  Tees,  called 
Towler  Hill,  whence  he  levelled  the  engines  of  destruc- 
tion with  such  effect  as  to  render  a  prolonged  resistance 
out  of  the  question. 

The  ruins  now  show  the  remains  of  four  courts,  enclos- 
«  ing  the  space  stated  above,   a  considerable  portion  of 
which  is  occupied  by  the  gardens  of  a  neighbouring  hotel, 
laid  out  with  great  taste,   so  as  not  to  interfere  with  the 
characteristic  features  of  the  place.    The  west  or  strongest 
side  of   the    castle,   crowning  the    lofty  cliff,    seems  to 
have  contained  the  state  chambers.     The  south  court  is 
cut  off   from  the  others  by  a  deep  moat,  and  a  wall  forty 
feet  high.   The  second  or  north-east  court  is  in  like  manner 
separated  by  a  moat  and  wall  from  the  two  smaller  courts 
which  lie  on  its  west  side.     The  third  court,  entered  by  a 
bridge  from  the  second,  lies  on  the  east  side  of  the  castle, 
between  the  south  court  and  the  fourth  court  or  citadel, 
from  which  it  is  also  separated  by  a  moat.     A  small  oriel 
window,  overlooking    the  Tees,   still  bears   the  boar  of 
Richard  III.,  carved  within  ;   and  at  the  north-east  angle 
of  this  court  is  a  great  round  tower,   known  as  Baliol's 
Tower,  about  fifty  feet  high,  and  one  hundred  and  fifty 
feet  above  the   river,    forming   the  principal  feature  in 
almost  every  view  of  the  castle.      It  bears  every  mark  of 
great  antiquity,  and  is  remarkable  for  the  curious  con- 
struction of  the  vaulted  roof.      It  is  said  to  have  been 
greatly  injured  during  the  last  French  war  by  the  opera- 
tions of  some  persons  to  whom  it  had  been  leased  for  the 
purpose  of  making  patent  shot.      The  area  of  the  castle 
contains  Brackeubury's  Tower,  formerly 
used  as  a  dungeon.     It  has  a  large  arched 
vault,  with  cells,  and  an  opening  at  the 
top  for  letting  down  provisions  to  the 
wretches  immersed  therein.     The  inner 
and  outer  moats,  with  the  sluices,  and 
the  situation  of  the  drawbridges,    may 
still     be     traced.       In    the     adjoining 
grounds,    called    the    Flatts,     a    large 
reservoir,  called  the  Ever,  was  formed, 
and   the  water  collected  in  it  was  con- 
veyed thence  in  pipes  for  the  purpose  of 
supplying  the  garrison,  as  well  as   the 
cattle  enclosed  within  the  walls  of  the 
outer  areas,   in  times  of  public  danger, 
for  which  protection  the  adjacent  lands 
paid    a   rent,    called   Castle-guard-rent. 
The   ruinous  state  in  which  the    great 
fortress  now  exists  is  said  to  be  mainly 
due,    apart    from    the    natural    decay 
through  time  and  neglect,   to  that  Sir 
Harry     Vane     from     whom     Cromwell 
prayed  the  Lord  to  deliver  him. 


Lartington,  which  is  one  of  the  prettiest  villages  in 
Britain,  or  indeed  anywhere  else,  and  which  enjoys  the 
rare  privilege  of  not  having  a  single  public-house  within 
its  bounds,  is  situated  on  the  south  side  of  the  Tees,  about 
a  mile  from  Barnard  Castle.  It  is  fortunate,  likewise, 
on  account  of  the  adjoining  hall  being  the  property  and 
residence  of  a  family  which  may  be  said  to  have  been  for 
several  generations  exceptionally  considerate  of  the 
highest  interests  of  the  people  within  the  scope  of  their 
influence.  The  Withams,  of  Lartington  Hall,  originally 
from  Lincolnshire,  but  settled  for  about  two  centuries  in 
the  North,  and  adhering,  like  so  many  of  the  County 
Palatine  and  Northumbrian  gentry,  to  the  Catholic 
religion,  have  intermarried  with  the  Howards,  Staple- 
tons,  Silvertops,  Salvins,  Dunns,  &c.,  but  are  chiefly  re- 
markable as  having  been,  many  of  them,  very  warm 
friends  of  popular  education,  and  patrons  as  well  as  cul- 
tivators of  science.  To  Henry  Thornton  Maire  Witham, 
who  died  in  1844-,  the  town  of  Barnard  Castle  is  indebted 
for  its  Mechanics1  Institute,  as  well  as  its  first  Infant 
School ;  and  previous  to  the  erection  of  the  incomparable 
Bowes  Museum,  one  of  the  chief  attractions  to  intelligent 
visitors  was  the  Witham  Testimonial  Hall,  in  the  Market 
Place,  raised  as  a  memorial  to  that  gentleman,  who  had 
been  president  of  the  institute  and  a  liberal  contributor 
to  its  funds.  Mr.  Witham,  who  was  distinguished  for  his 
love  of  scientific  research,  laid  the  foundation  stone,  in 
1831,  of  a  building  attached  to  Lartington  Hall,  intended 
for  a  museum,  which  he  furnished  with  an  extensive 
collection  of  geological  and  mineralogical  specimens,  as 
well  as  a  valuable  collection  of  paintings  by  the  most 
— j  esteemed  masters  of 
the  Italian  and  Flem- 
ish schools,  with  others 
of  more  modern  date. 
This  museum,  which 
is  freely  open  to  pub- 
lic inspection  at  all 
tunes,  has  been  en- 




J  February 
_\      1839 

entirely  remodelled  under  the  euperintendenoe  of  the 
Rev.  Thomas  Witham,  who  has  spared  no  expense  to 
make  it  one  of  the  most  attractive  and  interesting  institu- 
tions of  the  kind  to  be  found  in  England.  The  building 
shown  in  our  sketch  is  the  school-house  of  the  village. 


The  village  of  Cotherstone  is  not  far  from  Lartington. 
Near  it,  on  a  steep,  verdant  knoll  called  the  Hagg,  over- 
looking the  junction  of  the  Balder  and  the  Tees,  is 
a  fragment  of  the  mouldering  wall  representing  the 
old  castle  of  the  Fitzhughs,  Lords  of  Romaldkirk, 
the  last  of  whom  is  said  to  have  been  killed  by 
falling,  with  his  horse,  over  a  stupendous  rock 
rising  from  the  riverside  high  above  the  encircling 
trees,  and  known  as  Percy  Myre  Castle,  as  he  was  re- 
turning at  night  from  hunting  in  Marwood  Chase.  This 
is  only  one  of  the  traditions  and  legends  with  which 
the  neighbourhood  of  Cotherstone  abounds.  Indeed,  it  is 
the  very  centre  of  a  rich  folk-lore  district.  Another  tra- 
dition relates  to  a  solitary  rock  on  the  adjoining  moor, 
called  "the  Butterstone,"  at  which  it  is  told  that  during 
the  Plague  of  1636,  when  the  fairs  in  the  district  were  all 
"  cried  down,"  and  the  grass  grew  in  Newcastle  streets,  a 
kind  of  market  was  held,  the  country  people,  who  were 
afraid  of  visiting  Barnard  Castle  for  fear  of  catching  the 
infection,  bringing  their  butter,  eggs,  and  so  forth  to 
this  stone,  leaving  them  there,  and  retiring,  whereupon 
the  townspeople  came  in  their  turn  and  took  away  the 
articles,  leaving  the  purchase  money  in  a  bowl  of  water, 
its  passage  through  which  liquid  was  supposed  to  do 
away  with  the  risk  of  contagion.  Down  to  quite  a  recent 
date  Cotherstone  formed  part  of  the  parish  of  Romaldkirk, 
but  it  is  now  constituted  into  a  separate  ecclesiastical 
district,  with  a  fine  church,  of  which  we  give  a  view. 
The  village  is  most  noted,  however,  for  its  being  one  of 
the  last  places  in  the  country  where  the  old  custom,  once 
general,  of  christening  the  young  cattle  and  horses  sur- 
vived ;  so  that  at  one  time,  when  its  name  was  men- 
tioned, you  would  hear  it  said,  as  if  proverbially —  "  O, 
aye,  that's  Cotherstone  where  they  kirsen  cauves." 
Cotherstone  cheese  rivals  that  of  Stilton  in  flavour.  The 
village  is  largely  colonised  by  members  of  the  Society  of 

iternmrtt  CaetU 

RHE  ancient  town  of  Barnard  Castle  has  been 
the  scene  of  several  dark  tragedies,  one  of 
which,   shrouded   in   hitherto  unpenetrable 
mystery,   stands  as  a  notable  exception  to 
the  popular  belief  that  "Murder  will  out." 

Sixty    years    ago,    the    youths    and    maidens    of    the 
(town     and     neighbourhood     were     in     the     habit     of 

making  frequent  pilgrimages  to  the  parish  church- 
yard at  Startforth,  on  the  Yorkshire  side  of  the  Tees, 
to  visit  the  grave  of  the  hapless  Hannah  Latham. 
This  poor  girl  belonged  to  Lartington.  She  was  an 
orphan,  nineteen  years  of  age,  and  lived  as  farm  servant 
in  the  immediate  vicinity.  Being  induced  to  visit 
Barnard  Castle,  she  got  into  a  dancing-room  in 
a  public-house,  where  she  remained  till  a  late  hour. 
A  villain  volunteered  to  see  her  home,  and  on 
the  way  thither,  at  a  lonely  part  of  the  road,  he 
took  advantage  of  the  poor  girl's  helplessness,  committed 
a  brutal  outrage,  and,  maddened  by  her  stout  resistance, 
maltreated  her  in  such  a  way  as  to  cause  her  death.  -In 
the  morning  her  dead  body  was  found  at  the  road  side. 
Singular  to  say,  the  miscreant  was  never  discovered.  In 
memory  of  a  tragedy  so  shocking  and  so  mysterious,  a 
pretty  obelisk  was  erected.  The  traveller  from  Barnard 
Castle  to  Bowes,  Stainmoor,  or  Brough  may  see  it  from 
the  road  as  he  passes.  There  is  an  inscription  on  the 
stone  to  this  effect  — 

This  pedestal  is  raised  by  voluntary  donations  to  the 
memory  of  Hannah  Latham,  who  fell  the  victim  of  a 
sanguinary  villain  on  the  Brignall  Road,  within  a  mile  of 
this  place,  on  the  1st  of  January,  1813,  and  in  the  19th 
year  of  her  age. 

Ill-fated  orphan,  though  no  parent's  tear 
Was  fondly  shed  in  anguish  o'er  thy  bier. 
Yet  shall  thy  murderer,  while  on  earth,  remain 
The  victim  of  remorse,  despair,  and  shame. 

A  much  older  story  of  crime  is  recorded  in  "The 
Barnard  Castle  Tragedy"  of  local  collectors,  Joseph 
Ritson  having  giving  it  that  title  in  his  "Bishopric  Gar- 
land," from  whence  the  ballad  has  been  copied  into  the 
legendary  division  of  Richardson's  "Local  Historians 
Table  Book."  This  ballad  shows  how  one  John  Atkin- 
son, of  Murten,  near  Appleby,  servant  to  Thomas  How- 
son,  miller,  at  Barnard  Castle  Bridge  End,  courted  How- 
son's  sister  Elizabeth  ;  how,  after  he  had  gained  her 
affections,  he  paid  court  to  another  ;  how  he  married 
this  other  by  the  treacherous  advice  of  one  Thomas 
Skelton,  who,  to  save  the  priest's  fees,  performed  the 
ceremony  himself  ;  and  how  Elizabeth,  upon  hearing  the 
news,  broke  her  heart,  and  bled  to  death  on  the  spot. 
The  writer  of  the  ballad,  after  relating  Atkinson's  deceit, 
proceeds  thus  : — 

Then  he  made  all  alike,  Betty's  no  more  his  dear  ; 
Drinking  was  his  delight,  his  senses  to  doze, 
Keeping  lewd  company,  when  be  should  repose  ; 
Her  money  being  spent,  and  they  would  tick  no  more, 
Then  with  a  face  of  brass  he  asked  poor  Betty  for  more. 

He  at  length  met  with  one,  a  serving  maid  in  town  ; 

She  for  good  ale  and  beer  oft  time  would  pawn  her  gown, 

And  at  all-fours  did  play,  as  many  people  know — 

A  fairer  gamester  no  man  could  ever  bhow. 

Tom  Skelton,  ostler,  at  the  King's  Arms  does  dwell, 

Who  this  false  Atkinson  did  all  his  secrets  tell; 

He  let  him  understand  of  a  new  love  he'd  got, 

And  with  an  oath  he  swore  she'd  keep  full  the  pot. 

Then  for  the  girl  they  sent,  Betty  Hardy  was  her  name, 
Who  to  her  mistress  soon  an  excuse  did  frame  : 
"  Mistress,  I  have  a  friend  at  the  King's  Arms  doth  stay, 
Which  I  desire  to  see  before  he  goes  away." 

February  \ 



Then  she  goes  to  her  friend,  who  she  finds  ready  there, 
Who  catch'd  her  in  his  arms — "  How  does  my  only  dear?" 
She  says,  "Boys,  drink  about,  and  fear  no  reckoning  large," 
For  she  had  pawned  her  smock  to  defray  the  charge. 

They  did  carouse  it  off  till  they  began  to  warm ; 
Says  Skelton  :  "  Make  a  match  !  I  pray  where's  the  harm?" 
Then  with  a  loving  kiss  they  straightway  did  agree. 
But  they  no  money  had  to  pay  the  priest  a  fee. 

Quoth  Skelton,  seriously  :  "The  priest's  fee  is  large ; 
I'll  marry  you  myself,  and  save  all  the  charge. " 
Then  they  plight  them  both  unto  each  other  there, 
Went  two  miles  from  the  town,  and  goes  to  bed,  we  hear. 

Then,  when  the  morning  came,  by  breaking  of  the  day, 
He  had  some  corn  to  grind,  he  could  no  longer  stay ; 
"  My  business  is  in  haste,  which  I  to  thee  do  tell " — 
So  took  a  gentle  kiss,  and  bid  his  love  farewell. 

Now  when  he  was  come  home,  and  at  his  business  there. 
His  master's  sister  came,  who  was  his  former  dear  ; 
"  Betty,"  he  said,  "  I'm  wed,  certainly  1  protest," 
Then  she  smiled  in  his  face — "  Sure  you  do  but  jest." 

Then  within  few  day's  space  his  wife  unto  him  went, 
And  to  the  sign  o'  the  East,  there  she  for  him  sent. 
The  people  of  the  house,  finding  what  was  in  hand, 
Stept  out  immediately,  let  Betty  understand. 

This  surprising  news  caus'd  Betty  fall  in  a  trance, 
Like  as  if  she  was  dead ;  no  limbs  she  could  advance. 
Then  her  dear  brother  came ;  her  from  the  ground  he  took  : 
And  she  spake  up  and  said  :— "  O  my  poor  heart  is  broke  !" 

Then  with  all  speed  they  went  for  to  undo  her  lace, 
Whilst  at  her  nose  and  mouth  her  heart's  blood  ran  apace ; 
Some  stood  half-dead  by  her,  others  for  help  inquire  ; 
But,  in  a  moment's  time,  her  life  it  did  expire. 

"This  story,"  says  Ritson,  "being  both  true  and 
tragical,  'tis  hop'd  'twill  be  a  warning  to  all  lovers." 

Barnard  Castle  was  the  scene  of  a  more  authentic 
tragedy  in  1845.  On  the  9th  of  August,  in  that  year, 
a  tailor,  named  Joseph  Yates,  who  had  been  drinking 
the  whole  day,  fell  in  the  evening  into  the  company 
of  three  young  men,  named  George  Barker,  Thomas 
Routledge  Raine,  and  John  Breckon.  These  youths, 
having  discovered  that  Yates  had  some  money  in  his 
possession,  determined  to  rob  him  of  it.  So,  about 
midnight,  when  he  was  in  company  with  a  woman 
named  Catherine  Raine,  the  three  lads,  with  a  girl 
named  Ann  Humphreys,  followed  him  to  a  place  on 
the  banks  of  the  Tees  known  as  the  Sills.  There, 
after  a  short  scuffle,  they  took  his  money,  and  then 
threw  him  into  the  river,  where  he  was  drowned. 
Returning  over  the  bridge  into  the  town,  the  men  urged 
the  women  to  swear  to  secrecy ;  but  as  Raine  would  not 
accede  to  their  request,  she  was  seized,  thrown  over  the 
parapet,  and  was  drowned  also.  Humphreys  then  swore 
to  keep  the  matter  a  secret,  and  was  permitted  to  go 
home.  The  bodies  were  found  a  few  days  afterwards. 

Humphreys  kept  her  oath  inviolate  for  nearly  a  year, 
and  it  was  not  till  near  the  end  of  July,  1846,  that 
any  arrests  were  made.  Barker  was  apprehended  at 
Shildon ;  Raine  at  Ecclefechan,  in  Dumfriesshire ; 
and  Breckon  in  Durham  Gaol,  where  he  was  confined  on 
another  charge.  All  three  denied  any  knowledge  of  the 

The  case  against  them  came  on  for  trial  at  the  York 
Assizes,  August,  1846,  when  Ann  Humphreys  gave 

evidence  to  the  above  effect,  fully  inculpating  the  three 
prisoners  with  the  double  murder ;  but,  inasmuch  as  her 
testimony  was  not  supported  by  other  witnesses,  there 
was  some  doubt  in  the  minds  of  the  jury  as  to  the  pri- 
soners having  actually  committed  the  capital  crime,  and. 
a  verdict  of  "  Not  Guilty  "  was  consequently  returned. 

Further  evidence  was,  however,  afterwards  obtained  to 
corroborate  that  of  Humphreys,  and  the  three  prisoners 
were  arraigned  on  April  7,  1847,  before  Mr.  Baron  Rolfe, 
for  robbery  only.  The  grand  jury  having  brought  in  a 
true  bill,  counsel  for  the  defence  put  in  a  special  plea  of 
autrefois  acquit,  which,  however,  was  disallowed.  The 
trial,  consequently,  proceeded. 

Several  witnesses  testified  to  seeing  Yates  in  an. 
intoxicated  condition  in  the  streets  of  Barnard  Castle, 
to  seeing  Yates  with  Raine,  and  to  seeing  Yates  and 
Ruine  afterwards  with  the  prisoners.  But  the  evidence 
of  Ann  Humphreys  was  of  the  most  remarkable  character. 
As  summarised  in  the  statement  of  Mr.  Bliss,  the 
counsel  for  the  prosecution,  it  was  to  the  following 
effect  :— 

She  went  to  bed,  she  stated,  between  twelve  and  one 
o'clock,  her  sister,  her  father,  and  her  child  being  then 
asleep.  Being  restless  and  uneasy,  from  some  unaccount- 
able cause,  she,  without  disturbing  the  rest  of  the  family, 
dressed  herself  again,  and  went  downstairs.  While 
standing  at  the  door,  she  saw  Yates  and  Catherine 
Raine  together.  Then  the  three  prisoners  joined 
them,  as  did  Humphreys  herself.  All  six  crossed  the 
bridge  over  the  Tees  to  the  Yorkshire  side  of  the  river. 
Yates  and  the  girl  Raine  walked  before,  followed  by 
Ann  Humphreys  and  Thomas  Raine,  Barker  and 
Breckon  bringing  up  the  rear.  As  they  were  going  along 
Raine  said  to  Humphreys: — "Yates  has  some  money. 
How  must  we  do  to  get  it  from  him  ?"  She  replied : — 
"  Poor  little  fellow  !  do  not  meddle  with  him.  He  will 
spend  it  all  among  you."  When  they  had  proceeded 
about  two  hundred  yards  along  the  Sills,  Barker  began 
to  quarrel  with  Yates  relative  to  a  coat  which  the 
former  had  been  charged  with  stealing  on  informa- 
tion given  by  the  latter.  Barker  asked  Yates  if  he  was 
going  to  appear  against  him  on  account  of  the  coaf 
Yates  answered  that  be  was.  Barker  then  struck 
Yates  several  times,  whereupon  all  three  of  the  pri- 
soners pounced  upon  him,  rifled  his  pockets,  and  threw 
him  into  the  Tees,  which  was  in  high  flood  at  the 
time.  The  two  girls,  naturally  horrified,  ran  back  to- 
wards the  bridge,  shouting  "  Murder  !  "  The  prisoners 
ran  after  them,  stopped  them,  and  silenced  their 
outcries.  They  threatened  that  they  would  murder 
them  likewise,  if  they  would  not  swear  secrecy. 
Raine  refused  to  keep  silence,  and  said  she  would 
tell  the  police ;  and  so  she  was  seized  and  thrown  over  the 
parapet  of  the  bridge.  Humphreys  begged  for  her  own 
life,  which  was  spared  on  her  swearing  most  solemnly 
never  to  divulge  what  she  had  seen. 





The  jury,  at  the  close  of  the  second  trial,  returned 
with  a  verdict  of  "  Guilty,"  and  Mr.  Baron  Rolfe,  in 
passing  sentence,  used  the  following  emphatic  language  :— 

It  is  impossible  for  any  one  who  has  witnessed  the  pro- 
ceedings of  this  trial,  not  to  feel  that  you  have  been 
guilty  of  two  of  the  most  barbarous  murders  that 
perhaps  the  annals  of  crime  ever  furnished.  You  have 
succeeded,  undoubtedly,  in  defeating  the  ends  of  justice 
hitherto ;  and  I  presume  that,  upon  the  first  trial, 
material  circumstances  that  have  now  come  out  in 
evidence  were  not  brought  forward,  either  because  they 
had  not  come  to  light,  or  were  not  known  to  exist ; 
for  I  am  perfectly  certain  any  jury  which  has  heard 
what  has  been  detailed  on  this  occasion  could  not  have 
the  remotest  doubt  but  that  you  barbarously,  and  not 
merely,  as  I  suspect,  for  objects  of  plunder,  but  from 
some  motives  of  revenge,  murdered  that  young  man, 
and  followed  up  that  with  equal  barbarity' in  murdering 
the  young  woman  ;  and  1  see  enough  to  convince  me  that 
•ou  formed  the  desperate  plan  of  murdering  Ann 

umphreys  also.  I  confess  I  feel  somewhat  ashamed 
that  the  law  is  not  able  to  reach  you  further  than  it  is. 
But  this  I  will  say  to  you,  that  whether  your  lives  shall, 
by  the  pleasure  of  God,  be  terminated  early  or  protracted 
late,  you  will  live  the  objects  of  abhorrence  and  detesta- 
tion even  among  your  guiltv  associates  amongst  whom 
you  will  be  placed,  who  will  be  ashamed  aud  contami- 
nated at  being  with  you.  The  severest  sentence  which 
the  law  allows  me  I  shall  pass  upon  you,  and  it  is  that 
you  be  severally  transported  across  the  seas,  to  such 
place  as  her  Majesty,  by  the  advice  of  her  Privy  Council, 
shall  direct,  for  the  space  of  fifteen  years. 

And  with  the  expatriation  of  the  three  prisoners  this 
singular  case  closed,  so  far  as  the  British  public  was  con- 
cerned. The  two  trials,  Latimer  tells  us  in  his  continua- 
tion of  Sykes,  cost  the  county  of  York  £1,309. 

air,  and  is  from  an  old  -MS.  book  dated  1764,  now  in  the 
possession  of  the  Antiquarian  Society  of  Newcastle. 



ljtt    £tokoe. 


pROM  the  earliest  ages,  satire  has  been  one  of 
the  most  powerful  instruments  in  the  hands 
of  poet  or  writer  to  lash  those  against  whom 
they  owed  a  grudge,  or  who  afforded  a  sub- 
ject on  which  to  exercise  their  talents  ;  and  priests  and 
ministers  of  religion  have  been  perhaps  more  than  any 
•other  class  the  butts  at  which  the  bolts  of  sarcasm  or 
raillery  have  been  launched. 

"The  De'il  Stick  the  Minister"  is  a  tune  which  has 
enticed  the  fancy  of  more  than  one  rhymster  to  fit  it  with 
appropriate  verse  ;  but  the  song  which  is  here  given,  and 
which,  we  believe,  was  composed  by  Mr.  John  Farrer,  of 
Netherwitton,  was  very  popular  about  sixty  years  ago  in 
Northumberland.  It  is,  too,  a  felicitous  example  of  that 
class  of  song  which,  pourtraying  the  characteristics  of 
some  well-known  individual,  and  wedded  to  an  air  which 
everyone  knew,  was  readily  adopted  and  sung  by  the 
community.  The  tune  is  a  well-known  Northumbrian 

Our     wile   she  keeps  baith  beef   and  yell   Aud 

tea        to      treat       the     Slin    -   is   •    ter;  There's 

nowt       for       me       but     sup       the     kale.     The 


beef's     for      the        Min     -     is     -     ter. 


sides,        a        hot   -  tie    keeps      in        by      To 

warm      his   breast  when     he's       no       drv  ;    While 



ter  ! 

Our  Minister  he's  now  fawn  sick  : 

Waes  me,  the  Minister  ! 
Wha'll  save  us  now  fra  Auld  Nick, 

Gin  the  Lord  tak'  the  Minister! 
Left  to  oursels,  we  ken  fu'  weel 
The  brent  upstairs  we  canua  spiel  : 
We'll  just  turn  back  and  meet  the  De  il, 

Gin  the  Lord  tak'  the  Minister. 

Our  Minister  he  has  nae  pride, 

Ne'er  a  bit.  the  Minister  ; 
He  just  sits  by  our  fireside, 

Kin'  he  war  no'  the  Minister. 
He  taks  the  gudewife  by  the  hand, 
Says,  "  John,  man,  sit  :  what  uiaks  ye  stand  ?  " 
Has  a'  the  bairns  at  his  command  — 

He's  a  holy  man,  the  Minister. 

The  covenant  he  can  explain  — 

He's  a  wise  man,  the  Minister  ; 
Thinks  na  religion  like  his  ain  — 

We  maun  think  like  the  Minister. 
The  Papists  are  a  wicked  sect, 
They  no  belang  the  Lord's  elect  ; 
Gin  Parliament  their  claims  accept, 

May  the  De'il  stick  the  Minister  1 

Our  Minister,  he's  aft  in  want  ; 

He's  a  puir  man,  the  Minister; 
Whate'er  he  wants  we  a'  inun  grant, 

We  maun  supply  the  Minister. 
And  aft  to  him  a  horse  we  lend  ; 
His  wife  and  bairns  on  us  depend, 
Tho'  our  ainsels  can  hardly  fend. 

May  the  De'il  stick  the  Minister  ! 

Yet  still  he's  useful  in  his  place  ; 

He's  a  braw  man,  the  Minister  ; 
At  ilka  feast  he  says  the  grace, 

Naue  fitter  than  the  Minister  ; 




And  when  the  glasses  come  in  view, 
He  says,  "  We'll  drink,  but  no  Ret  fou', 
Sic  deeds  the  Lord  does  not  allow." 
Yet  fou'  gets  the  Minister. 

He  preaches  loud  ;  he  saf  t  does  pray ; 

This  says  the  Minister — 
"Ye  need  no  fear  your  dying  day, 

Gin  ye  be  like  your  Minister. 
Ye'll  get  abune,  ye  needna  fear ; 
Be  sure  that  after  me  ye  speer. " 
But  faith  we  doubt,  when  we  get  there, 

We'll  no  see  the  Minister. 

ir  CStorge 

jjN  the  evening  of  the  21st  December,  1888,  in 
the  Cottage  Hospital  at  Hawick,  at  the  age  of 
sixty-one,  there  passed  away  a  man  (he  was  a 
wood-turner  by  trade)  whose  name  is  probably  by  no 
means  generally  known  throughout  his  native  county.  I 
have  good  authority — that  of  one,  himself  a  professional 
man  of  letters,  who  knows  the  Colonies  well — for  stating 
that  in  Canada,  Australia,  and  probably  the  United 
States,  the  name  of  James  Thomson  and  his  poems  of 
"Hairst"  and  the  "Wee  Croodlin  Doo  "  are  household 
words.  A  certain  amount  of  local  reputation  Thomson 
did,  no  doubt,  enjoy ;  still  it  is  difficult,  in  his  case,  to 
avoid  recurring  once  more  to  the  hard  saying  concerning 
a  prophet  in  his  own  country.  This  is  perhaps  scarcely 
the  time  or  the  place  to  enter  upon  a  critical  estimate  of 
Thomson's  poetry.  As  a  poet  he  has  no  breadth  of  range, 
little  originality  in  his  choice  of  a  subject,  and  perhaps, 
in  a  general  way,  as  little  in  his  method  of  treating  one. 
Yet,  in  spite  of  all  these  disadvantages,  the  fact  remains 
that  much  of  his  book — "Doric  Lays  and  Lyrics,"  pub- 
lished by  Dunn  and  Wright,  of  Glasgow — is  what  another 
local  poet  in  my  hearing  described  it  to  be,  "  real  poetry." 
In  proof  of  this  assertion,  note  in  particular  the  passages 
which  speak  of  children  and  the  life  of  children.  Again, 
if  they  be  not  "real  poetry,"  by  what  means  have 
Thomson's  lyrics  succeeded  in  winning  their  way  to  vast 
numbers  of  hearts  in  which  exile  has  perhaps  only  ren- 
dered more  acute  the  sentiment  of  home?  It  is,  of 
course,  undeniable  that  a  poet  must  be  born,  and  cannot 
be  made  ;  but  it  is  no  less  certain  that  a  man  who  has 
been  born  a  poet  may  be  made  a  much  better  one.  James 
Thomson  of  Hawick— with  reverence  and  regret  let  his 
name  be  spoken — owed  all  his  poetry  to  his  birth. 
"Should  any  of  these  simple  rhymes,"  he  wrote  in  the 
preface  to  his  book,  "be  the  means  of  touching  a  chord 
in  the  heart,  or  kindling  a  smile  of  happiness  or  enjoy- 
ment at  the  fireside  of  the  sons  of  toil,  the  author  will 
be  amply  rewarded."  Such  was  the  end  which  he  pro- 

posed to  himself ;  and  he  attained  it.     Below  is  reprinted 
one  of  the  best  known  of  his  poems : — 

Up  fra  their  cosie  beds 

Afore  the  break  o'  day, 
Skippin'  round  the  corner, 

Brattlin'  down  the  brae ; 
Hearts  a'  sae  happy, 

Faces  blithe  and  gay, 
A  merry  band  o'  bairnies 

Seek  their  Hogmanay. 

Careless  o'  the  blast  sae  bleak, 

Snawy  drift  or  shower, 
Though  the  roses  on  their  cheek 

Turn  like  the  blaewort  flower — 
Frae  ilka  door  they're  jinkin' 

To  hail  the  happy  day  ; 
And  they  a'  gang  a  linkin 

To  seek  their  Hogmanay. 
Bonny  bairnies,  come  awa'. 

It's  little  I've  to  gie, 
But  ye  shall  ha'e  my  blessing  a', 

And  ae  babee. 
When  manhood's  care  comes  o'er  ye, 

Ye'll  mind  the  merry  day 
When,  happy-hearted  bairnies, 

Ye  sought  yer  Hogmanay. 

at  ifoto castle. 

(Srainger  jptreet. 


J1GAIN  we  find  ourselves  at  the  Grey  Monu- 
ment, but  this  time  we  mean  to  saunter 
along  the  noble  street  to  which  has  been 
assigned  the  name  of  Newcastle's  greatest 
We  are  within  a  stone's  throw  of  Richard 
Grainger's  birth-place  in  High  Friar  Street,  just  behind 
the  present  Dispensary.  We  have  gazed  on  the  mag- 
nificent work  of  the  poor  widow's  son — fortunate  enough 
to  win  a  rich  wife,  though — as  we  have  strolled  down 
Grey  Street.  Let  us  see  now  what  there  is  to  interest 
us  in  its  worthy  companion  and  rival — Grainger  Street. 

Grainger  Street,  like  Grey  Street,  is  emphatically  one  of 
shops,  and  very  handsome  shops  too.  But  our  readers 
would  scarcely  thank  us  if  we  were  to  make  an  inventory 
of  them.  We  are  at  the  principal  entrance  to  the  Central 
Exchange  Art  Gallery  and  Reading  Room.  Shame  upon 
us  if  we  pass  its  door  indifferently,  for  it  is  one  of  the 
sights  of  Newcastle. 

The  history  of  the  room  is  interesting.  Grey  Street 
had  been  laid  out ;  Grainger  Street  planned  out  also ; 
what  was  to  be  done  with  this  considerable  triangle  of 
waste  land  left  between  them  ?  Grainger's  first  idea  was 
to  erect  a  Corn  Exchange,  which,  being  covered,  should 
enable  merchants  and  their  customers  to  transact  their 
business  in  greater  comfort  than  before.  For  at  that 
time  the  corn  market  was  held  in  the  open  air  in  St. 
Nicholas'  Square  (where  the  cabs  now  stand)  on  Tuesdays 
and  Saturdays.  At  eleven  o'clock  on  these  days,  a  man 



( February 
\      1889. 

who  lived  in  Drury  Lane  stationed  himself  at  the  head  of 
it  as  the  "  Major  "  proclaimed  the  hour,  and  rani;  his  bell, 
whereupon  the  merchants  opened  their  sacks,  and  the 
business  began.  Grainier,  then,  built  the  Exchange  with 
this  object  in  view.  But  the  Corporation  of  that  day 
would  not  fall  in  with  it.  They  listened  to  the  protests 
of  the  shopkeepers  in  the  neighbourhood  of  St.  Nicholas' 
Square  ;  moreover,  the  occupants  who  were  beginning  to 
settle  in  Market  Street  declared  that  corn-laden  carts 
would  be  unsightly  before  their  doors. 

Well,  in  consequence  of  opposition  of  this  sort,  the  Corn 
Exchange  project  had  to  be  abandoned.  It  occurred  then 
to  Grainger  that  a  place  where  the  purposes  of  a  news  room 
could  be  combined  with  those  of  a  commercial  exchange 
was  one  much  needed  in  Newcastle.  Accordingly,  in 
1839,  this  building  was  opened  as  an  Exchange  and  News 
Room.  Subscribers  to  the  number  of  1,132  had  been 
obtained ;  there  was,  of  course,  the  inevitable  dinner,  to 
which  some  four  hundred  sat  down,  and  thereat  the 
Mayor,  Mr.  John  Fife,  presided  ;  and  so  the  scheme  was 
continued  until  December,  1869. 

In  that  year  it  was  found  impossible  to  keep  open  the 
institution  any  longer.  The  rent  was  too  heavy ;  the 
support  accorded  was  inadequate.  With  an  enterprise 
and  a  courage  worthy  of  the  highest  praise,  Messrs.  T.  P. 
Barkas  and  W.  Tweedy — the  reputation  of  the  latter  as  a 
wood  was  then  at  its  height  in  this  North-Country 
— came  gallantly  to  the  rescue.  They  determined  to 

carry  on  the  News  Room  and  the  Exchange,  but  to  add 
attractions  in  the  shape  of  an  Art  Gallery  and  occasional 
Industrial  Exhibitions.  There  was  a  general  feeling  of 
relief  when  these  public-spirited  townsmen  announced 
their  intention ;  for  it  was  felt  that  the  conversion  of  so 
noble  a  building  into  a  vulgar  casino,  or  anything  of  that 
sort,  would  have  been  a  downright  calamity.  Messrs. 
Barkas  and  Tweedy  re-opened  the  building  on  the  first 
of  June,  1870,  commencing  with  about  700  subscribers, 
which  have  since,  under  the  management  of  Mr.  Barkas 
(now  Mr.  Alderman  Barkas)  and  his  son — Mr.  Tweedy 
having  retired — very  largely  increased. 

The  interior  of  the  Exchange  (see  page  82)  is  striking 
enough.  Twelve  massive  pillars,  arranged  in  semi-circular 
order,  mark  the  limits  of  the  news  room  proper ;  all  else  is 
open  to  the  general  public  at  a  fixed  charge  per  head. 
Here  are  the  pictures,  curiosities,  articles  of  vertu,  and  so 
forth  ;  here,  too,  are  held  the  concerts,  &c.  The  exterior 
is  in  architectural  harmony  with  the  rest  of  Grainger's- 
buildings  in  the  neighbourhood.  The  corners  are  rounded 
oil,  and  surmounted  by  domes,  beneath  which  are  massive 
Corinthian  columns.  Few  places  of  mere  business  can 
boast  of  more  elaborate  embellishments  than  can  the 
shops  in  this  part  of  the  town. 

We  may  now  leave  the  Exchange.  Opposite  us  i» 
Nelson  Street,  chiefly  notable  for  its  Lecture  Room, 
which  has  been  the  scene  of  many  animated  political  and 
theological  meetings.  So  far  back  as  the  year  184-3,  in  the 





month  of  January,  Robert  Owen  expounded  his  peculiar 
system  here  at  great  length.  An  Irishman  present  at- 
tempted to  reply  to  the  lecturer,  but  was  at  once  uncere- 
moniously ejected.  He  speedily  returned,  reinforced  by 
a  large  number  of  his  countrymen,  who  were  indignant  at 
the  roughness  displayed  towards  him.  The  doors  being 
barred  against  the  mob,  they  were  attacked  with  sticks, 
broken  bed-posts,  chair  legs,  &c.,  until  at  length  an 
entrance  was  forced,  when  the  audience  beat  a  hasty 
retreat  by  means  of  the  doors  and  windows.  Fortu- 
nately, no  serious  personal  injury  was  done  to  anyone 
concerned  in  this  foolish  affray.  Then,  in  the  month  of 
July  of  that  same  year,  John  Bright  addressed  a  crowded 
meeting  here  on  the  then  burning  question  of  the  Corn 
Laws.  In  May,  1857,  John  Frost,  the  Chartist,  was  pre- 
sented in  this  room  with  an  address  of  congratulation 
from  a  number  of  sympathising  supporters  of  his  views. 

But  it  would  be  impossible  to  go  at  length  through  the 
list  of  public  men  who  have  stood  on  the  platform  of  the 
Lecture  Room,  without  writing,  substantially,  a  history 
of  the  Radical  Reform  party  in  Newcastle  for  the  last 
half-century,  and  that  would  be  foreign  to  the  purpose  of 

these  papers.  Here,  amongst  others,  Charles  Attwood 
proclaimed  his  sturdy  Radicalism,  and  David  Urquhart 
aired  his  characteristic  views  on  the  diplomacy  of  Tx>rd 
Palmerston.  Here  Charles  Larkin  often  thundered 
against  the  Tories,  and  George  Thompson  brought  an 
indictment  against  other  forms  of  slavery  than  that 
which  befel  the  negro,  whose  constant  friend  he  was. 
Mr.  Joseph  Cowen  was  a  familiar  figure  on  these  boards 
from  his  early  years  ;  and,  later  on,  he  was  in  the  chair 
when  Mr.  Joseph  Chamberlain  first  addressed  a  New- 
castle public  meeting  here.  Sir  Charles  Dilke  delivered 
from  this  platform  the  speech  on  the  Monarchy  which 
created  so  much  stir  at  the  time.  Mr.  James  Watson, 
bookseller,  Mr.  James  Gilmour,  photographer,  and  Mr. 
Thomas  Gregson,  watchmaker,  represented  the  more 
purely  local  Radicalism  of  Newcastle  in  this  room  on 
many  and  many  an  occasion  ;  all  three  have  passed  into 
the  silent  land.  Theological  opinion  of  all  sorts  has 
found  expression  here,  from  that  of  Father  Ignatius  and 
Thomas  Cooper  to  that  of  Mrs.  Annie  Besant  and  Mr. 
Charles  Bradlaugh. 

Above  this  room   is  another,   formerly  known  as  the 





Music  Hall.  Here  Gavazzi  has  more  than  once  declaimed 
against  the  teachings  of  Rome ;  here,  too,  Charles 
Dickens  came,  on  his  second  visit  to  Newcastle,  to  give 
some  of  his  popular  readings  from  his  own  works.  He 
would  not  go  back  to  the  Town  Hall  on  any  account ; 
indeed,  he  is  said  have  denounced  its  internal  arrange- 
ments with  Saxon  force  and  emphasis.  A  little  further 
along  is  a  Primitive  Methodist  Chapel,  the  foundation 
stone  of  which  was  laid  by  the  Rev.  W.  Clowes,  of  Hull, 
on  November  21st,  1837.  It  was  finished  in  the  following 
spring,  and  will  accommodate  about  a  thousand  persons. 
A  little  further  along  still  is  the  Cordwainers'  Hall, 
whose  motto  was  that  "  oppression's  iron  hand  should  ever 
be  legally  resisted."  The  opposite  side  of  the  way  is 
devoted  to  satisfying  bodily  wants  in  the  eating  and 
drinking  line.  Here  also  is  located  the  Working  Men's 
Club — a  very  deserving  and  creditably  managed  institu- 
tion. The  corner  shop  at 
the  Grainger  Street  end  was 
long  known  as  "Barlow's 
shop,"  occupied  for  many 
years  by  the  late  Joseph 
Barlow,  bookseller  and  news- 
agent.* We  are  now  at  the 
corner  also  of  what  is  always 
called  emphatically,  The  Mar- 
ket ;  and  thereby  hangs  a 

We  have  seen  already  how 
Grainger  made  a  clean  sweep 
of  the  old  markets  of  our 
town  when  he  took  in  hand 
the  formation  of  Grey  Street. 
We  may  now  see  what  he 
built  in  the  place  of  what  he 
had  knocked  down.  In  a 
sense,  the  architect  was  an 
iconoclast;  but  he  was  not 
one  altogether.  He  pulled 
down  only  that  he  might 
rebuild  and  restore ;  and 
this  market  building — cer- 
tainly one  of  the  finest  in  Erjgland,  perhaps  the  very 
finest,  all  things  considered — is  an  excellent  instance  in 
point.  It  was  finished  and  ready  for  its  purposes  on  the 
22nd  of  October,  1835.  Great  were  the  rejoicings  of  the 
public  on  that  great  day.  A  grand  dinner  was  held  in 
the  Vegetable  (division  of  the)  Market,  and  the  then 
Mayor,  Mr.  J.  L.  Hood,  occupied  the  chair.  Nearly  two 
thousand  persons  sat  down ;  many  more  would  have 
liked  to  have  kept  them  company.  It  was  very  sensibly 
resolved  by  the  organisers  of  the  feast  that  the  charges 
should  be  moderate  on  such  an  occasion ;  and,  accord- 

*  Mr.  Barlow,  whose  cheerfulness  of  temper  was  not  affected  in 
any  way  by  the  loss  ot  his  eyesight,  died  in  Northumberland 
Street,  on  October  15,  1886,  in  his  seventy-eighth  year.  (See  next 

ingly,  the  guests  at  the  lower  part  of  the  avenue  were 
only  charged  a  couple  of  shillings  a-head,  whilst  those 
who  sat  at  the  upper  or  north-east  end  were  required  to 
pay  five.  So  great  was  the  demand  for  tickets,  however, 
especially  of  the  latter  class,  that  many  of  them  were  sold 
for  ten  and  even  fifteen  shillings  a-piece.  Altogether 
nine  hundred  tickets  were  thus  disposed  of. 

Whilst  the  lords  of  creation  were  thus  feeding,  the  fair 
ladies,  according  to  our  amiable  insular  custom,  were 
graciously  permitted  to  look  down  upon  them  from  a 
gallery  specially  erected  for  the  purpose.  About  three 
hundred  took  advantage  of  these  seats.  Dinner  over,  the 
speech-making  began,  and  some  appropriate  addresses 
were  given  by  Mr.  Ord,  M.P.,  Mr.  John  Clayton  (Town 
Clerk),  and  Mr.  John  Dobson.  But  the  hero  of  the  day, 
of  course,  was  Richard  Grainger  himself,  who,  on  rising 
to  say  a  few  words,  was  received  with  round  after  round 


of  enthusiastic  cheering.  Of  this  famous  dinner  in  our 
modern  local  history,  Mr.  John  Adamson,  the  learned 
biographer  of  the  poet  Camoens,  is  reported  to  have  said, 
maybe  with  some  pardonable  enthusiasm  : — "  Nothing 
was  like  it  since  the  days  of  Belshazzar ;  but  instead  of 
a  prophet  predicting  impending  destruction,  we  had  a 
Mayor  and  Corporation  that  made  the  welkin  ring  with 
shouts  of  coming  prosperity."  The  banquet  was  held  on 
the  22nd ;  the  Market,  in  its  various  departments,  was 
opened  for  business  on  the  following  24th. 

Figures  are  not,  as  a  rule,  very  attractive  reading  ;  yet 
we  fancy  that  two  or  three  here  may  prove  interesting  to 
the  good  people  who  throng  from  all  parts  of  the  town, 
and  from  the  surrounding  country-side  also,  to  "The 

February  > 
1889.      / 



Market."  Let  it  be  set  down,  then,  that  this  temple  of 
trade  comprises  an  area  of  13,906  square  yards,  or 
about  two  acres.  Its  length  is  338  feet  3  inches ;  its 
breadth,  2*1  feet  7  inches.  In  the  Butcher  Market 
proper  there  are  four  avenues,  which  contain  183  shops, 
*ome  of  them,  however,  devoted  now-a-days  to  the  sale  of 
other  wares.  Of  these  shops,  no  less  than  157  were  taken 
by  butchers  before  the  building  was  opened — a  strong 
proof  of  their  confidence  in  the  stability  of  the  enter- 
prise. There  are  360  vertical  windows,  and  60  skylights 
in  the  eastern  avenue  alone.  The  original  Vegetable 
Market  is  now  mainly  given  up  to  the  vendors  of  second- 
hand books.  In  this  hall,  as  it  was  originally  called,  there 
were  55  shops  and  104-  windows.  It  is  318  feet  long  and 
57  feet  wide. 

The  Corporation  paid  £36,290  for  the  Markets  ;  but,  as 
a,  set-off,  they  received  £15,000  on  account  of  the  old 
market  which  had  been  demolished  ;  so  that  the  net  cost 
of  the  building  to  the  ratepapers  came  to  £21,290.  On 
the  opening  day,  the  meat  offered  for  sale  exceeded  any- 
thing previously  known  in  the  North  of  England ;  whilst 
the  Green  Market  (for  so  was  the  Vegetable  Market  gen- 
erally called)  was  distinguished  by  an  "  almost  boundless 
profusion  "  of  exhibits. 

Of  course  so  notable  an  event  in  the  history  of  our 
town  did  not  escape  the  local  poets  of  the  time.  It 
may  amuse  the  reader  to  transcribe  one  of  their 
"screeds" — to  use  one  of  their  own  favourite  words.  It 
runs  as  follows  : — 

(Tune — "Canny  Newcassel.") 

Wey.  hinnies,  but  this  is  a  wundorful  scene, 

Like  some  change  that  yen's  seen  in  a  playhoose ; 
Wlie  ever  wad  thowt  that  the  awd  Major's  dean 

Wad  hev  myed  sic  a  capital  weighhoose? 
Where  the  brass  hez  a'  cum  f  rae  nebody  can  tell, 

Some  says  yen  thing  and  some  says  anuthor  ; 
But  whe  ever  lent  Grainger  't  aa  knaa  varry  well 

That  they  mun  hev,  at  least,  had  a  fother. 

About  Lunneu,  then,  divvent  ye  myek  sic  a  rout, 
For  there's  nowt  there  ma  winkers  te  dazzel ; 

For  a  bell  or  a  market,  there  issent  a  doot, 
We  can  bang  them  at  canny  Newcassel. 

Wor  gratitude  Grainger  or  sumbody's  arl'd, 

Yet  still,  mun,  it  myeks  ye  a!  shuther, 
Te  see  sic  a  crowd  luiking  eftpr  this  warld 

Where  the  Nuns  used  te  luik  for  the  tuther. 
But  te  yor  awn  interest  dinna  be  blind, 

Tyek  a  shop  there,  whatever  yor  trade  is  ; 
Genteeler  company,  where  can  ye  find, 

Than  wor  butchers,  green  wives,  and  tripe  ladies? 

Ye  see  the  wives  naggle  aboot  tripe  and  sheep  heeds, 

Or  washing  their  greens  at  a  fountain, 
Where  the  young  Nuns  used  to  be  telling  their  beads, 

And  had  nowt  but  thor  sins  te  be  countin' ; 
There  the  talented  lords  o'  the  cleaver  and  steel 

May  be  heard  on  that  classicull  srrund,  sor, 
Loudly  chanting  the  praise  o'  their  mutton  an'  veal, 

Though  they're  losm'  a  happ'ny  a  pund,  sor. 

When  them  queer  Cockney  folk  cum  stravagin  this  way, 
(Though  aa've  lang  thowt  we're  gettin  aboon  them), 

They'll  certainly  noo  hae  the  mense  just  to  say, 
That  we've  clapt  an  extinguisher  on  them ; 

It's  ne  use  contending,  they  just  may  shut  up, 
For  it's  us  can  astonish  the  stranger  ; 

They  may  brag  o'  their  lords  and  their  aad  king  te  boot, 
What's  the  use  on't?— they  hevent  a  Grainger! 

To  the  student  of  character,  the  Saturday  scenes  in  the 
Market  are  often  full  of  interest.  Thousands  pass  and 
repass ;  buxom  heusewives  and  rosy  lasses  jostle  against 
sisters  who  have  only  too  clearly  the  wearing  marks  of 
poverty.  Each  tradesman,  every  saleswoman  is  on  the 
alert  for  customers,  particularly  if  the  goods  are  perish- 
able. One  class  of  visitors  always  attract  attention 
when  they  perambulate  the  Market,  namely,  the  brides, 
bridegrooms,  and  bridesmaids  from  the  outlying  country 
villages.  With  these  it  seems  to  be  the  rule  to  "leuk 


throo  the  Mairkit."  On  their  appearance  they  are  the 
observed  of  all  observers.  Nor  do  they  seem  to  care 
a  button  for  the  good-humoured  chaff  which  is  occasion- 
ally addressed  to  them,  especially  if  any  of  the  party 
are  recognised  as  acquaintances  or  customers.  Indeed, 
they  rather  seem  to  like  the  obtrusive  attention  thus 
paid  them.  What  wonder?  Why  should  they  be  angry 
or  we  surprised?  Was  there  ever  woman  yet  that 
wouldn't  turn  her  head  to  look  at  a  bride,  and  then  to 
criticise  the  husband? 

Returning  to  Grainger  Street,  we  notice  on  our  lett 
Market  Street,  with  its  huge  drapery  establishments, 
where  you  may  buy  anything  you  want  in  that  line, 
from  a  pennyworth  of  tape  to  a  bishop's  lawn  sleeves  or 
a  duchess's  sables.  Shop  after  shop  of  more  or  less  hand- 
some dimensions  are  passed  till  we  come  to  West 
Grainger  Street.  Near  the  end  of  this  substantial  addi- 
tion to  Newcastle  streets,  we  find  ourselves  between 
St.  John's  Church  and  graveyard  on  our  left,  and  the 
Savings  Bank  on  our  right.  Of  the  latter  it  is  only 
necessary  to  record  here  that  it  was  founded  in  January, 
1818.  The  business  was  at  first  conducted  in  the  Mayor's 




Chamber  (or  Parlour)  in  the  Guildhall ;  then  at  the 
end  of  the  Tyne  Bridge  ;  then  in  the  Arcade  ;  and  now 
where  we  see  it.  Crossing  Westgate  Road,  we  pass  by 
the  Douglas  Hotel,  an  imposing  architectural  pile,  and, 
on  the  other  side,  the  County  Hotel,  which  is  an  enlarge- 
ment of  an  earlier  (but  substantially  the  same)  building, 
and  find  ourselves  in  front  of  the  Central  Station. 

So  come  we  to  the  end  of  this  street  of  shops.  But 
we  must  not  forget  to  remind  the  reader  that  the  part  of 
the  street  we  have  just  left  is  the  palatial  successor  to  a 
narrow  and  not  particularly  inviting  thoroughfare, 
known  as  St.  John's  Lane,  sometimes  Copper  Alley, 
because  wages  were  there  often  paid  in  coppers. 

Mitiev  0f  tfitttan. 

BOUT  the  middle  of  last  century,  one  of  the 
most  familiar  figures  at  Barnard  Castle  and 
Richmond  markets  was  John  Wardell,  or 
Weardale,  then  tenant  of  Ketton,  a  farm  in  the  town- 
whip  of  Braffertou,  two  or  three  miles  south  from 
Aycliffe,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Skerne.  He  was  com- 
monly known  by  the  nickname  of  the  Miser  of  Ketton. 

There  being  no  market  at  Darlington  for  corn  in  those 
days,  Johnny,  as  he  was  called,  had  to  take  his  wheat 
and  other  grain  further  afield  ;  and  as  the  roads  were 
very  bad — for  the  most  part  mere  horse  tracks, 
and  for  carts  quite  impassable — the  produce  had  to 
be  carried  on  the  backs  of  pack  horses,  each  of  which  bore 
something  like  a  couple  of  bolls.  With  six  or  eight  such 
horses,  Johnny  was  wont  to  march  in  procession,  riding 
upon  the  foremost,  with  a  very  primitive  saddle,  made  of 
coarse  sack-cloth,  stuffed  with  straw,  and  known  as  Sods- 
and-Sunks  ;  and  the  rest  of  the  cavalcade  followed  close 
behind,  tied  in  tandem  fashion,  with  a  lad  similarly 
mounted  on  the  hindmost  horse.  Wardell  thus  travelled, 
as  occasion  served,  to  Barnard  Castle  on  the  Wednesdays, 
or  Richmond  on  the  Saturdays,  leaving  home  some  time 
the  night  before,  so  as  to  be  ready  when  the  market 
opened.  As  soon  as  the  horses  had  been  divested  of 
their  loads,  they  were  taken  back  to  the  nearest 
convenient  place  outside  the  town,  and  left 
there  in  charge  of  the  lad,  till  his  master  had 
pot  his  marketing  made.  In  this  way  Johnny  was  saved 
the  expense  of  stabling  and  baiting  his  steeds,  and  no 
Boniface  in  either  town  ever  saw  a  penny  of  Johnny's 
money,  for  both  the  lad  and  he  carried  thick  slices  of 
home-made  "inaslin"  bread  (a  mixture  of  wheat  and 
rye),  and  "kitchen"  to  it,  in  the  shape  of  skim-milk 
cheese,  which  they  could  moisten  at  their  discretion  with 
a  drink  of  water. 

On  these  occasions  Johnny  was  clad  in  a  homespun 
grey  coat,  manufactured  from  the  wool  of  his  own  sheep 
by  his  wife  and  daughters,  the  whole  of  whose  leisure 

time  was  filled  up  with  spinning  on  the  long  wheel,  and 
woven  by  one  or  other  of  the  country  weavers  who  were 
then  to  be  found  in  every  village.  His  feet  were  covered 
with  rough  tacketed  or  hobnailed  shoes,  and  his  legs 
with  coarse  woollen  hoggers,  which  came  up  to  above  his. 
knees.  His  knee  breeches  had  been  worn  by  his  father 
and  grandfather  before  him.  They  were  made  of  well 
tanned  or  tawed  sheepskin,  and,  having  descended  with 
other  heirlooms  te>  himself,  they  had  become,  in  the  service 
of  three  generations,  so  thickly  engrained  with  grease  and 
dirt,  that,  with  the  assistance  of  an  old  rusty  nail,  they 
served  at  market  the  purpose  of  a  Roman  wax  tablet  for 
the  calculation  of  Johnny's  accounts. 

It  was  in  this  queer  trim  that  Mr.  Wardell  appeared  at 
the  sale  of  Stickabitch,  a  property  situated  between  the 
road  from  Blackwell  to  Croft  and  the  Eiver  Tees,  and 
began  to  make  biddings  for  it,  in  competition  with  some 
of  the  big-wigs  from  Darlington  and  Durham,  who 
were  there  expressly  to  be  buyers.  These  gentry 
eyed  Johnny  with  supreme  contempt,  and  rudely 
questioned  his  ability  to  pay  even  the  arles,  or  earnest 
money,  for  confirming  the  bargain,  in  case  the  property 
were  knocked  down  to  him.  But  Johnny,  to  the  astonish- 
ment of  all,  drew  forth  from  his  ample  coat  pocket  an 
old  stocking  foot  filled  with  guineas,  many  of  which 
had  King  Charles  the  Second's  head  on  the  obverse 
and  an  elephant  on  the  reverse,  showing  that  they  were 
of  the  original  mint.  The  result  was  that  the  property 
was  knocked  down  to  Mr.  Wardell,  who  tabled,  there  and 
then,  not  merely  the  arles,  but  the  whole  price,  and  re- 
ceived a  receipt  in  full,  with  an  obligation  by  the  agent  of 
the  vendor  to  complete  and  hand  over  to  him  the  neces- 
sary deeds  within  a  given  time. 

But  Stickabitch  was  not  the  only  one  of  Mr.  Wardell's 
purchases.  He  also  owned  High  Beaumont  Hill,  in  the 
township  of  Whessoe,  Aycliffe  Wood,  and  Chapel  House, 
opposite  Gainford.  Ketton  belonged  to  Sir  Ralph 
Milbanke,  and  Johnny,  as  one  of  his  chief  tenants,  had  a 
place  of  honour  assigned  to  liim  at  the  half-yearly  rent 
dinners  at  Halnaby,  when  it  was  his  habit  to  give  the 
toast  of  his  landlord's  health  in  the  following  terms  : — 
"I'll  gie  ye  a  worthy  and  respectable  gentleman,  Mr. 
Sir  Ralph  Milbanke,  Esquire,  Knight  and  Baron-Knight. 
I'm  certain  showr  ye'll  all  drink  it  heartily,  with  all  the 
honours,  as  we're  all  in  duty  bound.  Lang  may  he  leeve, 
and  be  a  blessing  to  every  yin  connected  wi'  him,  and 
when  he's  called  upon  at  length  to  his  last  account  may 
he  get  a  full  quittance  for  ony  mistyeaks  he  may  have 
made,  and  get  a  front  seat  i'  heevin." 

But  Johnny's  ideas  of  another  world  were  somewhat 
gross  and  earthy.  He  was  once  heard  to  say : — "  They 
may  talk  of  heevin  as  they  will,  but  gie  me  Ketton 
Greens,  on  which  a  man  can  grow  seven  crops  o'  yits  i' 
seven  years,  all  good  gift,  corn  and  straw,  and  I'd  be- 
content  to  stay  here  for  ever,  if  it  were  God's  will,  for  I've 

February  1 



always  held  that  a  bird  i'  the  hand  is  worth  two  in  the 
bush,  and  I  never  was  a  good  hand  at  sinking. " 

A  friend  once  suggested  to  Johnny  that  he  was  merely 
gathering  money  for  his  heire  to  spend,  and  hinted 
that  he  would  be  a  much  wiser  man  if  he  sat  still 
and  enjoyed  himself  in  his  old  age,  now  that  he  had  far 
more  than  he  could  ever  get  through  in  any  reasonable 
way  ;  but  Johnny  replied  with  an  air  of  complete  content- 
ment, "  Beins,  man,  if  they  have  as  much  pleasure  in 
spendin'  Jt  as  I  have  in  gatherin'  't,  e'en  let  them  be  deinV 
Yet,  though  he  thus  professed  indifference  with  regard  to 
what  his  heirs  might  do  after  he  was  dead  and  gone,  he 
could  not  bear  the  idea  of  waste  in  any  department  occur- 
ing  under  his  eyes,  nor  had  he  the  least  grain  of  toleration 
for  the  expensive  follies  of  his  more  fashionable  con- 
temporaries. His  neighbour,  Mr.  Stephenson  of  Braf- 
ferton,  kept  a  pack  of  harriers,  and  one  day,  when  he 
heard  the  hounds  passing  through  that  gentleman's 
estate,  he  said  to  those  about  him,  "Beins,  lads,  de  ye 
hear  them  jowlers  yonder?  Dinnot  ye  hear  they're  cryin' 
esh  and  yak?"  meaning  ash  and  oak;  for  he  foresaw 
that  the  cost  of  the  pack  would  by-and-by  have  to  be  met 
by  the  sale  of  the  timber  on  the  estate.  And  when  some 
time  afterwards  he  heard  a  new  Lincolnshire  pack,  of  a 
deeper  and  louder  tone,  going  past,  he  exclaimed.  "  Beins, 
lads,  de  ye  but  hear  'em?  They're  roarin'  out  land  and 
all,  land  and  all !"  And,  sure  enough,  Stephenson's  folly 
before  long  made  complete  havoc  of  timber,  land,  and  all 
he  had. 

Mr.  Warden's  grandsons,  if  all  tales  be  true,  verified 
the  old  saying,  "Gear  hardly  won  is  lightly  spent,"  for, 
instead  of  following  their  grandfather's  example,  they 
spirited  his  estates  through  the  air  as  soon  as  they  had 
got  them  into  their  own  hands ;  and  as,  according 
to  the  French  proverb,  "  Play  (gaming)  is  the  offspring  of 
avarice,"  so  they  became  keen  betting  men,  and  are  even 
said  to  have  associated  with  George  the  Fourth  when  he 
was  the  leading  man  of  the  day  on  the  turf,  and  the 
"  First  Gentleman  in  Europe. "  The  result  may  easily  be 

We  have  heard  that,  vhen  farmers  in  South  Durham 
want  a  handful  of  straw  to  stop  a  hole  in  a  corn  sack,  one 
may  still  occasionally  hear  them  say,  "  Run  away,  lad, 
run  away,  and  bring  me  one  of  Johnny  Wardell's  clouts," 
or  varying  the  metaphor,  "Bring  me  here  a  Barney- 
Cassel  wisp." 

Mr.  Wardell  was  succeeded  at  Ketton  by  the  cele- 
brated Mr.  Charles  Colling,  who  first  introduced  the 
improved  Durham  shorthorn  breed  of  cattle  into  the 

W.  B. 

R.  GEORGE  ROUTLEDGE,  founder  of  the 
great  publishing  firm  which  is  associated  with 
his  name,  who  died  on  December  13,  1888, 
will  always  be  remembered  as  one  of  the  pioneers  of 
cheap  literature  in  this  country. 

Born  at  Brampton,  Cumberland,  so  long  ago  as  1812, 
Mr.  Routledge  had  reached  the  advanced  age  of  76.  His 
first  step  in  business  was  in  Carlisle,  where  he  was  ap- 
prenticed to  Mr.  Charles  Thurnam,  bookseller.  On  the 

termination  of  his  indentures,  he  went  to  London,  where 
he  entered  into  the  service  of  Messrs.  Baldwin  and  Cra- 
dock,  a  firm  of  booksellers  of  the  old  type.  Three  years 
afterwards  he  started  in  business  on  his  own  account, 
though  in  a  very  modest  way,  in  Ryder's  Court,  Leicester 
Square.  It  was  not  till  1836  that  he  attempted  publishing 
upon  an  extended  scale.  His  first  attempt  was  with 
"The  Beauties  of  Gilsland  Spa,"  but  it  was  a  failure. 
He  was  more  successful  in  1843,  when  he  published 
"Barnes's  Notes  on  the  Old  and  New  Testament,"  in  21 
volumes.  Five  years  later  appeared  the  first  of  the  great 
series  of  "The  Railway  Library,"  of  which  more  than  a 
thousand  volumes  have  been  issued.  This  was  the  com- 
mencement of  the  era  of  cheap  literature.  Then  came 
Fenimore  Cooper's  works,  followed  by  the  novels  of 
Bulwer  Lytton,  for  the  copyright  of  which  Mr.  Routledge 
and  his  partner  (for  he  had  taken  a  partner)  paid  the 



I  February 

author  £20,000.  Altogether  the  novelist  received  no  less 
than  £40,000  from  this  firm  alone.  Another  of  Mr.  Rout- 
ledge's  successes  was  with  Mrs.  Beecher  Stowe's  "Uncle 
Tom's  Cabin, "  of  which  his  company  sent  out  ten  thou- 
sand copies  in  a  single  day,  the  total  sale  by  this  one  firm 
being  upwards  of  half  a  million  copies. 

Retiring  from  business  in  January,  1888,  Mr.  Rout- 
ledge  was  entertained  at  dinner  by  his  numerous  friends. 
In  the  course  of  a  speech  on  the  occasion,  he  related  some 
of  his  business  experiences.  The  following  extract  will  be 
found  interesting  : — 

In  1855  we  published  a  beautiful  edition  of  Longfellow's 
poetical  wurks,  with  one  hundred  illustrations  from  draw- 
ings by  Sir  John  Gilbert,  engraved  on  wood  by  the 
Brothers  Dalziel,  with  a  portrait  on  steel  by  Samuel 
Lawrence.  We  spent  over  £1,000  on  these  illustrations, 
and  £283  more  on  future  editions.  We  published  similar 
books  to  this  for  several  years  after  aa  Christmas  books, 
but  the  novelty  having  gone  off,  they  became  less  remu- 
nerative ;  the  production  being  so  costly,  we  had  to  dis- 
continue them.  In  1857  we  commenced  publishing 
Shakspearo  in  50  Is.  monthly  parts,  under  the  editorship 
of  Howard  Staunton,  for  which  he  was  paid  £1,000;  the 
drawings  on  wood,  about  one  thousand  in  number,  were 
made  by  Sir  John  Gilbert,  and  engraved  by  the  Brothers 
Dalziel.  The  plant  of  this  work  cost  £10,000.  This  is 
without  the  cost  of  printing  and  binding.  In  February, 
1859,  we  brought  out  Part  I.  of  an  extensive  work  on 
Natural  History,  in  five  large  volumes,  by  the  Rev.  J.  G. 
Wood,  the  drawings  on  wood  by  Wolfe.  Zwecker,  Har- 
rison Weir,  and  other  well-known  artists  on  natural 
history  subjects  ;  the  drawings  were  engraved  by  Dal- 
ziel  Brothers.  The  plant  of  this  work  has  cost  £16,000, 
and  has  paid  us  very  well.  From  this  date  we  have  pub- 
lished a  great  number  of  juvenile  books,  and  several  hun- 
dred novels  and  other  standard  works.  In  1368  Longfellow 
visited  this  country,  bringing  with  him  an  unpublished 
work,  "The  Xew  England  Tragedies."  Wo  gave  him 
£1,000  for  this  small  volume,  and  £500  for  the  translation 
of  Dante,  and  with  other  poetical  works  published  at 
intervals,  he  has  received  about  £3,000  for  copyrights  in 
this  country.  In  April,  1883,  we  commenced  the  Universal 
Library,  edited  by  Professor  Henry  Morley,  in  Is. 
monthly  volumes,  bound  in  cloth,  comprising  standard 
works  of  the  best  old  authors,  such  as  Sheridan,  Dante, 
Emerson,  Homnr,  and  others.  Fifty-eight  volumes  of 
this  series  have  been  published  up  to  this  time,  and  the 
sale  has  exceeded  our  expectations.  In  1836  one  book 
only  was  published,  but  at  this  date  the  number  exceeds 
over  5,000  ;  so  that  for  fifty  years  I  can  say  that  I  have 
published  100  books  each  year,  or  two  a  week. 

The  later  years  of  Mr.  Routledge's  life  were  in  part  de- 
voted to  the  acquisition  of  certain  estates  in  Cumberland 
which  had  at  one  time  belonged  to  his  ancestors.  Every 
year  he  went  to  reside  at  Cumrenton,  where  these  estates 
were  situated.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  he  never  lost  his 
interest  in  the  place  of  his  birth.  He  was  made  a  Justice 
of  the  Peace  for  Cumberland  in  1877,  and  was  afterwards 
appointed  Deputy  Lieutenant.  In  the  year  1882-3  he 
served  the  office  of  High  Sheriff. 

Mr.  Routledge  was  twice  married,  his  first  wife  being 
Miss  Warne,  by  whom  he  had  three  sons  and  three 
daughters ;  his  second  wife  was  Miss  Mary  Bell,  sister  of 
Sir  Isaac  Lowthian  Bell,  by  whom  he  leaves  one  son  and 
one  daughter. 

We  are  indebted  to  the  London  Stereoscopic  Company, 
54,  Cheapside,  for  permission  to  publish  the  portrait 
which  accompanies  this  notice. 

antr  tfte 

||HE  house  sparrow  (Passer  domesticus),  even, 
more  so  than  the  pert  and  confiding  robin, 
is  familiar  to  the  residents  of  town  and 
country  alike.  Like  the  poor,  they  are  "always  with  us," 
especially  if  the  weather  be  extra  severe,  when  they 
gather,  with  other  small  birds,  at  our  doors  and  in  back 
yards  in  search  of  food.  At  such  times  a  party  of  say 
half-a-dozen  sparrows  are  often  bullied  by  a  single  robin, 
and  driven  away  from  the  food,  only  to  return  again  a 
minute  or  so  afterwards.  The  cock  and  hen  sparrow, 
even  the  young,  are  handsome,  well-marked  birds  when 
they  reside  in  the  country ;  but  in  towns,  owing  to  the 
dust  and  smoke,  they  always  look  draggled  and  dingy, 
though  in  all  conditions  they  are  invariably  pert,  cheerful, 
and  pugnacious.  The  latter  peculiarity  is  most  observ- 
able in  the  pairing  season  (Mr.  Duncan's  drawing  shows  a 

cock  sparrow  in  its  nuptial  plumage),  when  a  dozen  birds 
may  sometimes  be  seen  fighting  together  at  once,  even 
in  the  middle  of  a  busy  road  or  street.  But  at  all  times 
of  the  year,  except  in  cold,  wintry  weather,  they  may 
be  found  quarrelling. 

From  time  out  of  mind  the  cheery  and  cheeky  sparrow 
has  been  hotly  persecuted  by  agriculturists  and  horti- 
culturists as  a  destroyer  of  grain  and  fruit.  But,  where 
not  unduly  numerous,  these  familiar  and  omnipresent 
birds,  despite  what  has  so  often  been  said  to  the  con- 
trary, do  a  vast  amount  of  good  in  fields  and  gardens  by 
destroying  the  grubs  and  insects  which  prey  on  the  pro- 
duce. In  summer,  when  sparrows  are  rearing  their 
young— though  in  mild  weather  I  believe  some  of  them 
breed  nearly  all  the  year  round— they  may  be  seen  in 
numbers  in  gardens  hawking  after  and  catching  butter- 
flies almost  as  nimbly  and  successfully  as  the  spotted  fly- 
catcher. Mr.  John  Hancock,  the  eminent  Northern 
ornithologist,  has  a  good  word  for  these  birds.  As  Mr. 

February  > 



Hancock  remarks,  undoubtedly  the  sparrow  takes  grain 
when  he  can  get  it,  which  is  only  during  the  time  of  har- 
vesting, but  "our  sociable  little  friend  ought  to  be  cre- 
dited with  devouring  also  the  seeds  of  weeds,  and  thus 
materially  assisting  in  keeping  the  land  clean." 

Our  little  friend  has  a  wide  European  range,  and  latterly 
he  has  established  himself  in  America  and  Australia. 
Moreover,  I  have  seen  him  at  Simla,  in  India,  close  to 
the  Himalayas. 

The  hedge  sparrow  (Accentor  modularis)  is  not  really  a 
sparrow.  Though  resident  with  us,  it  is  a  member  of  the 
warbler  family,  and  it  may  often  be  heard  in  song  very 
early  in  the  year,  and  even  in  severe  weather,  if  the 
warm  rays  of  the  sun  enliven  the  wintry  scene.  It  has 
many  common  names  in  various  parts  of  the  country ; 
but  its  most  descriptive  and  appropriate  name  is  the 
hedge  warbler.  It  is  also  known  as  the  shuffle-wing, 
winter  fauvette,  hedge  creeper,  hedge  chanter,  dunnock, 
hempie,  bluey,  and  hedgie.  The  latter,  so  far  as  I  know, 
are  the  most  common  names  of  the  bird  in  the  North  of 

England  and  South  of  Scotland.  This  modest,  nnns- 
suming,  and  highly  useful  bird  feeds  almost  exclusively 
on  worms  and  insects,  and  is  of  great  service  to  gardeners 
and  agriculturists.  It  is  an  all-the-year-round  resident 
with  us,  and  in  very  severe  winters  many  perish  through 
cold  and  lack  of  food. 

The  bird  figured  in  our  second  engraving  is  found  over 
the  most  parts  of  Europe,  from  Italy  to  the  Scandinavian 
countries,  as  also  in  Asia  and  AsiaMinor.  Its  song  is  sweet 
and  cheery,  and  almost  as  loud  as  the  more  self-assertive 
robin.  It  is  an  early- breeding  bird,  and  when  the  hedge- 
rows are  just  commencing  to  bud,  its  nest  is  only  too 
easily  detected  by  the  marauding  schoolboy,  who  too  fre- 
quently cannot  resist  the  temptation  of  appropriating  its 
beautiful  greenish-blue  eggs. 

The  cuckoo  not  unfrequently  selects  the  nest  of  the 
hedge  sparrow  (but  more  frequently  that  of  the  meadow 
pipet)  in  which  to  deposit  her  egg.  When  the  eggs  are 
hatched,  the  greedy  young  cuckoo  hustles  the  legitimate 
nestlings  out  of  the  nest.  The  old  "  hedgies  "  feed  the 

young  gourmand  as  if  it  was  their  own  offspring,  and  even 
carefully  tend  and  feed  it  after  it  has  left  the  nest,  and 
till  it  can  procure  its  own  food.  Aristotle,  who  was  em- 
ployed by  Alexander  the  Great  as  a  naturalist  during  his 
protracted  campaigns,  asserted  that  the  young  cuckoos 
eventually  destroyed  their  foster  parents ;  and  the  fool  in 
Shakspeare's  "  King  Lear "  seemed  to  be  of  the  same 
opinion  when  he  referred  to  the  poor  old  monarch's  un- 
filial  daughters  : — 

The  hedge  sparrow  fed  the  cuckoo  so  lone 
That  she  had  her  head  bit  off  by  her  young. 

As  the  young  cuckoo  has  a  very  large  gape — I  have  heard 
a  Northern  boy  say  "the  beggor  was  aall  gob  " — it  may 
occasionally  kill  its  foster  parents,  when  feeding  it,  but 
not  intentionally,  I  think. 

The  nest  of  the  hedge  sparrow  is  usually  found  in 
hedges,  hedge  bottoms,  or  detached  thorn  bushes  ;  but 
occasionally  I  have  found  its  nest  in  low  trees,  and  even 
amongst  the  rafters  of  a  lonely  cattle  shed  in  the  fields.  It 
has  also  been  known  to  build  in  a  disused  garden  roller, 
and  in  other  rather  eccentric  and  unusual  situations. 
The  nest  is  generally  well-built  and  symmetrical,  the 
inside  warmly  lined  with  grass,  wool,  or  hairs.  Two 
broods,  except  where  accidents  or  robberies  occur,  are 
usually  reared  in  the  season,  the  first  occasionally  as  soon 
as  the  middle  or  end  of  March.  Sometimes,  however, 
three  broods  may  be  reared  in  an  early  and  favourable 
season.  The  young  birds  are  lighter  in  plumage  than  the 
old  ones,  until  the  moult  takes  place  about  August.  The 
nest  plumage  is  much  mottled,  and  tufts  of  down  may  be 
seen  adhering  to  the  young  birds,  especially  about  the 
head,  for  some  time  after  they  leave  the  nest  and  are 
fairly  strong  on  the  wing.  The  male  bird  is  from  five  to 
six  inches  in  length.  The  female  in  plumage  closely 
resembles  the  male,  but  is  rather  smaller,  and  the  lower 
part  of  the  back  is  slightly  more  olive-coloured. 


j]X  interesting  exhibition  of  toys,  contributed 
for  poor  and  sick  children  by  the  members 
and  friends  of  the  Dicky  Bird  Society,  in 
response  to  an  appeal  made  by  Uncle  Toby, 
conductor  of  the  Children's  Corner  in  the  Newcastle 
Weekly  Chronicle,  was  opened  in  the  Academy  of  Arts, 
Blackett  Street,  Newcastle,  on  Monday,  December  24-, 
1888.  The  collection,  which  was  admirably  arranged  by 
a  number  of  volunteer  assistants,  and  presented  an  ex- 
ceedingly varied  and  attractive  display,  consisted  of  7,615 
articles,  in  this  total  being  included  2,500  packets  of 
sweets  presented  by  Uncle  Toby  himself. 

The  inaugural  ceremony  was  performed  by  the  Mayor 
of   Newcastle   (Mr.  Thomas   Kichardson),  who   alluded 



[February  1889. 

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ix  5zr: 

February  1 



to  the  origin  and  growth  of  the  Dicky  Bird  Society, 
which  at  present  had  an  aggregate  of  164,000  members. 
Addresses  expressive  of  sympathy  with  the  objects  of  the 
movement  were  also  delivered  by  the  Sheriff  (Mr. 
William  Button),  the  Rev.  Dr.  Bruce,  the  ex-Mayor  of 
Newcastle  (Mr.  W.  D.  Stephens),  the  Rev.  Canon  Lloyd, 
vicar  of  Newcastle,  Dr.  Rutherford,  the  Rev.  Canon 
Franklin,  and  the  Mayor  of  Gateshead  (Mr.  Alderman 

The  articles  again  remained  on  view  on  the  26th,  and 
on  the  evening  of  that  day  the  closing  address  was  de- 
livered by  Mr.  Alderman  Barkas,  who  expressed  a  hope 
that  the  company  would  all  be  ready  to  co-operate  with 

Uncle  Toby  and  his  coadjutors  in  a  similar  undertaking 
next  year.  The  exhibition,  during  the  two  days,  was 
visited  by  nearly  20,000  persons,  and,  so  far  as  the  man- 
agement knew,  not  one  article  was  destroyed  or  removed. 
The  presents  were  despatched  to  the  various  institutions 
on  the  following  day. 

The  sketch  of  the  interior  of  the  Academy  of  Arcs 
which  accompanies  this  article  was  taken  before  it  was 
found  necessary  to  construct  additional  tables,  running 
the  entire  length  of  the  room,  to  accommodate  the  whole 
of  the  contributions  Uncle  Toby  had  received.  Our 
drawing,  however,  gives  some  idea  of  the  interesting 



I  February 
I      18S9 

Slje  llta&emg  of  $,rtjs. 

Half  a  century  ago,  Thomas  Miles  Kichardson,  the 
celebrated  local  artist,  established  an  annual  exhibition  of 
pictures  by  British  artists,  first  carried  on  under  the  title 
of  the  "Northumberland  Institution,"  in  Brunswick 
Place,  Newcastle,  and  afterwards  (in  conjunction  with 
Mr.  H.  P.  Parker,  another  distinguished  local  painter)  in 
the  Academy  of  Arts,  Blackett  Street. 

The  building  which  is  shown  in  our  view,  and  in  which 
Uncle  Toby's  exhibition  of  toys  was  held,  was  designed 
by  Mr.  John  Dobson,  and  erected  by  the  well-known 
builder,  Mr.  Richard  Grainger.  Building  operations  com- 
menced on  September  15th,  1827,  and  the  edifice  was 
opened  to  the  public  on  June  llth,  1828,  the  occasion 
being  an  exhibition  of  works  of  art,  including  costly 
models  of  St.  Paul's,  London,  and  St.  Peter's,  Rome, 
which  were  lent  from  the  museum  at  Ravensworth  Castle. 
The  total  number  of  oil  paintings  and  water-colour  draw- 
ings on  view  was  315  ;  there  were  a  dozen  models,  busts, 
and  studies,  and  eleven  pencil  drawings ;  making  a  total 
of  338  objects  of  art.  The  principal  exhibitors  were  T. 
M.  Richardson,  who  sent  15  pictures  ;  and  H.  P.  Parker, 
who  was  represented  by  no  less  than  23.  Among  the 
other  local  artists  who  sent  pictures  were  : — G.  Balmer, 
Jun.,  J.  W.  Carmichael,  E.  Landells,  G.  B.  Richard- 
son, (brother  of  T.  M.  Richardson),  T.  M.  Richard- 
son, Jun.,  C.  TeiTot,  J.  R.  Ryott,  R.  S.  Scott,  J.  Bouet, 
and  W.  Wailes.  The  following  non-residents  were  also 
represented  :-— J.  M.  W.  Turner,  A.  W.  Calcott,  F. 
Danby,  John  Wilson  Ewbank,  Copley  Fielding,  G. 
Lance,  J.  Linnel,  W.  Mulready,  and  R.  Pickersgill. 
The  exhibition  closed  on  the  13th  of  September  the  same 

The  building  was  again  opened  on  October  6th  follow- 
ing for  the  "exhibition  of  pictures  by  the  most  celebrated 
ancient  and  deceased  masters,  selected  from  the  best  col- 
lections," and  an  exhibition  of  water  colours  was  held  on 
the  31st  October,  1831. 

Under  date  September  3,  1832,  we  find  the  following  in 
Sykes's  Local  Records: — "The  Northern  Academy  of 
Arts  in  Blackett  Street,  Newcastle,  having  been  disposed 
of  in  shares  of  twenty-five  pounds  each,  and  its  title 
changed,  the  following  notice  of  its  opening  was  given  to 
the  public: — 'The  Newcastle-upon-Tyne  Institution  for 
the  General  Promotion  of  the  Fine  Arts.— The  share- 
holders and  the  public  in  general  are  respectfully  in- 
formed that  the  above  institution  for  the  exhibition  of 
pictures  and  sculpture,  &c.,  will  open  for  the  first  season 
on  Monday,  the  3rd  day  of  September. — By  order  of  the 
committee  of  management,  KEENLTSIDE  and  WALTON, 
secretaries. '  " 

The  next  event  of  any  importance  in  connection  with 
this  building  was  the  Polytechnic  Exhibition,  held  on 
April  6,  1840.  We  gather  from  Mr.  Latimer's  continua- 
tion of  Sykes's  Local  Records  that  the  affair  was  intended 

for  the  benefit  of  the  Mechanics'  Institutes  of  Newcastle 
and  Gateshead,  and  the  North  of  England  Fine  Arts 
Society.  The  exhibition,  which  was  of  the  most  extensive 
character,  was  entered  by  the  Academy  of  Arts,  Blackett 
Street,  where  a  number  of  beautiful  paintings  were  ex- 
hibited. The  Joiners'  Hall,  entered  from  the  last-named 
apartment,  was  fitted  up  for  the  exhibition  of  a  large 
microscope  and  other  optical  instruments.  A  temporary 
gallery  thrown  across  High  Friar  Street  connected  the 
rooms  in  Blackett  Street  with  others  in  Grainger  Street 
and  Nelson  Street.  In  the  Victoria  Room  (now  the 
Northumberland  Hall)  the  articles  displayed  were  so 
numerous  and  splendid  as  almost  to  defy  description ; 
but  Mr.  Orde's  racing  trophies,  won  by  Beeswing,  a  mar- 
vellous collection  of  English  manufactures  in  porcelain, 
bronze,  steel,  silver,  and  glass,  a  series  of  beautiful  coats 
of  mail,  and  a  great  variety  of  ornithological  specimens 
by  Mr.  Hancock,  may  be  particularly  enumerated.  A 
short  staircase  led  from  the  Victoria  Room  to  the  Music 
Hall,  which  was  almost  entirely  devoted  to  machinery 
and  manufactures,  and  to  which  the  continual  movement 
of  so  many  articles  imparted  great  animation.  This 
brilliant  exhibition  was  finally  closed  by  a  soiree  on 
Wednesday,  September  2,  when  the  receipts  were  found 
to  have  reached  £4,458  15s.  Id.,  leaving  a  clear  surplus, 
for  the  benefit  of  the  three  institutions,  of  upwards  of 

On  April  24,  1848,  another  Polytechnic  Exhibition  was 
held  in  the  building,  when  the  arrangements  were  almost 
precisely  similar  to  those  made  for  the  previous  exhibition 
in  1840. 

The  Academy  of  Arts  was  afterwards  let  to  an  auc- 
tioneer, the  late  Mr.  Charles  Brough,  who  found  its  large 
space  eminently  suited  to  the  display  of  his  customers' 
goods.  It  is  now  occupied  by  Messrs.  Davison  and  Son, 
auctioneers,  having  been  acquired  by  purchase  in  1874  by 
the  junior  member  of  the  firm,  Mr.  Joseph  Davison,  Jun. 

aittr  Cffntumttarwo. 

Mr.  Conrad  Haverkam  Greenhow,  writing  to  Robin 
Goodfellow,  the  conductor  of  the  local  gossip  depart- 
ment of  the  Newcastle  Weekly  Chronicle,  has  thrown  some 
fresh  light  on  the  mysterious  disappearance  at  North 
Shields  which  was  described  in  the  first  volume  of  the 
Monthly  Chronicle,  page  58.  Mr.  Greenhow  says  : — 

The  facts  are  these  :— John  Margetts  was  a  paid 
assistant  of  my  father's.  At  five  o'clock  one  morning 
in  February,  1826,  he  went  out  with  some  medicine  to 
deliver  to  a  Mrs.  Gaunt's  in  Tyne  Street,  and  never 
was  heard  of  again.  I  happened  to  be  at  home  at  the 
time,  and  in  company  with  the  Rev.  Mr.  Neal,  of  South. 
Shields,  tried  to  find  a  clue  to  the  mystery.  We  found 
that  a  Mr.  Profit,  a  mason,  who  lived  opposite  the  end 
of  Church  Street,  heard,  early  in  the  morning,  a  scuffle- 

February  1 



in  Tyne  Street,  and  someone  cried,  "What  are  you 
doing  with  me  ?"  The  parties  passed  along  Tyne  Street, 
and  the  watchman  at  Chapman's  Bank  in  Howard  Street 
saw  two  men  leading  another  down  Union  Street.  The 
watchman  thought  the  third  man  was  drunk,  and  so 
took  no  notice.  We  next  found  that  Mrs.  Cornforth, 
of  the  Whitby  Arms,  in  the  Low  Street,  near  the  New 
Quay,  hearing  a  cry  of  murder  between  five  and  six 
o'clock,  looked  out,  and  saw  two  men  dragging  another 
along.  Now,  they  never  got  on  to  the  New  Quay,  as 
a  watchman  at  the  Northumberland  Arms  saw  nothing 
of  them:  so  we  concluded  that  they  had  gone  down 
the  lane  leading  to  Brown's  flour  mill.  We  got  a  war- 
rant to  search,  and,  in  a  dilapidated  attic,  found  a  leather 
neck  collar,  torn,  evidently  in  a  scuffle.  A  man  known 
by  the  name  of  Joney  Aird,  who  had  a  stall  on  the 
New  Quay,  kept  his  things  there.  Aird  disappeared 
soon  after,  and  on  the  arrest  of  Burke  and  Hare  at 
Edinburgh  for  the  murder  of  the  Italian  boy,  my  father 
sent  Mr.  Park,  who  had  a  painter's  shop  near,  and 
knew  Aird,  down  to  Edinburgh,  to  see  if  Aird  and 
Hare  were  the  same  man.  Mr.  Park  at  once  identified 
Hare  as  Aird.  And  I  have  not  the  slightest  doubt  that 
Aird  (or  Hare)  had  made  away  with  Margetts,  and  sold 
his  body  at  Edinburgh  to  be  dissected,  as  Burke,  before 
execution,  confessed  to  having  killed  many  for  that 

The  following  letter  in  reply  to  Mr.  Greenhow's  state- 
ment was  subsequently  addressed  to  Robin  Goodfellow: — 

Grosvenor  Place,  North  Shields,  Dec.  27,  1883. 
Dear  Robin, — Having  read  in  your  issue  of  last  week 
Mr.  Greenhow's  letter,  in  which  he  mentions  Mr.  Park, 
painter,  going  down  to  Edinburgh  to  identify  Hare  or 
Aird  as  being  concerned  in  the  disappearance  of  Mar- 
getts, I  beg  to  offer  some  corrections  in  the  matter. 
From  correspondence  belonging  to  my  deceased  father, 
in  reference  to  my  grandfather's  visit  to  Edinburgh, 
I  find  that  this  Aird,  who  was  a  great  bird  fancier, 
and  had  a  stall  in  the  old  fish  market,  North  Shields, 
disappeared  about  the  same  time  as  Margetts.  My 
grandfather,  who  took  a  great  interest  in  birds,  was  on 
very  friendly  terms  with  Aird,  who  often  paid  a  visit 
to  his  place  of  business  in  Olive  Street.  On  the  arrest 
of  Burke  and  Hare  in  Edinburgh,  as  mentioned  in  Mr. 
Greenhow's  letter,  my  grandfather  did  go  to  Edinburgh 
to  see  if  Hare  was  the  said  Aird,  but  did  not  identify 
him,  as  he  had  been  liberated  two  days  before  he  arrived, 
his  delay  being  by  the  coach  in  which  he  travelled  either 
happening  on  accident  or  by  storm.  Burke  was  executed 
the  morning  of  my  grandfather's  arrival.  As,  however, 
he  had  travelled  so  far,  the  warder  in  charge  of  the  body 
asked  him  if  he  would  like  a  piece  of  the  murderer.  My 
grandfather  assenting,  he  cut  off  one  of  Burke's  ears  ! 
The  memento  is  still  in  possession  of  the  family. — I  am, 


The  Rev.  William  Fisken,  minister  of  the  Presbyterian 
Church  of  England  at  Stamfordham,  Northumberland, 
died  in  the  early  part  of  1884-.  Mr  Fisken  was  a  septua- 
genarian, and  had  laboured  for  37  years  a  few  miles  from 
Wylam,  on  the  banks  of  the  Tyne,  where  George  Stephen- 
son  was  born.  Mr.  Fisken,  who  was  a  native  of  Perthshire, 
alongside  the  study  of  theology,  diligently  pursued 
mechanics.  In  this  latter  science  his  brothers,  Thomas 
and  David,  were  equally  proficient.  Mr.  Fisken  will  be 
remembered  by  posterity,  as  he  well  deserves  to  be,  and 
especially  by  agriculturists,  as  having  been  one  of  the  two 
inventors  of  the  steam  plough,  the  other  being  his  brother 
Thomas,  a  schoolmaster  at  Stockton. 

Several  years  ago  an  important  trial  came  off  at  Westmin- 
ster upon  the  merits  of  the  invention.  The  parties  were 

the  Messrs.  Fiskeu  and  the  Messrs.  Fowler,  the  eminent 
implement  makers  at  Leeds,  and  the  finding  of  the  jury 
was  that  the  Presbyterian  minister  at  Stamfordham  and 
the  schoolmaster  at  Stockton-on-Tees  were  the  original 
discoverers.  It  is  somewhat  singular  that  the  appliance 
which  perfects  the  plan  of  the  brothers,  who  had  been 
working  together  at  the  steam  plough,  suggested  itself  to 
each  of  them  independently  and  simultaneously.  The 
late  Mr.  William  Chartres,  of  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  the 
solicitor  employed  by  the  Fiskens,  used  to  tell  how  the 
two  brothers  wrote  to  him  on  the  same  day  about  the  final 
discovery,  but  that  he  received  William's  letter  first. 

Mr.  Fisken  also  invented  a  potato  sowing  machine,  an 
apparatus  for  heating  churches,  and  the  "steam  tackle" 
which  has  helped  to  render  the  steam  plough  of  so  much 
practical  use. 

The  foregoing,  from  one  of  my  note-books,  may  be 
worthy  of  insertion  in  your  pages.  NIGEL,  York, 

The  notice  of  Drummond,  the  Sunderland  highwayman, 
in  the  Monthly  Chronicle  (vol.  ii.,  p.  317),  reminds  me 
of  the  following  incident : — My  great-uncle,  Joseph 
Revell,  Miulras  Civil  Service,  was  crossing  Bagshut 
Heath  in  a  post-chaise,  or  carriage,  with  a  friend,  Mr. 
Mellish,  when  they  were  stopped  by  two  mounted  men, 
who  deprived  them  of  their  purses  and  watches,  and  then 
rode  away.  After  passing,  one  of  the  highwaymen  fired 
his  pistol  into  the  back  of  the  carriage.  Mr.  Revell  aU- 
dressed  some  observation  to  Mr.  Mellish,  but,  receiving 
no  answer,  looked  at  him,  and  found  he  was  dead  !  The 
ball  had  passed  through  the  woodwork  of  the  chaise,  and 
entered  the  back  of  Mr.  Mellish's  neck. 



Two  tourists  from  Durham  were  lately  approaching  the 
village  of  Cotherstone  in  Teesdale  (which  both  knew  very 
well),  when  they  met  a  native,  out  of  whom  one  of  them 
decided  to  "take  a  rise."  The  following  exchange  took 
place  between  them  :— Tourist :  "Hey,  my  man,  what 
village  is  that  there  ?"  Native:  "That  be  Cotherstone, 
sor."  Tourist:  "Isn't  that  where  they  christen  the  calves?" 
Native  :  "Aye,  sor,  but  it's  eftor  fower  o'clock  on  Friday 
efternuin,  an'  they  doant  chrissen  on  Satorday  nor  Sun- 
day ;  thoo'll  hae  te  wait  till  Monday  morn  for  thy  torn  !" 

A  pitman  residing  at  Windy  Nook  takes  pleasure  in 
repeating  his  dreams.  One  evening,  some  quarrymen, 
desirous  of  having  a  joke  with  him,  asked  Geordy 
to  tell  them  a  good  one.  After  some  little  persuasion, 
he  complied  as  follows:— "Wey,  lads,  aa  dreamt  the 


I  February 
\      1889. 

other  neet  aa  wes  deed,  an'  wes  tyaken  doon  belaa — ye 
knaa  whor  aa  mean.  When  aa  gets  te  the  gates,  the 
little  imp  that  ininds  them  says :— '  What's  yor 
trade  ? '  'A  pitman, '  says  aa.  '  Whor  de  ye  come  frae?' 
'Windy  Nyuk,'  aa  tells  him.  'Come  in,  lad,'  he  says, 
'thoo's  the  forst  pitman  frae  thor,  but  we're  swarming 
wi'  quarrymen  ! ' " 


In  one  of  our  neighbouring  villages  lives  a  miner,  who 
is  much  addicted  to  strong  liquor.  His  wife  and  children 
often  suffer  great  privations  through  his  drunken  and 
impecunious  habits,  although  he  can  generally  manage  to 
bring  some  dainty  morsel  from  the  "toon"  for  his  own 
supper.  One  Saturday  night  he  returned  in  a  merry 
mood  with  a  pound  of  sausage,  which  he  ordered  his  wife 
to  fry.  As  the  cooking  proceeded,  Geordy  slept ;  and 
the  poor  woman,  to  whom  necessity  knew  no  law,  shared 
the  treat  with  her  children,  and  liberally  besmeared  the 
mouth  of  her  sleeping  spouse  with  the  fat.  Presently  he 
awoke,  and  demanded  his  sausage.  "Wey,  thoo's 
eaten't,"  said  his  wife,  and  as  a  proof  showed  him  his 
greasy  face  in  a  looking-glass.  "Beggor,  aa  must  hev," 
said  Geordy,  "seein's  believin  !  " 


The  other  day,  a  hawker,  plying  his  vocation  in 
Gosforth,  knocked  at  the  door  of  a  cottage ;  the  lady  of 
the  house  came,  and,  discerning  that  he  was  about  to 
offer  some  article  of  common  use  for  sale,  tartly  re- 
marked :  " Aa  nivvor  buy  owt  at  the  door  I'1  "Ah, 
weel, "  said  the  hawker,  "  then  aa'll  sell  ye  summat  at  the 
winder ! " 


Some  time  ago,  a  company  of  travelling  actors  were 
playing  Macbeth  at  a  colliery  village  within  the  prover- 
bial hundred  miles  from  Newcastle.  All  went  well  until 
the  last  scene,  where  Macbeth  was  being  pursued  by 
Macduff.  Macbeth  enters  breathless  with  excitement, 
and  in  a  tragic  manner  places  his  hand  to  his  ear  in  a 
listening  attitude,  exclaiming,  "  Hark  !  what  noise  is  that 
I  hear?  Enemies  are  on  my  track!"  Just  then  the 
buzzer  at  the  colliery  was  blowing,  notifying  that  the 
pit  would  be  idle  the  next  day.  A  pitman  in  the  back 
seats  shouted  out  at  the  top  of  his  voice:  "It's  the  buz- 
zor,  ye  beggor  !  The  pit's  off  the  morn  ! " 

A  house  painter  being  asked  by  his  employer  if  he  had 
ever  worked  in  London,  replied  :  "  No,  aa  nivvor  think  o' 
gannin'  thor ;  wey,  ye  cannot  git  broon  rowl  in  London — 
it's  aall  shag  !  " 


The  other  day  a  young  man,  who  has  a  twin  brother, 
went  with  his  mother  into  a  certain  butcher's  shop  in 
Shieldfield.  Seeing  himself  in  a  looking-glass,  the  young 
man  exclaimed  :  "  Muthor,  thor's  wor  Tommy  in  the 
shop."  The  good  lady  looked  for  Tommy,  but  failed  to 
find  him.  At  last  the  truth  dawned  upon  her,  and  she 

said  to  her  son  :    "  Wey,  it's  yorsel' ;  ye  divvent  knaa 
yor  aan  fyce  from  Tommy's  ! " 


Mr.  Matthew  Young,  a  gentleman  prominently  con- 
nected with  several  local  bodies  at  Berwick,  died  in  that 
town  on  the  10th  of  December,  1888,  at  the  age  of  about 
66  years. 

On  the  llth  of  December,  Mr.  Matthew  Carter,  for- 
merly builder,  farmer,  and  manager  of  Smith's  Charity, 
died  at  Hartlepool,  at  the  advanced  age  of  76. 

On  the  13th  of  December,  Mr.  William  Hedley,  J.P., 
colliery  owner,  died  at  Burnhopeside  Hall,  Lanchester,  in 
the  81st  year  of  his  age.  He  was  the  last  survivor  of  the 
four  sons  of  the  late  Mr.  William  Hedley,  who  it  is  claimed 
was  the  inventor  of  the  locomotive  engine.  The  father 
became  connected  with  collieries  in  the  county  of  Dur- 
ham, and  was  assisted  by  some  of  his  sons,  who  eventually 
succeeded  him.  They  were  partners  in  the  firm  of 
Thomas  Hedley  and  Brothers,  Quayside,  Newcastle,  and 
owned  South  Moor,  Craghead,  and  Holmside  collieries. 
The  second  son,  Thomas,  brought  the  name  of  the  family 
prominently  before  the  public  some  years  ago  by  his 
munificent  legacy  towards  the  fund  for  the  establishment 
of  the  Bishopric  of  Newcastle,  of  which  he  was  thus 
practically  the  founder.  Mr.  William  Hedley,  like  his 
relatives,  was  also  distinguished  for  many  works  of  charity 
and  philanthropy.  The  deceased  gentleman,  among 
several  other  local  bequests,  left  £1,000  to  the  Newcastle 
Royal  Infirmary. 

On  the  same  day,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Maclennan,  vicar  of 
Brampton-in-Cleveland,  and  formerly  assistant  chaplain 
of  St.  Thomas's,  Newcastle,  died  at  the  age  of  60. 

Colonel  the  Hon.  Augustus  Liddell,  late  Deputy- 
Ranger  of  Windsor  Forest,  and  uncle  to  the  present  Earl 
of  Ravensworth,  died  on  the  14th  December,  at  his  resi- 
dence at  Eaton,  aged  76  years. 

Dr.  Horan,  a  well-known  medical  practitioner  at  Sun- 
derland,  died  there  on  the  18th  of  December,  at  the  age 
of  64  years. 

On  the  19th  of  December,  Mr.  George  Young,  senior 
member  of  the  firm  of  Messrs.  Young  and  Sons,  con- 
tractors, Monkwearmouth.  and  a  familiar  figure  in  Sun- 
derland,  died  at  Bishopwearmouth.  He  was  69  years  of 

On  the  20th  of  December,  it  was  announced  that  Mr. 
John  Sewell,  a  native  of  Bishop  Auckland,  and  formerly 
master  of  the  Herrington  Wesleyan  School,  Sunderland, 
had  been  killed  by  coming  in  contact  with  a  rock  while 
bathing  at  Gatton,  Queensland,  on  the  28th  of  October. 
He  was  only  30  years  of  age. 

About  the  same  date  was  reported  the  death  of  the 
Rev.  John  Broadbent,  a  Wesleyan  minister  formerly 
identified  with  Sunderland,  but  who  had  latterly  been  re- 
moved to  Richmond,  in  Yorkshire. 

Mr.  Jonathan  Priestman,  J.P.,  a  well-known  coal- 
owner,  died  at  his  residence  at  Derwent  Lodge,  Shotley 
Bridge,  on  the  21st  of  December.  He  was  the  youngest 
son  of  the  late  Jonathan  Priestman,  of  Benwell  House, 
near  Newcastle,  and  his  father  was  a  very  influential 
citizen  of  Newcastle,  being  engaged  in  the  tannery  busi- 

February  I 
1889.      r 


ness,  and  specially  in  the  production  of  morocco  and  other 
fancy  leathers — a  calling  which  he  followed  with  consider- 
able success.  This  gentleman  was  the  first  president  of 
the  Newcastle  Temperance  Society.  The  deceased  filled 
the  position  of  manager  of  the  Consett  Iron  Works  with 
much  ability  for  some  time,  being  succeeded  by  Mr. 
Jenkins,  the  present  manager.  Mr.  Priestman  after- 
wards devoted  more  attention  to  the  coal  trade,  and  he 
had  been  for  a  number  of  years  prominently  connected 
with  the  commercial  life  of  Newcastle.  He  was  managing 
owner  of  Ashington  Colliery,  Northumberland,  and 
through  his  instrumentality  many  improvements  were 
effected  at  that  place.  He  was  also  head  of  the  firm 
which  owned  the  Victoria  Garestield,  near  Winlaton. 
Mr.  Priestman  was  a  member  of  the  Society  of  Friends, 
and  was  brother-in-law  to  Mr.  John  Bright,  M.P.,  his 
eldest  sister  having  been  married  to  that  distinguished 
statesman  ;  but  she  died  in  1841,  and  Mr.  Bright  married 
a  second  time  in  1847.  The  deceased  gentleman  took  an 
active  part  in  the  promotion  and  management  of  the 
Newcastle  Royal  Jubilee  Exhibition,  and  he  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Finance  Committee  of  the  local  Coal  Trade 
Association.  Mr.  Priestman  was  chairman  of  the  Lan- 
chester  and  Consett  bench  of  magistrates,  and  was  63 
years  of  age. 

On  the  31st  of  December,  Mr.  Michael  Spencer,  a  mem- 
ber of  the  firm  of  John  Spencer  and  Sons,  Newburn 
Steel  Works,  died  at  his  residence,  Walbottle  Hall,  near 

The  Rev,  Mother  Mary  Aloysius  O'Connell  died,  in  her 
73rd  year,  in  the  St.  Bede's  Convent  of  Mercy,  Simder- 
land,  on  the  31st  of  December.  The  deceased  lady  was  a 
cousin  of  the  great  Daniel  O'Connell. 

Mrs.  Lough,  widow  of  John  Graham  Lough,  the 
eminent  sculptor,  died  at  her  residence,  42,  Harewood 
Square,  London,  on  the  29th  of  December.  She  was 
upwards  of  seventy  years  of  age,  and  had  survived  her 
distinguished  husband  eighteen  years.  She  was  a  daugh- 
ter of  the  Rev.  Henry  North,  domestic  chaplain  to  the 
Duke  of  Kent,  father  of  Queen  Victoria,  and  she  was 
married  to  Mr.  Lough  in  1832.  The  deceased  lady,  in 
compliance  with  the  oft-expressed  wish  of  her  husband  in 
his  lifetime,  presented  the  original  models  of  his  principal 
works  to  Newcastle,  and  they  were  afterwards  placed  in 
Elswick  Hall,  the  collection  having  been  inaugurated  by 
Mr.  Joseph  Cowen,  then  senior  member  for  the  borough, 
on  the  24th  of  October,  1877.  Mr.  Lough  was  a  native  of 
Greenhead,  near  Minsteracres,  Northumberland,  where 
he  was  brought  up  as  a  working  mason. 

On  the  3rd  of  January,  1889,  the  Rev.  Thomas  Russell, 
one  of  the  co-workers  with  Hugh  and  James  Bourne  in 
founding  the  Primitive  Methodist  Connexion,  died  at 
Dover,  in  the  83rd  year  of  his  age.  The  rev.  gentleman 
travelled  in  the  Stockton  circuit  during  the  last  severe 
visitation  of  cholera,  and  in  1853  he  was  stationed  at 

Mrs.  Clark,  wife  of  Mr.  Edward  Clark,  solicitor,  died 
suddenly  at  Portland  House,  Benton,  on  the  5th  of 
January.  The  deceased  lady  was  a  daughter  of  Mr. 
George  Stanley,  formerly  lessee  of  the  Tyne  Theatre,  and 
during  the  brief  period  she  spent  as  an  actress  she  gave 
proof  of  considerable  talent. 

Mr,  Robert  Newlands,  a  gentleman  largely  interested 
in  business  matters  in  Jarrow  and  South  Shields,  and 
father  of  Messrs.  Newlands,  solicitors,  died  in  the  former 
town  on  the  8th  of  January. 

Mr.  Leopold  Charles  Martin,  the  only  surviving  son 
of  John  Martin,  the  famous  painter,  who  was  a  native  of 
Haydon  Bridge,  Northumberland,  died  in  London  on  the 
8th  of  January.  His  life  had  been  spent,  for  the  most 
part,  in  the  public  service.  Through  the  interest, 
it  is  stated,  of  Sir  Robert  Peel — a  warm  admirer  of 
the  artist — Mr.  Leopold  Martin  obtained  a  post  in  a 
Government  office,  and  was  thus  furnished  with  a 
career  congenial  and  suitable  to  him,  though  he  still  kept 
up  his  relations  with  the  world  of  art,  science,  and  litera- 
ture. Mr.  Martin  married  a  sister  of  Mr.  John  Tenriel, 
the  inimitable  Punch,  "cartoonist,"  and  some  of  his 
leisure Vas  devoted  to  literary  labours.  "  Illustrations  of 
British  Costume  from  William  I.  to  George  III.,"  "  Gold 
and  Silver  Coins  of  all  Nations,"  and  "The  Literature  of 
the  Civil  Service,"  are  among  the  works  published  by  him 
at  various  times.  There  had  just  been  commenced  in  the 
Newcastle  Weekly  Chronicle,  {rom  the  pen  of  the  deceased 
gentleman,  the  publication  of  a  series  of  personal  remin- 
iscences of  his  distinguished  father.  The  articles  having 
been  completed  before  the  author's  death,  their  publica- 
tion was  continued  from  week  to  week.  For  accounts  of 
the  different  members  of  the  Martin  family — John, 
William,  and  Jonathan — see  vol.  i.,  pp.  343,  418,  434  ; 
vol.  ii.,  p.  43. 

A  Cambridge  University  correspondent,  on  the  10th  of 
January,  recorded  the  death  of  Mr.  Ernest  Temperley, 
bursar  and  assistant-tutor  of  Queen's  College,  who  was 
born  in  1849,  and  was  educated  at  Newcastle  Grammar 

On  the  13th  of  January,  Mr.  John  Charlton,  licensed 
victualler,  Drury  Lane,  Newcastle,  died  at  his  residence, 
in  Northumberland  Street,  in  the  71st  year  of  his  age.  He 
had  carried  on  business  in  the  town  for  the  long  period  of 
about  forty  years,  and  was  much  respected  by  the  very 
large  number  of  people  who  knew  him.  The  deceased 
gentleman  was  a  brother  of  Mr.  James  Charlton,  of 
Chicago,  a  well-known  authority  in  the  railway  world  of 



DECEMBER,  1888. 

10.— The  Senate  of  Durham  University  decided  to 
admit  evening  students  of  the  College  of  Science  in  New- 
castle to  the  titles  and  degrees  of  the  university. 

At  the  Durham  Convocation,  Mr.  Edwin  Codling, 

the  first  artizan  who  had  obtained  that  distinction,  re- 
ceived the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Science  in  the  University 
of  Durham. 

Mr.  G.  T.  France  was  elected  chairman,  and  the 

Rev.  A.  F.  Riley  vice-chairman,  of  the  Gateshead  School 

—The  committee  of  the  Bedlington  Mechanics'  Insti- 
tute celebrated  the  38th  anniversary,  by  planting  a  num- 
ber of  trees  in  the  ground  in  front  of  the  large  building  in 
Front  Street. 

11. — The  first  marriage  waa  solemnized  in  St.  George's 
Church,  Newcastle,  the  bride  being  Miss  Elizabeth  Ada 


I  February 
I      18S). 

Swan,  daughter  of  the  late  Mr.  William  Swan,  of  Walker, 
and  the  bridegroom  Dr.  Arthur  Brumell,  of  Morpeth. 

—Mr.  Thomas  Cooke,  of  the  firm  of  Messrs.  Hedley, 
Turnbull,  and  Cooke,  was  elected  representative  of  St. 
John's  Ward  in  the  Newcastle  City  Council,  in  the  room 
of  Mr.  J.  G.  Youll,  recently  elevated  to  the  position 
of  alderman. 

12.— Mr.  Richard  Fynes,  of  the  Theatre  Royal,  Blyth, 
was  presented  with  an  iDuminated  address  and  an  album 
by  his  friends  of  Newsham  and  New  Delaval. 

13. — The  Rev.  Robert  Brown,  of  Erskine  Presbyterian 
Church,  and  for  upwards  of  thirty  years  a  minister  in 
Newcastle,  announced  his  acceptance  of  a  call  to  Bramp- 
ton,  in  the  Presbytery  of  Carlisle.  Previous  to  his 
departure,  the  rev.  gentleman  was  presented  with  an 
illuminated  address,  two  oil  paintings,  and  a  purse  of 
gold  by  members  of  his  old  congregation  and  friends.  He 
was  inducted  into  his  new  charge  on  the  1st  of  January 

—The  Rev.  A.  L.  Laird,  M.A.,  was  inducted  to  the 
pastorate  of  Arthur's  Hill  Presbyterian  Church,  New- 

—A  destructive  fire  occurred  at  Messrs.  Graham  and 
Co.'s  saw  mill  and  timber  yard,  at  the  west  side  of  Tyne 
Dock,  South  Shields,  the  damage  being  estimated  at 
several  thousand  pounds. 

14.— A  scheme  of  amended  and  extended  representation 
was  adopted  by  the  Newcastle  Board  of  Guardians. 

—Mr.  Joseph  Dodds,  accepting  the  Chiltern  Hundreds, 
retired  from  the  representation  of  Stockton-on-Tees,  for 
which  he  was  the  first  member,  and  for  which  he  had  sat 
in  the  House  of  Commons  since  1868.  There  came  for- 
ward as  candidates  Sir  Horace  Davey,  Q.C.  (Liberal), 
and  Mr.  Thomas  Wrightson  (Conservative).  The  election 
took  place  on  the  21st,  the  result  being— Davey,  3,889; 
Wrightson,  3,494.  Sir  Horace  Davey  was  consequently 

16. — A  woman,  named  Jane  Rigg,  died  in  Victor 
Street,  Monkwearmouth,  from  the  effects  of  injuries 
alleged  to  have  been  inflicted  by  her  husband,  William 
Uigg,  on  the  9th. 

—The  chancel  of  St.  Nicholas'  Cathedral,  Newcastle, 
was  re-opened  by  the  Bishop  of  Derry. 

17.— The  new  Theatre  Royal,  Blyth,  erected  for  Mr. 
Richard  Fynes,  was  opened  in  the  presence  of  a  large 

—It  was  announced  that,  during  some  ploughing  opera- 
tions, a  circular-built  grave,  supposed  to  be  of  Roman 
origin,  had  been  unearthed  on  the  farm  of  Unthank,  near 

18.— William  Waddle,  who  murdered  Jane  Beadmore. 
at  Birtley  Fell  on  the  22nd  of  September,  1888,  was 
•executed  in  Durham  Gaol,  Berry  being  the  executioner. 
(See  vol.  ii.,  pages  526,  573.)  The  convict  had,  a  day  or 
two  previously,  confessed  his  guilt  of  the  crime  to  Dr.  • 
Lake,  Dean  of  Durham. 

19. — The  Tees  shipbuilders  gave  notice  for  an  advance 
of  12i  per  cent,  in  their  wages. 

— A  new  Surgical  Home,  in  connection  with  the  Throat 
and  Ear  Hospital,  was  opened  at  the  corner  of  Brighton 
Grove  and  Stanhope  Street,  Newcastle. 

—The  inaugural  address  was  delivered  by  Mr.  George 
E.  Shotton,  president,  to  the  members  of  the  National 
Association  of  Draughtsmen  in  Newcastle. 

20.— It  was  announced  that  the  Rev.  S.  E.  Pennefather, 

vicar  of  St.  George's  Church,  Newcastle,  and  the  Rev. 
Christopher  Bird,  vicar  of  Chollerton,  had  been  installed 
as  honorary  canons  of  the  diocese  of  Newcastle. 

21.— A  home  for  waifs  and  stray  children  was  opened 
at  Gosforth  by  Mr.  W.  D.  Stephens,  J.P. 

22.— John  Boulton,  a  man  well  known  in  aquatic  circles, 
and  36  years  of  age,  committed  suicide  by  hanging  him- 
self, at  Gateshead. 

—The  Christmas  pantomime  of  "Sindbad  the  Sailor," 
the  libretto  being  by  Mr.  W.  Morgan  and  Mrs.  Howard, 
was  produced  for  the  first  time  at  the  Theatre  Royal, 
Newcastle.  The  subject  of  the  pantomime  at  the  Tyne 
Theatre,  in  the  same  city,  was  "Puss  in  Boots,"  which 
was  presented  for  the  first  occasion  on  the  26th. 

24.— A  theatrical  license  for  twelve  months  was  granted 
to  St.  George's  Hall,  Newcastle. 

26.— Twenty-two  men,  forming  part  of  the  crew  of  the 
screw-steamer  Storm  Queen,  of  Newcastle,  which  had 
been  wrecked  in  the  Bay  of  Biscay,  on  the  22nd,  were 
landed  at  Dover  by  the  Norwegian  barque  Gulnare,  by 
which  they  had  been  rescued.  The  captain  (Mr.  Jaques) 
and  other  five  hands  were  drowned. 

28.— Sir  Edward  Grey,  M.P.,  presided  at  the  annual 
dinner  of  the  North  of  England  Commercial  Travellers' 
Association,  held  in  the  Assembly  Rooms,  Newcastle. 

—Mrs.  Lowrey,  residing  at  12,  City  Road,  Newcastle, 
gave  birth  to  three  children— two  males  and  one  female. 
This  was  the  second  case  of  triplets  which  had  occurred  in 
the  same  city  within  a  few  weeks. 

31. — A  boy  named  James  Moore,  aared  15,  was  fatally 
stabbed  in  Railway  Street,  Sunderland;  and  John 
Me.  Donald,  another  lad,  14  years  of  age,  who  was  sus- 
pected of  having  inflicted  the  injuries,  was  arrested  on  the 
charge.  The  coroner's  jury  returned  a  verdict  of  wilful 
murder  against  him. 

JANUARY,  1889. 

1. — New  Year's  Day  was  ushered  in  by  the  customary 
interchange  of  good  wishes  and  other  observances ;  but  in 
Newcastle  remarkable  quietness  prevailed,  and  during 
the  night  only  six  persons  had  been  taken  into  custody. 

—Park  Terrace  Presbyterian  Church,  Windmill  Hills, 
Gateshead,  of  which  the  Rev.  J.  Anderson  Watt  is 
minister,  was  opened  by  the  Rev.  J.  B.  Meharry,  B.A., 
of  London. 

—Notice  was  issued  by  the  Iron  Shipbuilders'  Society 
to  the  Employers'  Association  on  the  Tyne  and  Wear, 
asking  that,  at  the  expiration  of  January,  an  advance  of 
12^  per  cent,  in  wages  should  be  granted.  A  similar 
notice  had  been  served  on  the  masters  in  the  Tees  district, 
which  includes  the  Hartlepools.  On  the  8th,  the  em- 
ployers, in  the  latter  case,  decided  to  close  the  yards  after 
the  16th,  such  men  as  might  be  retained  being  engaged 
from  day  to  day.  The  men  of  the  Tyne  and  Wear 
eventually  agreed  to  accept  the  offer  made  by  the  masters 
of  an  advance  of  5  per  cent,  on  piece  prices  and  Is.  per 
week  on  time  wages,  dating  from  the  first  week  of  Feb- 
ruary, and  another  like  advance  dating  from  the  first 
pay  in  July. 

2.— An  inquiry  on  behalf  of  the  Local  Government 
Board  was  held  at  South  Shields  by  Mr.  Thomas 
Codrington,  in  reference  to  an  application  by  the  Cor- 
poration to  borrow  £3,375  for  public  improvements  and 
other  purposes. 

February  | 



— A  fog  of  great  density  prevailed  on  the  Tyne  and 
along  the  Northumberland  and  Durham  coasts,  consider- 
ably impeding  the  navigation  and  traffic. 

3. — Mainly  through  the  instrumentality  of  Mr.  Thomas 
Stamp  Alder,  about  3,000  poor  children  were  fed  in  New- 

—Nominations  were  officially  received  for  the  New- 
castle School  Board,  the  triennial  term  of  which  was 
about  to  expire.  Forty-one  gentlemen,  in  all,  including 
the  fifteen  retiring  members,  were  nominated.  As  no 
important  question  affecting  the  past  policy  of  the  Board 
was  involved,  an  effort  was  made  to  avoid  a  contest  by  a 
friendly  arrangement.  With  this  view,  a  meeting  was 
held  in  the  Council  Chamber  on  the  5th,  under  the  pre- 
sidency of  the  Mayor  (Mr.  Thomas  Richardson),  and 
another,  by  adjournment,  on  the  6th  ;  but  on  neither 
occasion  was  a  compromise  arrived  at.  With  the 
exceptions  of  Messrs.  William  Hill,  John  Laidler, 
and  Alexander  Stewart,  working  men,  the  whole  of 
the  persons  nominated,  apart  from  the  retiring  mem- 
bers, eventually  withdrew.  The  three  persons  above 
named,  however,  refused  to  retire,  so  that  an  election  was 
rendered  inevitable.  The  election  took  place  on  the  Hth, 
and  the  result  was  declared  next  day  as  follows  :— 

John  Robert  Wood  (Catholic )    15, 740 

Thomas  Keenan  (Catholic) 14,743 

Alexander  Stewart  (Workman) 13,784 

John  Laidler  (Workman) 13,683 

William  Hill  (Workman) 13,604 

J.  H.  Rutherford  (Unsectarian) 11,496 

A.  T.  Lloyd  (Churchman)   10.654 

G.  Luekley  (Unsectarian) 9,045 

R.  S.  Watson  (Unsectarian)    8,478 

J.  C.  Laird  (Unsectarian) 8,462 

W.  R.  Plummer  (Churchman) 8,413 

S.  E.  Pennefather  (Churchman ) 8, 368 

R.  G.  Hoare  (Churchman)  7,883 

W.  H.  Stephenson  (Unsectarian)  7,867 

John  Thompson  (Unsectarian)  7,828 

Benjamin  Barkus  (Churchman) 7,569 

George  Bell.  Jun.  (Unsectarian)   7,104 

J.  Shepherdson (Unsectarian) 6,570 

The  first  fifteen  on  the  list  were  declared  to  have  been 

— A  handsome  organ  erected  in  Jesmond  Baptist 
Church,  Newcastle,  and  presented  by  Mrs.  Potts,  was 
opened  by  a  concert  of  sacred  music. 

4.— A  deputation,  headed  by  Lord  Armstrong,  and 
representing  the  local  committees  appointed  to  consider 
the  proposals  of  the  Admiralty  and  the  War  Office  for  the 
defence  of  the  Clyde,  the  Forth,  the  Mersey,  the  Tyne, 
and  the  Tees,  had  an  interview  with  the  Marquis  of 
Salisbury,  at  the  Foreign  Office,  to  urge  upon  him  that 
the  protection  of  British  ports  and  commerce  connected 
with  them  was  a  national  duty,  and  not  a  work  which 
localities  could  or  ought  to  undertake. 

5.— From  the  final  official  list  of  the  Hospital  Sunday 
.and  Saturday  collections  made  in  Newcastle  in  October 
last,  it  appeared  that  the  total  sum  realised  was  £3,614 
3s.  Id. ;  places  of  worship  contributing  £1,810  Is.  2d.,  and 
manufactories  £1,804  Is.  lid.  In  the  previous  year  the 
relative  amounts  were — from  churches  and  chapels  £1,971 
Os.  5d.,  and  from  works  £1,545  15s.  2d.,  making  together 
£3,516  15s.  7d. 

— The  quarterly  certificates  of  the  accountants  in  the 
Cleveland  iron  trade  showed  the  price  to  be  33s.  3-58d. 
per  ton,  making  the  tonnage  rate  of  9'41d.,  or  an  advance 
of  '13d.  per  ton. 

— The  result  of  the  election  for  Tynemouth    School 

Board  was  made  known,  the  eleven  members  returned 
being— the  Rev.  Father  Stark,  Mr.  L.  M.  Johnson,  Mr. 
Ellis,  the  Rev.  T.  Brutton,  Mr.  Isaac  Black,  Mr.  R.  D. 
Scott,  the  Rev.  David  Tasker,  Mr.  Joseph  Garrick,  the 
Rev.  Mr.  Horton,  Mr.  Grant,  and  Dr.  J.  M.  Robson. 

— An  offhand  match  was  rowed  on  the  Tyne,  from 
the  High  Level  to  the  Redheugh  Bridge,  between  George 
Bubear,  of  Putney,  the  English  professional  champion, 
and  George  Norvell,  of  Swalwell.  The  stakes  were  £20 
a-side,  and  the  Swalwell  oarsman  eventually  won  by  a 
length  and  a  half. 

7.— The  new  Hall  and  Sunday  School  for  St.  Philip's 
Parish  was  opened  in  Longley  Street,  Newcastle. 

—The  Rev.  Dr.  Joseph  Parker,  of  the  City  Temple, 
London,  preached  in  the  Town  Hall,  Hexham,  that  town 
having  been  the  place  of  his  birth.  On  the  following 
evening,  he  lectured  at  Sunderland  on  '•  Clocks  and 

— An  international  draughts  match — James  Smith,  of 
Spennymoor,  against  Charles  F.  Barker,  of  America — 
was  brought  to  a  close  at  Spennymoor,  in  the  county  of 
Durham,  and  ended  in  a  decisive  win  for  Barker,  who 
scored  five  games  against  one  by  his  opponent,  with  23 

8. — Mr.  Gainsford  Bruce,  Q.C.,  M.P.,  was  entertained 
to  a  banquet,  given  by  the  Newcastle  Conservative  Asso- 
ciation and  the  local  Conservatives,  in  the  County  Hotel, 
Newcastle,  in  honour  of  his  return  to  Parliament  for  the 
Holborn  Division  of  Finsbury.  The  chair  on  the  occasion 
\vas  occupied  by  Sir  M.  W.  Ridley,  M.  P. 

— Strangers  were  brought  to  fill  the  places  of  sailors 
and  firemen  who  had  struck  work  at  Seaham  Harbour, 
the  point  in  dispute  being  the  mode  of  shipping  and 
unshipping  crews.  The  strike  was  settled  on  the  llth, 
and  the  men  resumed  work  next  day. 

9. — The  election  of  members  of  the  Sunderland  Schoo 
Board  took  place,  with  the  result  that  the  state  of  the 
parties  remained  unchanged,  the  fifteen  seats  being  filled 
by  eight  Unsectanans,  six  Churchmen,  and  one  Roman 

—Mr.  T.  Milvain,  M.P.,  formally  opened  the  new  pre- 
mises of  the  East  End  Working  Men's  Conservative 
Association,  in  High  Street,  Sunderland. 

— Clarghyll  Hall,  situated  about  two  miles  from  Alston, 
was  partly  destroyed  by  fire,  and  the  Rev.  Octavius 
James,  the  occupant  of  the  house,  perished  in  the  flames. 
The  reverend  gentleman  was  71  years  of  age,  held  the 
living  of  Kirkhaugh,  and  had  been  a  justice  of  the  peace 
for  the  county  for  about  40  years. 

10. — It  was  announced  that  the  will  of  Mr.  William 
Isaac  Cookson,  of  Worsop  Manor,  Notts,  and  Newcastle- 
on-Tyne,  had  been  proved,  the  value  of  the  personal 
estate  being  sworn  to  exceed  £585,000. 

—The  wife  of  Mr.  R.  B.  Crow,  butcher,  Hylton  Road, 
Sunderland,  gave  birth  to  three  children,  all  girls.  On 
the  12th  of  the  same  month,  the  wife  of  Mr.  Finlay,  3, 
Hammond  Street,  Newcastle,  was  delivered  of  three 
children  at  a  birth. 

—Mr.  Brewis  Elsdon,  of  the  firm  of  Elsdon  and  Drans- 
field,  solicitors,  Newcastle,  acting  on  instructions  received 
from  the  Secretary  of  State,  proceeded  to  AInwick,  and 
made  application  before  the  Rev.  Canon  Trotter  for  four 
summonses  against  four  persons  for  conspiracy  in  the 
famous  Edlingham  burglary  case,  when  Brannagan  and 
Murphy,  who  have  since  been  released,  were  sentenced 



j  February 
\      1889. 

to  penal  servitude  for  life  at  the  Northumberland  Assizes 
in  1879. 

12. — Messrs.  Bell  Brothers,  Limited,  ironmasters  and 
salt  manufacturers,  Fort  Clarence,  Middlesbrough,  issued 
a  circular,  announcing  that  they  had  disposed  of  their 
salt  property  to  the  Salt  Union,  Limited. 

13. — Mr.  T.  Humphry  Ward,  husband  of  the  author  of 
"Robert  Elsmere,"  and  himself  attached  to  the  literary 
staff  of  the  Times,  delivered  a  lecture  this  evening,  in  the 
Tyne  Theatre,  on  "Matthew  Arnold." 

14. — It  was  announced  that  the  Rev.  Theodore  Charles 
Chapman,  M.A.,  of  St.  John's,  Lowestoft,  had  accepted 
the  living  of  Jesmond  Church,  in  Newcastle. 

©etteral  ©ccnrrcntt?. 


14. — An  election  took  place  at  Maidstone  in  consequence 
of  the  death  of  Major  Ross.  The  result  was  as  follows  : — 
Fiennes  Stanley  Wycham  Cornwallis  (Conservative), 
2,050 ;  John  Barker  (Gladstonian),  1,865  ;  majority,  185. 

16. — Death  of  Prince  Alexander  of  Hesse,  aged  64,  at 

18. — Much  anxiety  was  felt  about  this  time  on  account 
of  the  reported  capture  of  Mr.  H.  M.  Stanley  and  Emin 
Pasha  by  the  Madhi ;  but  subsequent  information  was  to 
the  effect  that  two  other  whites  had  fallen  into  the 
Madhi's  hands,  and  this  led  to  the  error. 

— The  result  of  an  election  at  Colchester  of  a  member  of 
Parliament,  in  the  room  of  Mr.  H.  J.  Trotter,  deceased, 
was  declared  as  follows  : — Lord  Brooke  (Conservative), 

2,126;  Sir  William  Brampton  Gurdon  (Gladstonian), 
1,687 ;  majority,  439. 

20. — A  force  of  4,000  men,  composed  of  British  and 
Egyptian  soldiers,  attacked  a  body  of  Arabs  who  had  for 
some  time  been  threatening  Suakim,  on  the  Red  Sea. 
The  Arabs  were  driven  from  their  trenches  with  a  loss  of 
about  400  killed  and  wounded.  The  British  loss  was  very 

21.— In  consequence  of  the  violent  and  abusive  language 
used  by  Dr.  Tanner,  M.P.,  during  the  sitting  of  the 
House  of  Commons  on  the  Appropriation  Bill,  he  was 
suspended  from  the  service  of  the  House. 

— The  body  of  a  woman  was  found  in  Poplar,  Lon- 
don, under  circumstances  which  led  to  the  belief  that  she 
had  been  strangled,  She  was  afterwards  identified  as 
Lizzie  Davis,  an  unfortunate.  No  clue  was  obtained  to 
the  person  or  persons  supposed  to  have  committed  the 

— Death  of  Mr.  Laurence  Oliphant,  aged  60,  well 
known  as  a  diplomatist  and  author. 

24. — The  House  of  Lords  and  House  of  Commons  were 
this  day  prorogued. 

—Death  of  the  Rev.  Charles  Cuthbert  Southey,  vicar 
of  Askham,  near  Penrith,  son  of  the  poet  Southey,  aged 
70  years;  also  of  Mr.  Philip  Henry  Muntz,  formerly 
M.P.  for  Birmingham,  aged  78  years. 

26. — Death  of  General  Louis  Melikoff,  a  famous  Russian 
soldier,  aged  65  years. 

27. — A  Native  Indian  Congress  was  held  at  Allahabad. 

28.— Death  of  Elizabeth  Pritchard,  Newport,  aged  104 
years ;  also  of  Lord  Eversley,  who  was  Speaker  of  the 
House  of  Commons  from  1839  to  1857,  aged  93  years. 

— Execution  of  a  desperate  character,  Prado,  in  Paris, 
for  the  murder  of  a  woman  named  Marie  Aguetant. 

31. — A  boy  named  John  Gill,  eight  years  of  age,  was 
found  dead  within  a  stone's  throw  of  his  parents'  house 
in  Bradford.  The  body  was  horribly  mutilated.  No 
clue  could  be  found  to  the  mystery.  A  milkman  was 
arrested  and  charged  with  the  murder,  but  was  subse- 
quently liberated. 

— An  extraordinary  hoax  was  perpetrated  in  Mexico. 
A  report  was  sent  to  all  quarters  of  the  globe  giving  par- 
ticulars of  a  rising  in  Mexico,  in  which  seventy -two  priests 
were  killed  by  the  Government  forces,  and  two  hundred 
others  ordered  to  be  executed.  This  was  afterwards 
proved  to  be  a  stupid  joke. 

JANUARY,   1889. 

6.— A  young  man  named  Jenkins,  an  artist,  enticed  his 
sweetheart,  Emily  Joy,  into  his  studio,  at  Godalming, 
Surrey,  where  he  violated  and  murdered  her.  Jenkins 
afterwards  gave  himself  up,  and  confessed  the  crime. 

7.— A  British  force  routed  a  force  of  Red  Karens  in 

—Terrible  storms  occurred  in  the  United  States,  many 
persons  being  killed  and  injured. 

12. — The  British  steamer  Priam  was  wrecked  off  the 
Lisargas  Isles,  Spain,  when  over  one  hundred  persons 
were  drowned. 

14.— William  II.  opened  the  Prussian  Diet.  There 
was,  he  said,  a  great  improvement  in  the  economic  situa- 
tion, in  industry,  and  in  the  position  of  the  working 

Printed  by  WALTER  SCOTT,  Fellmg-on-Tyne. 




VOL.  III.— No.  25. 

MARCH.  1889. 



J1TANDING  on  the  terrace  in  front  of  the 
Winter  Garden,  Sunderland,  the  spectator 
will  note  that  one  of  the  most  striking  build- 
ings in  sight  is  the  Victoria  Hall.  It  was 
here  that  the  sad  and  never-to-be-forgotten  calamity 
occurred  on  the  16th  of  June,  1883,  when  no  fewer  than 
183  unfortunate  children  lost  their  lives. 

A  public  performer  named  Fay  had  issued  notices  in 
the  early  part  of  the  week  to  the  effect  that  he  would 
give  a  grand  juvenile  entertainment  at  the  hall  on  the 

Saturday  afternoon  ;  and,  as  a  means  of  securing  a  good 
attendance,  he  circulated  tickets  admitting  children  at 
the  reduced  price  of  one  penny  each  to  the  gallery.  He 
likewise  announced  that  prizes,  in  the  shape  of  books, 
playthings,  etc.,  would  be  distributed  at  the  close 
of  the  performance.  The  entertainment  commenced 
at  three  o'clock,  when  there  were  about  eight  hun- 
dred children  in  the  body  of  the  hall,  eleven  hundred 
in  the  gallery,  and  a  few  in  the  dress  circle,  which  was 
otherwise  empty.  There  were  scarcely  any  adults 

Victoria  "Nail.  Sunderland. 

from  He  Park. 





present  besides  Mr.  Fay  and  his  assistants,  only  a  few 
nursemaids  accompanying  such  of  the  children  as  had 

Kcfa-ia  Hall. 

I  a  ura  STreeJ  Kent 

paid  the  full  price  of  admission  and  got  accommodated 
in  the  better  parts  of  the  house. 

All  went  on  well  until  the  close  of  the  proceedings, 
when  the  entertainers  began  to  distribute  prizes  to  the 
children  downstairs.  But  as  soon  as  those  who  were 
crowded  together  in  the  gallery,  without  any  grown-up 
person  to  keep  them  in  order,  saw  that  the  presents  were 
being  scattered  about  down  below,  they  naturally  became 
excited,  and  began  to  fear  that  none  would  be  left  for 
them.  In  an  instant  a  number  of  the  children  rose  to 
their  feet,  and  made  their  way  to  the  folding  doors  lead- 
ing to  the  staircase,  their  intention  being  to  run  down 
into  the  body  of  the  hall  and  share  in  the  distribution  of 
the  toys. 

About  three  parts  of  the  way  down  the  winding 
staircase  was  a  door  which  opened  inwards.  This  door 
had  for  some  unexplained  reason,  or  perhaps  quite  acci- 
dentally, been  fastened  partly  open  by  a  bolt  in  the  floor, 
leaving  for  egress  a  width  of  about  two  feet  only — barely 
sufficient  for  one  person  to  pass  at  a  time.  The  foremost 
of  the  eager  youngsters  dashed  impetuously  through  the- 
folding  doors,  and  swept  in  a  living  torrent  down  the  first 
twoflightsof  stairs.  So  long  as  the  way  waslighted  and  clear 
they  passed  on  safely  enough,  until,  streaming  down  from, 
landing  to  landing,  and  passing  the  doors  and  windows  of 
the  dress  circle  into  the  corridor,  they  approached  the- 
doorway  above  mentioned.  The  winding  stair  prevented 
those  who  were  rushing  down,  with  all  the  eagerness  of 
children  in  a  hurry  to  participate  in  the  fun,  from  seeing 
what  was  actually  happening  in  their  immediate  front. 
Those  who  were  in  advance  were  pushed  forwards  to  the- 

.1  li..d4Mlfillll  Mil  HlllliriH»*HtriJllllllllil.l44J  mill 

\Y>        I    -^w^ 

_2=S  H-aSi  H       ilKl  H  —  fj-f  "ft.'? 

'==• y/rterior  ofKctiriitlsIl 

March  I 
1889.   / 



door  by  the  crowd  behind  them,  without  the  possibility  of 
resisting  the  pressure.  The  narrow  exit  between  the  half- 
open  door  and  the  door-frame  was  speedily  choked  up, 
one  spectator  averring  that  he  saw  nearly  twenty  of  the 
poor  little  creatures  one  above  another  struggling  to  get 

out ;  and  as  the  rush  was  still  coming  incessantly  down 
like  an  avalanche  from  a  mountain  side,  the  children  in 
front  had  not  the  least  chance  of  escape.  Some  fell 
against  the  door ;  others  were  forced  upon  them  by  the 
pressure  behind  ;  and  the  lower  part  of  the  staircase  was 
filled  in  an  instant  of  time  with  a  heap  of  helpless  children 
whom  it  was  physically  impossible  to  rescue  or  relieve. 
Those  who  were  still  rushing  down  the  stairs  in  tumul- 
tuous haste,  cheering  as  they  came  on,  and  struggling  who 
should  be  foremost,  had  na  idea  of  what  was  going  on 

X          /         /  V   N-^=^  1 1   N>^ 


Scene  of  tip  Catastfnkt. 

below.  So,  quicker  than  one  can  tell,  a  dense  pile  of 
bodies  was  crushed  in  the  fatal  trap,  between  the  door 
and  the  wall,  such  being  the  amount  of  pressure  to 
which  the  frames  of  the  hapless  little  ones  were  subjected 
that  the  strong  wrought-iron  bolt,  whose  presence  did  the 
mischief,  was  bent  by  the  force  of  the  compact  of  the 
shrieking  and  struggling  mass  of  humanity,  literally 
heaped  up  in  tiers. 

It  was  evident  that  before  the  life  was  crushed  out  of 
them  they  struggled  desperately;  for  when  the  death-bolt 
was  at  length  raised,  after  the  bodies  of  the  dead  and  the 
dying  had  been  extricated,  and  the  living  had  been  hurried 
away  from  the  appalling  scene,  the  landing  and  the  flight 
of  stairs  leading  down  to  it  were  seen  to  be  covered  with 
pitiful  evidences  of  the  tragedy.  Little  caps  and  bonnets, 
torn  and  trampled,  were  lying  all  over  the  place ;  buttons 
and  fragments  of  clothing  littered  the  floor ;  here  lay  the 
fragment  of  blue  ribbon  which  had  tied  up  some  little  girl's 
hair;  there  lay  a  child's  garter  ;  on  another  spot  the  sole 
of  a  little  boy's  boot  torn  from  the  "uppers,"  furnishing 
mute  but  significant  evidence  of  the  violence  of  the  death- 

The  caretaker  of  the  hall,  Mr.  Frederick  Graham,  was 
the  first  who  became  aware  that  something  dreadful  had 
happened.  When  he  got  to  the  lobby,  at  the  foot  of  the 
gallery  stairs,  he  found  a  number  of  children  lying  there. 
After  he  had  got  them  cleared  out  with  no  small  diffi- 
culty, he  proceeded  from  the  outside  towards  the  fatal 
door,  being  attracted  thither  by  the  groans  and  cries  of 
such  of  the  sufferers  as  were  still  alive.  Mr.  Graham 
at  once  perceived  that  the  bolt  had  caught  in  such  a  way 
that  the  door  could  neither  be  opened  nor  shut  entirely, 
and  through  the  aperture,  about  two  feet  wide,  thus 
formed,  he  caught  sight  of  a  writhing 
mass  of  human  forms.  He  made  one 
frenzied  but  futile  effort  to  force  back 
the  door,  and  then  rushed  upstairs 
by  another  way  into  the  dress  circle, 
from  which  position  by  strenuous 
efforts  he  succeeded  in  stopping  the 
further  flow  of  children  to  the  stair- 
case. He  then  hurried  back  to  the 
door,  when  he  saw  at  once  that  the 
only  means  of  rescue  was  to  pull  the 
bodies  one  by  one  through  the  aperture. 
With  the  assistance  of  a  gentleman 
named  Raine,  a  railway  clerk  named 
Thompson,  and  a  police -cons table 
named  Bewick,  he  commenced  the 
ghastly  task.  Further  help  fortunately 
soon  arrived  in  the  person  of  Dr. 
Waterston  and  others.  As  soon  as  a 
body  was  pulled  out,  it  was  rapidly 
examined,  and,  if  dead,  laid  out  in  the 
area  or  dress  circle ;  while  if  the  little 
sufferer  still  lived  (and  the  signs  of 



\  1889. 

vitality  were  of  ten  very  difficult  to  detect),  the  child  was 
at  once  conveyed  to  the  Palatine  Hotel,  the  Infirmary, 
or  some  other  house  in  the  neighbourhood,  where  Drs. 
Beattie,  Dixon,  Murphy,  Welford,  Lambert,  Harris, 
and  other  medical  men,  who  were  promptly  on  the  spot, 
devoted  themselves  ungrudgingly  to  the  work  of  mercy. 
The  conduct  of  the  cabmen  of  the  town  was  also  beyond 
all  praise.  They  flocked  to  the  hall  with  their  vehicles, 
and  rendered  valuable  help  in  conveying  the  injured  to 
che  Infirmary  and  elsewhere. 

Meanwhile,  the  dreadful  news  had  spread  like  wild- 
fire through  the  town,  and  the  hall  was  soon  besieged  by 
thousands.  The  excitement  was  indescribable — mothers 
screaming  for  their  children,  and  fathers  fiercely  striving 
to  force  their  way  into  the  building.  It  was,  however, 
deemed  prudent  not  to  admit  anyone  until  the  work  of 

rescue  had  been  completed ;  but  the  gentlemen,  all  of 
them  full  of  sympathy  and  compassion,  who  volunteered 
to  assist  in  the  necessary  but  thankless  work  of  keeping 
back  the  excited  crowds,  found  it  a  most  difficult  task. 
When,  at  length,  those  claiming  to  be  the  parents  of 
missing  children  were  admitted  in  batches  to  the  area  and 
dress  circle,  the  scene  inside  baffled  all  description.  The 
children  were  laid  out  in  rows,  terrible  to  behold,  many 
with  blackened  faces,  swollen  cheeks,  and  parched 
lipe.  As  parents  identified  their  children,  their  shrieks 
were  most  distressing.  In  some  cases  they  fell  upon 
their  dead  children,  clasped  them  in  their  arms,  and 
cried  aloud  over  their  dear  ones.  In  many  instances 
the  mothers  swooned  away,  and  had  to  be  carried  to  one 
side,  where  others,  whose  children  had  escaped,  sought  to 
restore  and  console  them.  One  affecting  case  was  that  of 

a  poor  woman  whom  Mr.  Errington,  a  member  of  the 
Town  Council,  was  sympathetically  assisting  in  her  search. 
As  she  accidentally  touched  a  corpse  with  her  dress,  a 
man  said  to  her,  perhaps  somewhat  roughly,  "Don't 
stand  upon  them,"  when  she  replied,  "Good  God  !  I  have 
too  many  of  my  own  to  stand  upon  them."  The  unfor- 
tunate woman,  a  few  minutes  afterwards,  discovered 
three  of  her  own  children  amongst  the  dead !  Another 
instance  is  related  of  a  man  who,  with  his  wife,  pushed 
his  way  into  the  hall,  and  eagerly  scanned  the  faces  of  the 
dead.  Without  betraying  any  emotion,  he  said,  with  his 
finger  pointed  and  with  face  blanched,  "That's  one." 

Passing  on  a  few  yards  further  between  the  rows  of  little 
ones,  he  said,  still  pointing  with  his  finger,  "That's 
another."  Then,  continuing  his  walk  till  he  came  to  the 
last  child  in  the  row,  he  exclaimed,  as  he  recognised  the 
third  little  one,  "  My  God !  all  my  family  gone." 

Among  the  many  distressing  features  in  connection 
with  the  affair,  that  of  mistaken  identity  was  not  the 
least  agonising.  A  number  of  children  taken  away  in  the 
excitement  of  the  moment  were  afterwards  returned  to 
the  hall,  the  poor  people  having  been  misled  as  to  the 
identity  of  the  shapeless  little  masses  of  humanity.  IP 

March  1 



one  case,  a  parent  took  home  a  little  boy  by  mistake, 
and  after  arriving  there  found  it  was  the  body  of  a 
neighbour's  child.  Meantime,  his  own  boy  had  been 
recovered  alive,  and  was  treated  with  all  skill  and 
care  possible,  though  the  little  fellow  died  subsequently 
from  his  injuries. 

The  victims  of  the  disaster  comprised  69  girls  and  114 
boys.  It  was  found  by  analysis  that  the  greatest  number 
were  between  the  ages  of  7  and  8  years.  The  following 
shows  the  numbers  and  ages  : — 

Ages. 11    13    12    11    10     9      8     7      6      5      4     3 

Victims...  1      1      613262337351914      5     2 
In  some  families  the  whole  of  the  children  were  swept 
away,   and    there    are  known  cases  where  the  broken- 
hearted   parents  have  gone  to  their  last  home,   never 
having  recovered  from  the  shock. 

The  disaster  was  the  subject  of  talk  and  comment  in 
every  household  in  the  land  for  more  than  the  proverbial 
nine  days ;  and  for  many  and  many  a  year  to  come  it  will 
remain  in  the  memories  of  fathers  and  mothers  as  the 
most  lamentable  event  in  their  lives.  But  it  evoked,  too, 
a  spontaneous  and  noble  outburst  of  humane  senti- 
ment, as  is  always  the  case  when  the  heart  of 
the  community  is  touched.  Money  poured  in  from  all 
sides,  and  a  sum  was  subscribed  for  which  there  was 
no  immediate  direct  need,  as  no  bread-winners  had  been 
lost.  Out  of  the  amount  promised,  nearly  £5,000  was 
received,  and  with  this  the  expenses  of  most  of  the  funerals 
were  paid  ;  but  unfortunate  dissensions  hindered  the  re- 
mainder from  being  put  to  use  for  building  and  endowing 
a  Convalescent  Home  for  Children,  as  at  first  intended  ; 
and,  with  the  exception  of  the  sum  paid  for  the  statue  in 
commemoration  of  the  event,  which  has  now  found  a 
resting-place  in  the  People's  Park,  it  still  remains  un- 

The  view  of  the  exterior  of  Victoria  Hall  is  taken  from 
a  photograph  by  Mr.  Paul  Stabler,  of  Sunderland  ;  that 
of  the  interior  is  from  a  sketch  by  our  own  artist.  The 
sketch  of  the  staircase  where  the  disaster  occurred  is  from 
a  drawing  by  Mr.  Robert  Jobling.  Our  other  sketches 
show  the  Laura  Street  entrance  to  the  hall,  and  the  fatal 
door  with  the  bolt  in  the  socket.  We  also  give  sketches 
of  the  memorial  group,  and  of  the  group  in  its  glass  case, 
erected  in  Sunderland  Park. 



first  public  lottery  in  England  occurred 
in  the  year  1569,  and  the  profits  were 
devoted  to  the  useful  purpose  of  making 
harbours,  repairs  of  public  works,  &c.  It  is  generally 
believed  to  have  been  the  Genoese  Government  that  con- 
ceived the  idea  of  using  lotteries  as  a  means  of  adding 
to  its  revenue,  and  the  example  was  soon  followed  by 
other  nations,  England  amongst  the  rest.  Little  more 

than  sixty  years  ago,  the  State  lottery  was  one  of  the 
regular  institutions  of  this  country,  the  profits  yield- 
ing the  national  exchequer  more  than  a  million  a  year. 
Every  newspaper,  London  and  provincial,  teemed  with 
advertisements  appealing  to  the  gambling  instincts  of 
the  people.  The  usual  number  of  tickets  in  a  lottery  was 
20,000,  each  of  the  value  of  £10.  These  tickets  were  first 
thrown  open  to  the  competition  of  contractors,  which 
brought  an  advance  of  £5  or  £6  each.  After  the  contrac- 
tors were  supplied,  they  in  turn  offered  them  to  the 
public  at  a  profit  of  £4  or  £5,  or  fairly  double  the  price  of 
the  first  issue.  Of  course  the  poorer  class  of  the  people — 
always  the  vast  majority — had  no  such  sum  as  £20  to  risk 
in  a  game  of  chance;  and,  to  accommodate  this  class,  the 
tickets  were  divided  into  halves,  quarters,  eighths,  and 
sixteenths,  the  usual  price  of  a  sixteenth  being  £1  lls.  6d., 
BO  that  the  agent  must  have  pocketed  a  big  profit,  as  the 
sixteenth  of  £10  is  only  12s.  6d.  Lotteries  were  finally 
abolished  in  England  by  Act  of  Parliament  in  1826. 

We  have  recently  met  with  a  number  of  advertisements, 
songs,  fly  sheets,  fee.,  issued  by  the  lottery  agents  in 
Newcastle  seventy  or  eighty  years  ago.  E.  Humble 
&  Son,  Mosley  Street,  and  Watson  &  Sons,  Edinburgh 
Tea  Warehouse,  Newcastle,  appear  to  have  done  a  great 
business  in  lottery  tickets,  and  their  numerous  and 
tempting  inducements  to  gamble,  which  they  issued 
profusely,  are  even  now  very  amusing  to  read.  Herp 
u  an  enticing  advertisement,  printed  in  1810  : — 

All  in  one  day — 8th  June,  1810.  Grand  State  Lottery— 
4  of  £20,000,  4  of  £5,000,  12  of  £1,000,  20  of  £500,  &c.,  &c. 
Four  Extra  Prizes  of  100  Tickets  each,  to  be  drawn  next 
Friday,  8th  June,  1810.  £200,000  in  Prizes.  Only  5,000 
Numbers,  a  single  Ticket  may  gain  £100,000.  Tickets 
and  Shares  are  Selling  by  Messrs.  Watson  &  Sons,  Edin- 
burgh Tea  Warehouse,  Newcastle-on-Tyne.  By  the  above 
salutary  measure,  every  doubt  is  removed  respecting  Lot- 
teries being  injurious  to  the  morals  of  the  people,  and  the 
principle  placed  beyond  the  reach  of  censure. 

We  can  scarcely  understand  where  "the  salutary  mea- 
sure" comes  in,  unless  it  be  the  one-day  drawing,  which 
places  everything  "  beyond  the  reach  of  censure." 

Like  Silas  Wegg,  the  agent  not  seldom  dropped  into 
poetry,  and  of  this  we  give  a  specimen  culled  from  a  new 
song  to  the  tune  of  "  Derry  Down  " : — 

To  those  who  want  riches  this  song  is  address'd, 
For  of  all  plans  to  get  them,  sure  this  is  the  best, 
To  try  in  the  Lott'ry,  now  pray  do  attend. 
And  111  teach  you  the  way  how  your  fortunes  to  mend. 
Derry  down,  down,  &c. 

The  drawing  begins  twenty-eighth  day  of  June, 
Which  you  all  must  allow  will  be  here  very  soon  ; 
Then  purchase  with  speed,  if  you  take  my  advice, 
For  tickets  will  certainly  get  up  in  price. 
Derry  down,  down,  &c. 

Here  is  the  last  verse  of  another  "New  Lottery  Song,' 
to  the  tune  of  "  Chapter  of  Kings  ": — 

On  the  eighth  day  of  March  Dame  Fortune  intends 
To  distribute  a  part  of  her  gifts  to  her  friends ; 
Ye  who  wish  to  partake,  don't  a  moment  delay, 
But  to  Humble's  famed  office  pray  hasten  away. 
Yet  barring  pother  of  this,  that,  or  t'other, 
You  afl  must  get  prizes  in  turn. 



I  March 

We  quote  next  from  a  tiny  little  bill  (five  inches  by 
three),  the  calm,  convincing  logic  of  which  would  satisfy 
the  most  sceptical  as  to  the  great  advantage  of  specu- 
lating in  a  lottery  ticket : — 

One  Fact  is  worth  a  hundred  arguments,  and  one  Lottery 
Ticket  may  be  worth  a  Thousand  Prizes  in  the  ensuing  Lot- 
tery, if  purchased  before  the  12th  of  April  next,  for  the 
first  drawn  Prize  above  £15  must  gain  1,000  whole  tickets 
whose  worth  is  incalculable ! 

Exceedingly  tempting,  too,  is  another  little  hand-bill, 
which  runs  to  this  effect  :— 

The  dawn  of  old  England's  good  fortune  by  sea,  in 
the  American  war,  began  12th  April,  1782,  a  day  to  be 
held  in  grateful  remembrance  by  every  lover  of  this  happy 
country  ;  but  with  what  gratitude  will  the  fortunate  pos- 
sessor of  the  first-drawn  prize  above  £15  be  impressed,  the 
12th  of  April  next,  when  1,000  whole  tickets  are  presented 
to  him,  which  may  gain  upwards  of  £100,000  ! 

Sometimes  the  hesitating  speculator  is  stirred  up  by  a 
warning  or  threat  like  the  following  : — 

In  a  few  hours,  the  unsold  Tickets  or  Shares  now  remain- 
ing in  this  town  must  be  returned  to  London ;  and 
amongst  them,  perhaps,  several  of  the  large  Prizes. 
If  you  wish  to  make  your  Fortune,  you  must  be  quick — 
there  is  No  Time  to  be  Lost ! 

Emphasis  is  always  given  to  the  statement  that  "the 
State  Lottery  is  all  drawn  in  one  day,"  which  seems 
to  have  been  considered  a  great  advantage.  "Therefore 
(says  one  of  Messrs.  Humble's  advertisements)  Expedition 
is  necessary  in  your  application  at  the  truly  Lucky  Office 
of  Edward  Humble  £  Son,  Mosley  Street,  Newcastle, 
where  the  only  Prize  of  40,000  pounds  ever  known  was 
sold.  Both  the  Five  Thousands  in  the  last  Lottery  were 
sold  at  the  above  office,  to  which  you  must  quickly  repair 
if  you  wish  for  a  chance  in  the  present  Grand  Scheme, 
it  being  limited  to  one  Day's  Drawing.  God  Save 
the  King !  " 

But  all  this  is  not  enough,  it  would  seem,  to  induce  the 
weak,  the  foolish,  and  the  mercenary  to  embark  in  the 
scheme ;  so,  like  Mrs.  Jarley,  the  agents  seek  the  aid  of 
comic  songs,  interspersed  here  and  there  with  "  spoken  " 
between  the  lines.  We  will  quote  a  small  sample  of  one 
of  these  effusions,  "spoken  "  and  all  : — 

There  were  Four  and  Twenty  Lotteries  all  in  a  row. 
There  were  Four  and  Twenty  Lotteries  all  in  a  row. 

Spoken — There  was  five  thousand  all  in  one  day.  Five 
thousand  what,  sir  ?  Tickets,  sir;  to  be  sure ;  not  one  blank 
among  them,  and  a  Prize  four  times  over,  every  time  the 
wheel  turns  round,  to  make  the  poor  rich,  and  raise  the 
humble  from  the  bottom  to  the  top  of  the  ladder  of  For 
tune,  where  they  may  sit 

And  look  so  proud 
Above  the  crowd 
That's  down  below. 
For  it's  a  lucky  lottery,  and  therefore  well  be  merry. 

Who  could  withstand  all  this  wit  and  humour,  these 
coaxings  and  blandishments?  E.  Humble  &  Son  tried 
every  means  by  which  to  tempt  the  cupidity  of  the  public — 
poetry  and  prose,  pictures,  epigrams,  conundrums.  Indeed, 
the  extent  and  variety  of  the  printed  matter  which  they 

threw  out  at  this  time  were  amazing.     Here's  something 
to  make  a  speculator's  mouth  water  : — 

A  person  sprung  up  in  this  town  who  predicted  that  the 
only  Prize  of  Forty  Thousand  Pounds  ever  known  was 
then  on  Sale  at  E.  Humble  &  Son's  truly  lucky  office,  in 
Mosley  Street.  Wonderful  to  relate,  this  was  the  case  ! 
The  golden  opportunity  was  embraced  by  a  lady  [a  lady 
worth  embracing !]  who  is  now  enjoying  the  fruits  of  her 
speculation.  The  same  wiseacre  who  predicted  that  the 
Forty  Thousand  would  be  sold  by  Humble  £  Son,  now 
foretels  that  one,  at  least,  of  the  Twenty  Thousand  in  the 
next  Lottery  will  be  added  to  the  Lists  of  Capitals  sold  by 

Coloured  pictures,  and  not  badly  done  either,  were  also 
pressed  into  the  service  of  the  lottery  dealers.  The 
following,  we  suppose,  was  considered  very  funny  by  our 
grandfathers  seventy  years  ago: — Two  swells  of  the  period, 
strolling  along,  wholly  ignore  a  poor  fellow  out  at  elbows, 
who  is  trying  to  attract  their  attention.  "Come  along, 
Jack,  "says  one,  "or  we  shall  be  bored  to  death.  That 
fellow  has  no  gratitude.  When  he  had  money,  I  took  in- 
finite pains  to  teach  him  to  spend  it  like  a  gentleman — 
now  it's  gone,  he  is  always  teasing  me  with  his 
wants— it  annoys  me  exceedingly."  On  the  other  side  we 
find  that  things  have  changed,  a  lucky  lottery  ticket 
enabling  Jack  to  give  his  quondam  friend  a  Roland  for  his 
Oliver.  Jack,  fashionably  attired,  is  again  met  by  Tom 
and  his  friend,  who  courteously  salutes  him  with  "Jack, 
my  dear  fellow,  won't  you  stop  and  let  me  congratulate  you 
upon  your  good  fortune  ?  I  heard  you  had  obtained  a  Prize 
in  the  Lottery,  and  it  gave  me  much  pleasure."  Jack 
replies—"  Did  you  speak  to  me  ?  I  don't  recollect — I'm 
in  haste,  and  to  be  bored  thus  annoys  me  exceedingly  I " 

W.  W.  W. 


anb  Jlero 


J1LACKETT  STREET,  to  which  we  now  turn 
our  attention,  is  one  of  the  modern  thorough- 
fares of  Newcastle.  It  is  associated  in  the 
local  mind  with  the  earlier  results  of  the 
architectural  genius  of  our  great  townsman,  Richard 
Grainger,  who  built  thirty-one  of  its  houses,  and  the  fine 
quadrangle  of  Eldon  Square  into  the  bargain.  Of  his 
many  undertakings,  this  of  Blackett  Street  was  one  of  the 
first,  though  it  ought  to  be  added,  on  the  authority  of 
Mackenzie,  that  the  "commodious  and  elegant  plan  "  of 
the  street  was  "furnished  by  Mr.  Dobson,  architect." 
To  both  these  men  of  mark,  indeed,  Newcastle  is  indebted 
for  much  of  its  present  architectural  beauty. 

The  street  was  constructed  in  the  year  1824.  Prior  to 
that  date  the  locality  was  an  unwholesome  one  indeed. 
Along  its  south  side,  now  occupied  by  substantial  houses, 
ran  the  town  wall,  close  beside  which  were  pigstyes, 
stables,  sheds,  and  a  few  straggling  houses.  On  the  other 

March  1 



side  were  gardens,  so  called ;  but  such  gardens  !  It  would 
be  more  correct  to  call  them  a  pestilent  waste,  devoted  to 
the  reception  of  all  kinds  of  garbage  and  rubbish.  And 
hereby  hangs  an  amusing  tale. 

On  one  occasion,  when  the  place  was  in  this  desolate 
condition,  some  countrymen,  engaged  in  carting  manure 
from  it,  made  a  terrible  discovery.  Amongst  the  rubbish 




they  found  the  body  of  a  child.  Information  was  con- 
veyed to  the  coroner,  and  a  jury  was  summoned  forthwith. 
Solemn  "crowuer's  quest"  was  held,  in  the  course  of 
which  one  sapient  juryman,  after  touching  the  corpse, 
observed  that  it  was  very  putrid — as  well  it  might  be, 
considering  the  place  it  came  from  !  The  coroner,  how- 
ever, chanced  to  be  a  surgeon.  He  examined  the  body, 
and  found  it  to  be  no  other  than  a  wooden  doll !  But  how 
came  it  to  found  where  it  was  ?  Well,  the  explanation 

was  simple  enough.  This  said  doll  was  Alonzo's  child, 
carried  by  Rollo  in  Kotzebue's  play  of  "Pizarro,"  at 
that  time  a  very  popular  piece ;  and  when  Stephen 
Kemble  retired  from  the  management  of  the  theatre, 
this  "property,"  amongst  other  things,  had  been  sent 
from  his  house  in  Newgate  Street  and  thrown  into  the 
common  receptacle.  Thus  was  spoilt  one  sensational 

Such,  then,  was  the  condition  of  Blackett  Street 
"before  it  was  made,"  to  parody  the  humorous  saying 
concerning  the  Highland  roads  of  old.  But  in  1824-  the 
town  wall  in  the  neighbourhood  was  removed,  with  its 
J7  unsavoury  surroundings,  and  the  street  formed.  It  ob- 
.  tained  its  name  from  Alderman  John  Krasmus  Blackett, 
--  father  of  Lady  Collingwood,  and  was  of  course  regarded 
as  a  great  improvement.  The  street  runs  from  the  head 
of  Pilgrim  Street  to  the  foot  of  Gallowgate  ;  let  us  stroll 
along  it  in  that  direction. 

But  first  let  us  note  the  shop  at  the  corner  on  our  left, 
with  some  of  its  windows  in  Pilgrim  Street  and  others  in 
Blackett  Street,  occupied  of  late  years  by  an  enterprising 
city  councillor — the  first  Scotchman,  it  is  said,  that  has 
held  the  office  of  Sheriff  of  Newcastle— Mr.  William 
Sutton.  Half  a  century  ago  this  was  the  printing  and 
publishing  office  of  M.  A.  Richardson  and  his  giftud  son, 
George  Bouchier  Richardson.  From  it  issued  in  parts 
and  sections  most  of  that  rich  collection  of  local  history 
and  biography,  tradition  and  legend,  which  bears  the 
name  of  "The  Local  Historian's  Table  Book."  There, 
also,  Mr.  Richardson  sold  State  Lottery  Tickets,  an  an- 
nouncement of  which  was  painted  upon  the  board  which, 
in  the  annexed  engraving,  is  seen  running  the  length  of 
the  premises.  It  was  a  notable  place  at  that  time ;  it  is 
i  busy  corner  still. 

On  the  same  side,  about  midway  between  Pilgrim 
Street  and  the  Monument,  is  the  new  building  whicli 
occupies  the  site  of  the  old  Mechanics'  Institute,  and 
nearly  opposite  is  the  scene  of  that  dreadful  tragedy 

El  don.  Syuare. 



f  March 

which,  on  the  1st  October,  1861,  deprived  Mark  Frater  of 
his  life,  and  robbed  Newcastle  of  a  useful  citizen.  There, 
too,  for  many  years,  was  the  famous  book  shop  of  George 
Rutland — a  market  for  local  literature  the  like  of  which 
has  never  been  adequately  provided  in  Newcastle  since 
his  retirement. 

We  pass  the  Monument  and  come  to  the  building 
known  until  recently  as  St.  James's  Chapel,  but  now  in 
the  possession  of  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association. 
It  was  built  in  1826,  and  had  at  one  time  a  massive  por- 
tico of  four  columns,  supporting  a  simple  pediment,  as  is 
dimly  seen  in  the  foregoing  sketch.  This  was  removed, 
and  a  front  more  in  the  Grecian  style  was  adopted.  It 
may  be  remembered  that  the  St.  James's  people  originally 
worshipped  in  Silver  Street  as  Scotch  Presbyterians ; 
when  they  came  to  the  chapel  now  before  us — which,  by 
the  way,  had  Mr.  John  Dobson  for  its  architect — they 
adopted  by  degrees  the  Congregational  form.  They  now 
assemble  in  another  and  much  larger  church  in  Bath 
Road,  erected  a  few  years  ago. 

On  the  opposite  side  of  the  way  is  the  United  Presby- 
terian Church.  A  brick  edifice  was  erected  on  the  sitw 
in  1821.  But  on  the  formation  of  Blackett  Street,  the 
building  was  discovered  to  be  not  in  line  with  it ;  and  the 
Corporation  offered  the  congregation  £100,  on  condition 
that  they  would  build  a  new  front,  which  was  done.  In 
1858,  however,  the  whole  edifice  was  pullod  down,  and 
the  present  oue,  which  is  an  ornament  to  the  street,  and 
boasts  of  a  lofty  spire,  was  put  up  according  to  the  plans 
of  Mr.  Thompson.  Nearly  forty  years  ago,  the  then 
minister  (the  Rev.  D.  C.  Browning)  and  his  congregation 
pot  to  loggerheads,  with  the  result  that  the  former  bade 
good-bye  not  only  to  his  people,  but  to  this  connection, 
and  took  orders  in  the  Church  of  England. 

The  Academy  of  Arts  next  engages  our  attention.  But 
a  history  of  this  building,  accompanied  by  a  couple  of 
sketches,  was  given  in  the  Monthly  Chronicle  for  Feb- 
ruary. (See  page  89. ) 

Crossing  the  street,  we  arrive  at  Eldon  Square,  the 
domestic  paradise  of  some  of  our  eminent  doctors. 
Towering  above  the  other  houses  in  the  quadrangle 
(allowing  Blackett  Street  itself  to  represent  the  fourth 
side)  is  the  centre  one  on  the  north  side — the  Northern 
Counties  Club.  The  middle  of  the  square  has  now  been 
formed  into  a  pleasant  little  pleasure  ground.  But  why 
Eldon  Square  ?  The  reason  for  the  name  is  that  it  was 
originally  intended  to  erect  a  figure  of  Lord  Eldon  within 
the  enclosure.  That  has  never  been  done ;  nor  does  it 
seem  likely  that  the  work  will  now  be  taken  in  hand. 

Retracing  our  steps  to  the  head  of  Pilgrim  Street,  we 
see  before  us,  stretching  away  to  the  east,  the  thorough- 
fare of  New  Bridge  Street.  The  street  was  constructed 
in  1812,  and  was  intended  to  answer  the  purpose  of  an 
alternative  road  to  Shields  by  way  of  the  Red  Barns  and 
Elwick's  Lane.  As  we  start  on  our  saunter  from  Pilgrim 
Street,  we  note,  first  of  all,  on  our  left  Trinity  Presby- 

terian Church,  a  neat  building  in  the  Early  English  style 
of  architecture,  erected  from  designs  by  Mr.  Dobson. 
Next  to  it  is  the  Church  of  the  Divine  Unity,  built  in  the 
Decorated  style  of  Gothic  architecture,  also  from  designs 
by  Mr.  Dobson. 

On  the  opposite  side  of  the  way  is  Erick  Street,  a  short 
cut  to  the  gaol.  The  street  obtains  its  name  from  the 
circumstance  that  formerly  a  small  stream,  the  Erick 
Burn,  ran  down  the  bank  here  to  Carliol  Croft.  Carliol 
Street,  which  runs  parallel  with  Erick  Street  on  the 
same  side,  is  so  named  from  the  ancient  family  of  the 
Carlels  or  Carliols. 

Opposite  Carliol  Street  stands  the  Public  Library. 
The  western  part  of  the  building  (adjoining  the  Unitarian 
Church),  the  foundation  stone  of  which  was  laid  by  Sir 


George  Grey  in  1865,  was  the  home  of  the  Mechanics' 
Institute,  removed  thither,  the  following  year,  from 
Blackett  Street,  and  now  amalgamated  with  the  Library. 
Over  this  said  Library  there  were  many  searchings  of 
heart  a  few  years  ago.  There  were  earnest  partizans  on 
both  sides ;  and  keen  was  the  controversy  as  to  whether 
Newcastle  needed  such  an  institution.  There  were  also 
difficulties  as  to  a  proper  site.  Several  were  suggested, 
but  in  1878  the  present  site  was  definitively  fixed  upon, 
and  Mr.  Alfred  M.  Fowler,  then  the  borough  engineer, 
was  directed  to  prepare  plans  and  proceed  with  the 
building  without  further  delay.  But  here  came  another 
difficulty.  To  make  way  for  the  new  structure  it  was  or- 
dained that  an  ancient  relic  of  the  old  town,  in  good  pre- 

March  1 




servation,  too,  should  be  levelled  with  the  ground.  This 
was  the  Carliol  Tower,  which  was  finally  pulled  down  in 
1880.  The  building,  which  was  also  known  as  the 
Weavers'  Tower,  stood  at  the  north-east  corner  of  the 
town  wall,  which  ran  from  it  down  Croft  Street  to  the 
Plummer  Tower,  still  standing.  Between  Carliol  Tower 
and  Pilgrim  Street  were,  at  one  time,  three  smaller 
turrets,  one  of  which  was  called  the  Waits'  Tower, 
because  it  was  formerly  the  meeting-place  of  a  band  of 
musicians  maintained  by  the  town.  But  all  this  part  of 
the  wall  was  pulled  down  in  1811.  So  far  back  as  1682, 
Carliol  Tower  had  been  fitted  up  by  the  Weavers'  Com- 
pany as  their  meeting-place — hence  the  second  name. 
The  old  structure  had  been  a  silent  witness  of  rough 
work  in  its  day.  In  1824-,  some  workmen  found  on  its 
north  side  a  cannon  ball,  weighing  more  than  twenty- 
three  pounds.  It  had  penetrated  about  two  feet  into  the 
wall,  and  was  probably  fired  when  the  town  was  stormed 
by  the  Scots  in  1644. 

Over  the  way  again  we  pass  by  Croft  Street,  in  which 
stands  the  Plummer  Tower  already  mentioned.  Next, 
and  on  the  same  side,  we  come  to  the  Lying-in  Hospital. 
an  excellent  institution.  It  has  been  in  existence  since 
1760,  being  at  first  located  in  Rosemary  Lane,  near  St. 
John's  Church;  and  has  been  in  its  present  premises  since 
1826.  The  inmates  are  required  to  show  that  they  are 
poor  married  women  ;  and  the  motto  of  the  institution 
explains  their  presence  there.  It  is  the  short  and  expres- 
sive one  : — "  Because  there  is  no  room  for  her  in  the  inn." 
The  elevation,  details,  and  specifications  of  the  several 
works  of  this  hospital  were  all  gratuitously  supplied  by 
Mr.  Dobson.  The  style  of  the  building  is  that  which 

prevailed  about  the  end  of  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII. 
Its  cost  was  about  £1,500,  and  amongst  the  subscribers 
were  the  Corporation,  the  Bishop  Durham,  the  Trinity 
House,  and  various  congregations  who  responded  to 
pulpit  appeals. 

On  the  opposite  side  of  the  road  is  Higham  Place,  BO 
named  by  its  first  proprietor,  William  Batson,  from  his 
estate  in  Ponteland  parish.  Not  far  from  Higham  Place, 
and  on  the  same  side  of  the  way,  stands  the  handsome 
little  residence  of  the  late  John  Dobson,  architect.  It 
was  designed  and  erected  by  himself,  and  bears  all  the 
marks  of  the  dignified  style  he  gave  to  so  many  of  the 
streets  of  Newcastle.  For,  be  it  understood,  though  the 
credit  of  reconstructing  Newcastle  is  too  often  given  to 
Grainger  alone,  it  was  Mr.  Dobson  who  supplied  the 
architectural  features  and  details.  Mr.  Grainger  was 
without  doubt  a  great  man  in  his  day ;  but  he  was 
mainly  a  builder  and  speculator.  It  was  Mr.  Dobson 
who  was  the  architect  and  artist  of  the  new  town.  Even 
the  Butcher  and  Vegetable  Markets,  described  on  page 
82  of  the  present  volume,  were  designed  by  Mr.  Dobson, 
who  was  employed  by  the  Corporation  as  the  architect  of 
the  new  buildings.  The  house  in  New  Bridge  Street  is 
still  occupied  by  Mr.  Dobson's  daughter,  Miss  Margaret 
Jane  Dobson,  who  proved  her  devotion  to  her  father's 
memory  by  publishing,  a  few  years  ago,  a  valuable 
memoir  of  the  greatest  architect  the  North  of  England 
lias  produced. 

Of  Oxford  Street  and  Picton  Place,  a  little  further 
along,  there  is  nothing  particular  to  be  said,  save  that 
St.  Peter's  Church  stands  at  the  head  of  the  former. 
This  is  a  modern  building,  and  was  intended  originally 




I  March 
1    1889. 

as  a  chapel  of  ease  to  St.  Andrew's.     The  Rev.  C.  A. 
Raines  still  remains  its  first  vicar. 

Proceeding,  we  pass  on  our  right  a  building  originally 
intended  to  serve  as  a  Baptist  chapel,  which  was  erected 
in  1839.  The  building  has  had  very  varying  fortunes, 
being  at  one  time  an  auctioneer's  mart,  at  another  a  shop 
for  the  sale  of  busts  and  figures,  and  so  forth.  Opposite 
are  the  offices  of  the  Blyth  and  Tyne  branch  railway,  at 
one  time  a  substantial  private  dwelling-house. 

We  now  come  to  the  "  New  Bridge  "  itself,  from  which 
this  street  is  named.  It  was  erected  in  1812,  to  span 
what  was  then  a  wide,  deep  dene  running  from  Pandon 
to  the  Ban-as  Bridge.  At  that  time  this  dene  was 
emphatically  a  bonny  place.  As  one  stood  on  the  new 
bridge  and  looked  northward,  gardens  lined  the  ravine. 
Instead  of  the  shriek  of  railway  whistles,  the  sweet  songs 
of  birds  filled  the  air  in  the  Rummer  months  with  their 
joyous  melody  from  every  twig  and  tree  ;  an  old  mill, 
with  its  ancient  water-wheel,  lent  picturesqueness  to  the 
scene;  the  workman,  freed  fora  while  from  his  toil  at 
the  bench  or  the  forge,  cultivated  his  little  garden  plot  in 
the  pure  fresh  air  ;  lads  and  lasses  strolled  along  in  pairs, 
according  to  the  old,  old  fashion ;  and,  when  tired,  re- 
freshed themselves  in  fruit  and  tea  gardens.  All  is  gone 

Crossing  the  bridge,  we  are  at  the  corner  of  the  Shield- 
field,  and  accordingly  at  our  journey's  end,  so  far  as  the 
street  proper  is  concerned.  And  yet  we  are  some  distance 
from  the  Red  Barns  and  Ehvick's  Lane.  The  explana- 
tion is,  that  when  New  Bridge  Street  was  constructed 
there  was  open  country  between  the  Shieldfield  and  the 
Red  Barns.  This  has  now  all  been  built  upon,  and  the 
street  continued  right  along  to  the  Byker  Bridge.  Yet, 
although  running  on  in  the  same  straight  line,  its  name 
has  changed.  As  we  pass  the  entrance  to  the  Shieldfield, 
we  find  ourselves  in  Ridley  Villas ;  yet  for  all  practical 
purposes  the  street  is  still  one  and  the  same.  The  villas, 
semi-detached  residences,  are  held  by  a  lease  of  sixty- 
three  years,  or  three  lives,  of  Sir  M.  W.  Ridley,  Bart,, 
subject  to  an  annual  ground-rent  of  £5  each  per  annum. 
On  the  opposite  side  of  the  road  the  houses,  called  Regent 
Terrace,  are  leased  in  a  similar  manner.  They  are  built 
on  land  once  the  property  of  Lord  Stowell.  At  the  end 
of  Ridley  Villas  is  the  Dominican  (Roman  Catholic) 
Church,  a  very  fine  and  substantial  building.  Its  founda- 
tion stone  was  laid  by  the  late  Bishop  Chadwick,  the  ser- 
mon on  the  occasion  being  delivered  by  Father  Rodolph 
Suffield,  whose  subsequent  secession  to  Unitarianism 
created  much  distress  of  mind  to  his  colleagues  and  co- 
religionists. And  so  we  are  at  this  journey's  end. 

<£  avlj> 

at  Hm-tftuwtimff. 


j|OR  some  years  after  the  dispersal  of  the 
Britons  at  the  Cattrail  —  the  battle  described 
in  our  last  article—the  Angles  of  Bernicia 
and  Deira  were  at  war  amongst  themselves. 
The  district  between  Tyne  and  Tees  not  unfrequently 
changed  hands  during  this  period,  and  raids  even  to 
the  north  and  south  of  these  rivers  were  by  no  means 
rare.  There  was  no  decided  victory  so  long  as  the  hardy 
Theodoric  lived;  but,  on  his  death,  in  587,  the  forces 
of  Ella  secured  a  succession  of  triumphs,  and  the  now 
patriarchal  king  of  Deira  ruled  for  the  first  time  over 
"a  united  Jforthumbria."  The  distinction,  however,  was 
of  no  great  duration.  Ella  died  in  589,  and,  as  he  left 
only  a  young  boy  to  succeed  him,  the  Bernicians  got 
another  chance.  In  those  days,  the  first  quality  of  a 
king  was  his  prowess  in  the  field,  and  none  but  hardy 
fighting  men  could  reign.  To  no  one  was  this  fact 
better  known  than  to  Kthelric,  the  last  son  of  Ida. 
Gathering  his  friends  together,  and  boldly  taking  the 
initiative,  he  soon  regained  possession  of  Bernicia. 
Acting  with  great  tact  and  judgment,  he  lost  not  a 
moment  in  following  up  his  advantage,  and  found  him- 
self, almost  without  a  struggle,  master  of  Deira  also. 
But  Northumbria  was  not  yet  the  powerful  State  it  was 
destined  to  become,  though  events  were  rapidly  tending 
in  that  direction.  After  a  reign  of  only  three  or  four 
years,  Ethelric,  in  593,  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Ethel- 
frith,  and  thenceforward  there  was  a  striking  alteration 
in  the  condition  and  prospects  of  the  kingdom.  The 
new  ruler  —  who  was  surnamed  "  the  Fierce  "  —  was  a 
brave,  ambitious,  and  capable  soldier.  Withdrawing, 
apparently,  from  the  doubtful  position  he  held  in  Deira, 
he  turned  his  energies  to  the  north.  Scot,  Pict,  and 
Cumbrian  had  been  showing  signs  of  reviving  activity, 
and  Ethelfrith  assailed  them  with  all  the  vigour  of 
his  fiery  nature  He  attacked  in  many  quarters  —  some- 
times in  two  or  three  simultaneously  —  and  is  reputed  to 
have  been  the  greatest  aggressor  on  the  Oymri  that  is 
known  to  history.  The  result  of  his  early  operations, 
as  recorded  by  Bede,  was  that  he  made  part  of  them 
tributary,  seized  further  slices  of  their  territory,  and 
almost  exterminated  many  of  the  smaller  tribes. 


It  was  at  this  juncture,  in  603,  that  Aidan,  the  first 
consecrated  King  of  Scotland,  entered  a  very  emphatic 
protest  against  the  plunder  and  destruction  that  was 
going  on.  He  had  watched  the  harrying  of  his  allies 
with  sorrow  and  misgiving,  and  resolved  to  make  ft  bold 
stroke  for  their  protection.  Gathering  up  a  numerous 
and-  powerful  army,  Aidan  marched  with  all  haste 

Murch  1 
1889.  / 



towards  the  Bernician  frontier.  Ethelfrith  waR  not 
slow  to  accept  the  challenge ;  and,  after  a  rapid  move- 
ment across  country,  the  two  forces  were  brought  face 
to  face  at  Daegsastan,  on  the  Jed— a  site  that  is  now 
generally  fixed  at  Dawston.  There  are  not  many  details 
of  the  conflict;  but,  seeing  the  cause  in  which  the 
North  Britons  were  fighting,  one  may  readily  imagine 
the  desperate  resolution  with  which  they  went  into 
action.  At  the  commencement  of  the  onset,  the  Scots 
and  their  friends  carried  all  before  them.  A  brother 
of  the  Bernician  king  was  borne  down  by  the  fury  of 
the  attack,  and  with  him  perished  a  whole  division  of 
the  Angles.  In  the  end,  however,  discipline  demonstrated 
its  unfailing  efficacy.  Recovering  their  ground  with 
marvellous  rapidity,  Ethelfrith's  soldiers  swooped  down 
on  the  now  scattered  allies,  and  literally  cut  them  to 
pieces.  Aidan,  with  a  few  devoted  attendants,  managed 
to  effect  an  escape  ;  but  the  bulk  of  the  gallant  tribes- 
men, who  had  stepped  out  so  gaily  in  the  early  morning, 
remained  in  agony  or  death  upon  the  beautiful  slopes 
of  the  lowland  dale. 


After  their  successful  exploit  against  Aidan,  the  Ber- 
nicians — having  allowed  themselves  a  brief  space  for  rest 
and  recruiting — took  the  war  path  once  more.  This 
time,  however,  it  was  to  renew  and  consolidate  their 
relationship  with  Deira.  Ethelfrith  had  never  intended 
to  sever  his  connection  with  that  state  permanently ; 
and,  as  a  consequence,  no  sooner  was  his  own  land  safe 
from  the  assaults  of  the  North  Britons,  than  he  began 
to  devise  schemes  for  re  asserting  his  old  sway  beyond 
the  Tees.  Ella's  son— the  world-famed  Edwin — was  still 
too  young  to  govern,  and  Ethelfrith  recognised  the 
importance  of  making  his  own  attack  while  the  lad  was 
comparatively  useless  and  unknown.  His  object  was  to 
get  possession  of  the  young  prince,  if  possible,  and  to 
build  up  a  strong  Anglian  kingdom  over  which  he  him- 
self might  be  lord  and  master.  Everything  seemed 
favourable  for  the  full  realisation  of  his  hopes,  when, 
in  605,  he  headed  his  fine  army  in  the  direction  of 
York.  Taken  at  a  disadvantage,  the  men  of  Deira 
could  offer  but  small  resistance,  and  Edwin  and  his 
counsellors  were  compelled  to  seek  safety  by  a  hasty 
flight.  Having  been  so  far  successful,  Ethelfrith 
espoused  the  young  prince's  sister,  and  from  that  time — 
with  the  gentle  Acca  as  his  consort— he  directed  the 
destinies  of  all  the  land  between  the  Humber  and  the 


While  a  great  power  had  thus  been  rising  in  the 
North,  many  other  parts  of  the  British  territory  had 
experienced  similarly  eventful  changes.  The  Jutes  had 
fought  their  way  to  a  kingdom  in  Kent;  the  Saxons 
had  formed  two  states  to  the  south  and  one  to  the 
north  of  the  Thames ;  while  the  Angles,  in  two  powerful 
confederacies,  ruled  the  bulk  of  the  Midlands.  These 

results  were  not  accomplished  without  much  bloodshed 
and  many  fluctuations  of  fortune.  But  the  half-civilized 
natives,  after  years  of  valorous  resistance,  had  either 
been  "massacred  with  savage  ruthlessness, "  enslaved 
by  their  conquerors,  or  driven  for  refuge  into  the  wilds  of 
Wales  or  Devon.  The  invaders,  like  their  Northumbrian 

brethren,  were  Pagan  worshippers  of  Thor  and  Woden, 
and  they  not  only  "stamped  out  Christianity  with  fire 
and  sword, "but  overturned  and  destroyed  every  vestige 
of  the  grandeur  which  Rome  had  created.  Starting  as 
colonisers  on  the  coast,  they  gradually  became  conquerers 
and  settlers  in  the  central  plateau,  and  finished  by  the 
different  communities  warring  amongst  themselves. 
First  one  state  and  then  another  was  in  the  ascendant, 
and  its  chief,  or  king,  claimed  supreme  power  over  the 
whole  of  his  neighbours ;  but  whether  the  Bretwalda, 
or  Emperor — as  this  ambitious  functionary  was  desig- 
nated—had any  real  authority  over  the  other  rulers,  is 
a  question  open  to  very  considerable  doubt.  It  is  quite 
certain  that  all  the  monarchs  of  the  Heptarchy  engaged 
in  warlike  enterprises  whenever  the  spirit  moved  them ; 
and  it  is  equally  clear  that,  for  many  generations  after 
the  Anglo-Saxon  domination,  there  was  no  single  man 
strong  enough  to  over-lord  the  entire  land. 


It  was  towards  the  close  of  this  systematic  apportion- 
ment of  the  country  that  Ethelfrith  made  himself  master 
of  Bernicia  and  Deira,  and  the  union  thus  brought  about 
had  a  very  perceptible  bearing  on  our  history.  With  his 
vastly  augmented  power,  the  unscrupulous  king  was  cap- 
able of  great  deeds.  Suspecting  that  the  young  Edwin 
had  found  shelter  among  the  Christianised  tribesmen  of 




\  IK 

lower  Strathclyde,  the  Northumbrians  again  crossed  the 
hills  to  the  westward,  overran  the  whole  territory 
between  the  Lake  District  and  the  Dee,  and  thus  broke 
for  ever  the  continuity  that  had  hitherto  existed  between 
the  Britons  of  Oumbria  and  Wales.  This  campaign  is 
remarkable  for  the  illustration  it  furnishes  of  the  savage 
justice  of  these  early  kings.  In  his  attack  on  Chester, 
in  607,  Ethelfrith  gave  an  order  which  has  earned  him 
much  condemnation  from  modern  scribes.  "Hard  by 
the  city,"  says  Mr.  Green  in  his  admirable  History  of 
the  English  People,  "  two  thousand  monks  were  gathered 
in  the  monastery  of  Baneor,  and  after  imploring,  in  a 
three  days'  fast,  the  help  of  Heaven  for  their  country, 
a  crowd  of  these  ascetics  followed  the  British  army  to 
the  field.  Ethelfrith  watched  the  wild  gestures  and 
outstretched  arms  of  the  strange  company  as  it  stood 
apart,  intent  on  prayer,  and  took  the  monks  for  en- 
chanters. '  Bear  they  arms  or  no, '  said  the  king,  '  they 
war  against  us  when  they  cry  against  us  to  their  God,' 
and,  in  the  surprise  and  rout  which  followed,  the  monks 
were  the  first  to  fall."  Of  the  whole  number,  only  some 
50  were  saved.  The  effect  of  the  slaughter  was  marvel- 
lous. Instead  of  being  filled  with  indignation  at  the 
sacrifice  of  their  spiritual  guides,  the  Welshmen  were 
so  completely  horror-stricken  as  to  lose  tbeir  nerve. 
First  they  wavered,  then  they  ran,  and  Ethelfrith  gained 
one  of  the  easiest  victories  of  his  career. 

In  spite  of  the  carnage,  the  young  Edwin  was  neither 
found  amongst  the  captured  nor  the  slain.     He  had  been 
wandering  in  many  places,   and  obtained  hospitality  in 
not  a  few ;  but  it  was  not  until  he  reached  the  Court  of 
Redwald,  King  of  the  East  Angles,  that  he  secured  a 
refuge  from  the  storm  which  had  so  long  threatened  him. 
When    Ethelfrith  was  made    acquainted  with  the   lost 
youth's     whereabouts,     he 
endeavoured       in       many 
ways   to  get   possession  of 
his    person.       Failing     in 
these  attempts,  he  sought 
to  bribe  Redwald  to  mur- 
der   his    unhappy    guest ; 
and    because   here,    again, 
he    was   baulked,   he    had 
recourse    to     intimidation 
of    the    most    terrible    de- 
scription.     The     southern 
king     nobly    declined     to 
listen  to  either  threats  or 

entreaties.  After  thus  resolving  to  defy  his  warlike 
and  formidable  neighbour,  Redwald — being  assured 
that  a  serious  quarrel  must  follow — put  himself  at  the 
head  of  a  numerous  army,  and  determined  to  carry  the 
war  into  bis  enemy's  country.  Ethelfrith  was  equally 
active.  Before  Redwald  had  given  his  final  response, 
indeed,  the  Northumbrian  leader  had  been  concentrating 

his  forces,  and  now  hoped,  by  a  sudden  advance,  to  catch 
his  rival  on  disadvantageous  terms.  There  was  mutual 
surprise,  therefore,  when  the  hostile  bodies  came  suddenly 
together  on  the  banks  of  the  Idle,  in  617,  at  a  point  not 
far  from  the  Nottinghamshire  border.  Though  the 
Northumbrians  were  outnumbered,  they  were  not  dis- 
couraged. They  had  long  been  inured  to  hardships,  were 
splendidly  trained  in  the  use  of  their  weapons,  and  were 
as  well  disciplined  as  a  long  experience  of  battle  grounds 
could  make  them.  The  impetuosity  of  their  attack  led 
very  speedily  to  the  discomfiture  of  a  strong  division, 
under  one  of  Redwald's  sons,  and  fortune  seemed  likely 
to  smile  upon  them  once  more.  But  the  East  Anglians, 
fighting  with  remarkable  steadiness,  offered  an  impene- 
trable front  to  all  subsequent  onslaughts,  and  defied  the 
power  of  the  Northmen  to  pierce  their  ranks.  Impatient 
at  such  resistance,  and  growing  anxious  about  his  own 
small  force,  Ethelfrith  and  a  devoted  band  of  warriors 
made  a  resolute  dash  at  the  enemy's  centre.  It  was 
splendidly  checked,  and,  in  the  fierce  struggle  that 
ensued,  the  dauntless  king  met  a  hero's  death.  Dis- 
heartened by  the  fall  of  their  veteran  chieftain,  the 
Northumbrians  slowly  gave  way.  Being  threatened  on 
the  flank,  however,  their  orderly  retreat  was  turned  into 
a  shameless  stampede,  and  they  fell  by  hundreds  as  they 
rushed  madly  in  the  direction  of  York.  On  hearing  of 
thia  overthrow,  the  sons  of  Ethelfrith  fled  to  the  Scots, 
by  whom  they  were  hospitably  treated,  and  the  forsaken 
country  thus  lay  at  the  mercy  of  its  long  lost  prince. 

Supported  by  the  victorious  army  of  his  well-proved 
friend  and  counsellor,  Edwin  at  once  continued  his 
triumphant  progress.  It  soon  became  apparent  that  the 
resistance  to  him  would  not  be  serious.  Hundreds  of  his 
countrymen  hastened  to  join  the  young  prince  in  his  long 
deferred  home-coming,  and  by  the  time  he  reached  the 
royal  ville,  at  Malton,  an  absolutely  peaceful  succession 
was  assured.  Then  began  a  reign  of  the  most  momentous 
description.  Northward,  his  conquests  extended  beyond 
the  Forth ;  and  Edwinsburgh — the  stronghold  by  which 
his  new  acquisitions  were  safeguarded — is  still  recognis- 
able in  the  name  of  the  present  beautiful  capital  of 
Scotland.  Southward,  his  aggressive  career  was  equally 
irresistible ;  and,  with  the  aid  of  a  newly-formed  fleet, 
the  Isles  of  Anglesea  and  Man  were  added  to  his 
dominions.  So  successful  was  he — both  in  his  wars  and 
his  politics — that,  in  spite  of  attempted  assassination  and 
secret  conspiracy,  he  gained  for  his  territory  a  supremacy 
over  all  the  other  kingdoms  of  the  Heptarchy,  and  for 
himself  he  earned  the  proud  dignity  of  Bretwalda.  It 
was  now  that  the  greatness  of  Northumbria  reached  its 
height.  In  addition  to  undoubted  military  skill,  Edwin 
displayed  a  genius  for  civil  government,  and  soon  evolved 
something  like  order  out  of  the  existing  chaos.  So 
marvellously  quick  was  the  betterness,  indeed,  that  "a 
woman  with  her  babe  might  have  walked  scatheless  from 

March  I 



sea  to  sea."  Peaceful  communication  was  everywhere 
revived  along  the  deserted  highways,  and  the  springs  by 
the  roadside  were  not  only  clearly  indicated,  but  had 
brass  cups  attached  to  them  for  the  travellers'  use.  It 
was  an  agreeable  change  for  the  people.  For  the  king, 
too,  a  rest  from  the  toils  of  war  must  have  possessed  an 
undoubted  charm.  Some  faint  traditions  of  the  Roman 
past  seemed  to  be  flinging  their  glory  round  this  new 
"empire  of  the  English,"  or,  "at  any  rate,"  says  Mr. 
Green,  "some  of  its  majesty  had  come  back  with  its  long 
lost  peace.  A  royal  standard  of  purple  and  gold  now 
floated  before  Edwin  as  he  rode  through  the  villages ; 
a  feather-tuft,  attached  to  a  spear,  preceded  him  as  he 
walked  through  the  streets.  The  Northumbrian  king 
was,  in  fact,  supreme  over  Britain  as  no  king  of  English 
blood  had  ever  been  before. " 


It  was  while  in  the  fulness  of  this  splendour  and  power 
that  Edwin  was  converted  to  Christianity,  and  witnessed 
the  extraordinary  fervour  with  which  thousands  of  the 
Anglian  people  accepted  the  new  faith.  It  is  un- 
necessary in  this  place  to  explain  how  the  superstitious 
king  was  induced  to  listen  to  the  teaching  of  Paulinus; 
bow  the  heathen  gods  were  overthrown  ;  or  how,  in  the 
brooks  and  water-courses  of  every  Northern  valley,  the 
settlers  gathered  to  be  baptised.  Our  purpose  is  more 
with  the  causes  that  disturbed  the  popular  security,  and 
these,  in  the  olden  time,  were  never  long  in  coming.  Not 
satisfied  with  the  progress  made  in  his  own  kingdom, 
Edwin  sought  to  secure  converts  amongst  the  subjects  of 
his  rivals.  This  was  too  much  for  the  adherents  of  the 
old  religion,  and  the  worshippers  of  Thor  and  Woden 
rose  to  arms  against  Northumbria's  interference  with  the 
rights  of  conscience.  It  was  at  this  time  that  Mercia 
sprang  into  notoriety  as  the  champion  of  the  heathen 
gods.  Penda,  its  savage  old  king,  was  acute  enough  to 
see  that  such  a  struggle  might  enable  him  to  not  only 
win  back  his  independence,  but  to  snatch  the  over- 
lordship  for  himself.  Not  strong  enough  for  a  single- 
handed  attack,  however,  he  negotiated  an  alliance  with 
Cadwalla,  the  Welsh  king,  and  thus  brought  the  Britons 
once  more  into  antagonism  with  the  Northumbrian  ruler. 
The  allies  were  speedily  in  the  field ;  but  before  they 
could  penetrate  far  into  the  Northern  kingdom,  they 
found  themselves  opposed  to  Edwin's  forces.  This 
meeting  took  place  at  Hatfield  Chase,  some  few  miles 
north  of  Doncaster,  in  the  autumn  of  633,  and  led  to  a 
terrible  disaster  for  the  North.  During  the  resolute  and 
determined  battle  that  ensued,  Edwin  yielded  up  his 
useful  life  in  the  midst  of  the  furious  combatants. 
Around  him  fell  his  gallant  son,  Osfrid,  and  the  bulk  of 
his  most  honoured  chieftains.  In  the  face  of  such  a 
calamity,  the  Northumbrians  seemed  powerless,  and,  in 
the  rout  that  ensued,  they  were  scattered  far  and  wide 
across  the  plain.  Heaps  of  slain  were  left  as  relics  of  the 

heathen  triumph,  and  as  indications  of  the  fate  that  was 
soon  to  befall  so  many  other  bands  of  the  faithful. 


Cadwalla  at  once  moved  northward,  and  took  posses- 
sion of  the  fortress  at  York ;  while  Penda  directed  his 
exertions  against  the  converts  of  the  Southern  kingdoms. 
Success  attended  the  allies  in  both  directions.  Among 
the  valleys  and  hills  of  Yorkshire,  as  well  as  in  the 
fenlauds  of  East  Anglia,  their  arms  were  borne  in 
triumph.  The  march  routes  were  broadly  marked  by 
ruined  dwellings  and  mutilated  corpses.  The  weakness 
of  womanhood  and  the  innocence  of  childhood  were  no 
protection.  Neither  age  nor  sex  were  spared,  and  "the 
barbarity  of  torture  too  frequently  added  bitterness  to 
death."  Paulinus  fled  the  land,  his  chosen  ministers 
dispersed,  and  the  followers  of  the  new  doctrine  hid 
themselves  in  sore  tribulation.  In  the  months  of 
tyranny  that  succeeded,  the  so-called  Christian  king  was, 
if  possible,  more  savagely  cruel  than  his  Pagan  ally. 
Nothing  seemed  to  diminish  his  outrageous  vindictive- 
ness.  The  Northumbrians,  strangely  enough,  made  no 
attempt  to  exert  themselves  as  a  nation.  The  loss  of 
their  king  had  so  completely  demoralised  them  that 
they  witnessed  the  division  of  their  land  without  a 
protest.  Osric,  a  cousin  of  Edwin,  snatched  a  very 
doubtful  position  as  lord  of  Deira ;  and  Eanfrid,  a 
faint-hearted  son  of  Ethelfrith,  hastened  from  Scotland 
to  mount  the  throne  of  Bernicia.  Both  were  professing 
Christians  when  they  began  their  sovereignty ;  but  both 
quickly  apostatised  in  the  hope  that  Penda's  wrath 
would  thereby  be  appeased.  The  expectation,  however, 
was  not  realised.  The  King  of  the  Mercians  was  far 
too  busy  to  interfere,  and  Cadwalla's  animosity  was  far 
too  keen  to  allow  of  any  thought  of  forgiveness.  Seeing 
the  utter  futility  of  pleading,  Osric,  in  634,  assailed  the 
Welshmen  in  their  stronghold  on  the  Ouse,  and  paid  the 
penalty  of  his  rashness  with  his  life.  Eanfrid  tried  more 
gentle  means,  but  was  equally  unfortunate.  Taking  with 
him  a  dozen  stalwart  soldiers,  he  entered  the  presence 
of  Cadwalla,  with  all  humility,  to  sue  for  union  and 
peace.  Here  again  there  was  bloodshed.  The  foolishly 
trustful  stranger  had  scarcely  made  himself  known  before 
he  was  murdered,  and  Northumbria  was  once  more 
dominated  by  a  branch  of  the  ancient  race. 

The  divisions  of  the  Heptarchy  are  shnwn  on  our  map. 
1  and  2  were  Bernicia  and  Deira  (better  known  as  North- 
umbria) ;  3,  Mercia ;  4,  East  Anglia ;  5,  Wessex  ;  6, 
South  Saxony  ;  7,  East  Saxony  ;  8,  Kent.  The  first  four 
were  occupied  by  the  Angles,  the  next  three  by  the 
Saxons,  and  Kent  by  the  Jutes.  The  whole  of  the  West 
Coast,  lettered  B,  was  occupied  by  the  Britons  at  the 
close  of  the  sixth  century. 

The  smaller  map  illustrates  the  site  of  two  eventful 
battles,  which,  as  will  be  seen,  were  both  fought  along 
the  line  of  the  old  Roman  road.  Doncaster  was  an 
important  station  of  the  Caesars  even  in  the  earliest  days 
of  our  history,  and  it  became  later  a  favourite  seat  of  the 
Northumbrian  kings,  Coningsborough,  too,  contained 
the  strongest  of  their  Southern  citadels,  and  formed  a 



secure  retreat  in  times  of  national  danger  or  popular  dis- 
content. Near  it  is  a  mound  that  is  supposed  to  contain 
the  remains  of  Hengist  the  Saxon  ;  and  not  far  away  is 
Tickhill  Castle,  a  fortress  that  played  a  not  unimportant 
part  in  the  wars  of  the  Commonwealth. 

.  ^turo   l\rrbro'o 

j]R.  SIMS  REEVES  having  recently  published 
his  autobiography,  we  are  able  to  give  an 
extract  therefrom  which  confirms  the  state- 
ment made  in  the  Monthly  Chronicle,  vol.  ii.,  page  234. 
Mr.  Reeves  says  : — 

I  was  born  October  21,  1821,  at  Shooter's  Hill,  in  Kent. 
My  father  was  a  musician,  and  it  was  said  that  at  an 
early  age  I  used  my  voice  with  no  little  skill.  When 
fourteen  years  old  I  performed  the  duties  of  organist  at 
North  Cray  Church,  where  I  likewise  had  charge  of  the 


local  choir.  "  Doctors  differ,"  it  is  said  ;  so,  top,  do  sing- 
ing masters.  The  professor  under  whom  I  studied  treated 
me  as  a  baritone ;  yes,  and  as  a  baritone  I  came 
upon  the  stage,  and  succeeded.  While  studying  harmony 
and  counterpoint  under  Mr.  H.  Calcott  I  practised  the 
piano  with  John  Cramer.  I  also  learned  to  play  more 
than  one  musical  instrument,  including  the  violin,  violon- 
cello, oboe,  and  bassoon ;  in  fact,  so  proficient  did  I 
become  as  a  violinist,  that  at  the  beginning  of  my  career 
I  not  seldom  undertook  the  duties  of  orchestral 
leader.  In  1839,  being  then  in  my  eighteenth  year,  I 
made  my  d&ut  at  the  Newcastle-on-Tyne  Theatre,  as  the 
Gipsy  Boy  in  "Guy  Mannering,"  for  the  benefit  of  the 
late  tenor  George  Barker. 

Shortly  afterwards  Mr.   Reeves   secured  an   engage- 

ment at  the  Grecian  Theatre,  London,  under  the  name 
of  "Mr.  Johnson,"  followed  by  an  engagement  with 
Macready  at  Drury  Lane.  In  1843,  he  studied  in  Paris, 
proceeding  to  Milan,  where  he  made  his  cUbut  at  La 


NEW  and  handsome  Town  Hall,  to  which 
are  added  an  entire  series  of  municipal 
buildings,  was  opened  at  Middlesbrough-on- 
Tees  on  January  23,  1889,  by  the  Prince 
and  Princess  of  Wales.  Such  was  the  interest  taken  in 
the  proceedings  that  150,000  people  lined  the  route  of  the 
royal  procession.  The  Prince  and  Princess  during  their 
visit  to  the  North  were  the  guests  of  the  Earl  of  Zetland 
at  Aske  Hall. 

Our  sketch  of  the  Town  Hall,  taken  from  a  photograph 
by  Mr.  R.  W.  Gibbs,  gives  a  complete  view  of  this  splen- 
did pile  of  buildings.  The  Corporation,  anxious  to  meet 
the  growing  requirements  of  the  borough,  offered  prizes 
for  the  best  designs,  and  appointed  as  umpire  Mr.  Water- 
house,  of  London.  The  first  prize  was  awarded  to  Mr. 
George  Gordon  Hoskins,  of  Darlington,  and  the  selection 
of  Mr.  Hoskins's  design  was  readily  endorsed  by  the  Cor- 
poration. Mr.  Hoskins  evidently  aimed  at  raising  a 
structure  which  should  be  externally  expressive  of  the 
purposes  for  which  it  is  intended.  His  treatment  is 
dignified  and  effective.  He  would  probably  describe  the 
style  as  thirteenth  century  Gothic,  suffused  with  the 
feeding  and  spirit  of  the  present  time.  It  is  much  the 
same  as  that  adopted  with  marked  success  in  the  Man- 
chester Town  Hall  and  the  Manchester  Assize  Courts. 

The  foundation  stone  of  the  New  Town  Hall  and 
Municipal  Buildings,  which  will  cost  about  £120,000,  was 
laid  by  the  Mayor  of  the  borough,  Mr.  Alderman 
Fiddler,  on  October  24,  1883,  and  the  work  of  erection 
has  been  carried  out  by  Mr.  Ephraim  Atkinson,  builder, 
of  Bradford. 



The  Mayor  of  Middlesbrough,  Raylton  Dixon,  Esq.,  of 
the  Cleveland  Dockyard  Company  and  Gunnergate  Hall, 
Marton,  was  unanimously  elected  to  the  office  of  chief 
magistrate,  although  not  a  member  of  the  Corporation, 
as  the  most  suitable  citizen  for  such  a  post  in  antici- 
pation of  the  Royal  visit  to  the  town.  Mr.  Dixon  was 
born  at  Newcastle-on-Tyne  in  1838,  being  the  son 
of  the  late  Mr.  J.  Dixon,  of  Wray,  near  Ambleside. 
Educated  at  private  schools,  he  launched  into  life  under 
the  eye  of  Mr.  Coutts,  one  of  the  earliest  shipbuilders  on 

March  I 

ISS9.    f 



the  Tyne.  Afterwards  he  was  with  Messrs.  C.  Mitchell 
and  Co.  In  1859,  Mr.  Dixon  went  to  Middlesbrough  as 
manager  of  a  branch  establishment  of  Messrs.  Richard- 
son and  Duck,  of  Stockton,  and  from  that  time  till 
the  present  his  record  has  been  one  of  indomitable 
energy,  grappling  with  and  finally  conquering  the  diffi- 
culties that  beset  the  path  to  success.  In  1863,  as  partner 
with  Mr.  Backhouse,  he  became  a  principal  in  the  firm  of 
Backhouse  and  Dixon,  whose  name  was  at  one  time  a 
household  word  in  the  town.  On  the  retirement  of  Mr. 
Backhouse,  the  interest  centred  entirely  in  Mr.  Dixon, 
who  with  his  brother,  Mr.  Waynman  Dixon,  now  carries 
on  the  important  works  as  Messrs.  Raylton  Dixon 
and  Co.  Mr.  Dixon's  connection  with  municipal  life 
dates  from  the  year  which  saw  the  opening  of  the  Albert 
Park — the  gift  of  Mr.  Bolckow — by  Prince  Arthur,  in 
1868.  When  Mr.  Dixon  retired  from  the  Town 
Council  last  year,  he  was  the  oldest  member  of  that 
body.  In  politics,  Mr.  Dixon  is  a  staunch  Conservative, 
and  as  such  he  stood  against  the  sitting  member  in  1885. 

,  gucljtteet. 

Mr.  George  Gordon  Hoskins,  of  Thornbeck  Hill, 
Darlington,  the  architect  of  the  handsome  Gothic  pile 
comprising  the  Town  Hall  and  Municipal  Buildings  at 
Middlesbrough,  is  a  gentleman  well  known  in  all  the 
leading  architectural  circles  of  the  United  Kingdom. 
Mr.  Hoskins  is  the  eldest  son  of  the  late  Captain 
Francis  Hoskins,  of  the  1st  Royals,  his  mother  being 
Julia,  second  daughter  of  Mr.  William  Hill,  of 
Temple  House,  near  Portsmouth.  His  paternal  grand- 
father was  Mr.  Abraham  Hoskins,  of  Newton  Park  and 
Bladon  Castle,  near  Burton-on -Trent,  whose  sister 
married  Mr.  Bass,  the  father  of  the  late  Mr.  Michael 
Thomas  Bass,  who  was  for  many  years  M.P.  for  Derby, 
and  whose  eldest  son  is  now  Lord  Burton.  Mr. 
Hoskins  first  engaged  in  practice  in  London,  but  subse- 
quently removed  to  Darlington  in  the  year  1864-,  where 
bis  abilities  found  early  recognition.  A  large  number  of 
public  and  private  buildings  in  Durham  and  North 
Yorkshire  have  been  erected  from  his  designs.  Mr. 
Hoskins  is  the  author  of  several  works  connected  with 
architecture,  some  of  which  have  obtained  wide  circula- 
tion. Our  portrait  is  copied  from  a  photograph  by  Mr. 
James  Cooper,  of  Darlington. 

Jttr.  JUtlliam  /allow*,  ?.?. 

William  Fallows,  one  of  the  oldest  and  most  respected 
citizens  of  Middlesbrough,  was  born  at  the  picturesque 
village  of  Sleights,  near  Whitby,  on  December  10,  1797— 
so  that  he  is  now  in  his  92nd  year.  Whilst  an  infant,  his 
parents  settled  in  Linthorpe,  the  native  place  of  his 
mother.  Subsequently  they  moved  to  Stockton,  where  Mr. 

Fallows's  father  became  a  schoolmaster.  Young  Fallows 
was  sent  to  the  Blue  Coat  School  in  that  town.  In  1811 
he  was  apprenticed  to  a  firm  of  iron  and  timber  merchants 
for  seven  years.  After  completing  his  term,  he  remained 
in  their  service  for  several  years.  In  1829  he  was  ap- 
pointed shipping  agent  at  Stockton  for  the  Stockton 
and  Darlington  Railway  Company,  and  in  the  following 
year,  when  the  railway  was  extended  to  Middlesbrough, 
he  was  promoted  to  the  office  of  superintendent  of  the 

.  Fallows . 

Railway  Company's  shipping  of  coals.  As  Middlesbrough 
developed,  the  Railway  Company  constructed  a  dock, 
which  has  since  been  several  times  enlarged,  and  Mr. 
Fallows,  notwithstanding  his  great  age,  still  holds  his 
position  as  superintendent.  The  venerable  gentleman 
has  been  a  member  of  the  Tees  Conservancy  Commission 
since  its  formation,  and  has  taken  a  prominent  part  in 
its  proceedings.  He  was  also  a  member  of  the  Middles- 
brough Corporation  for  many  years,  and  in  1859  he  was 
Mayor  of  the  borough.  For  a  long  time  he  was  one  of 
the  Guardians  of  the  Poor,  and  he  devoted  a  great  deal 
of  his  active  life  to  public  work.  Mr.  Fallows  has  now 
and  then  from  the  rich  store  of  his  own  recollections 
contributed  scraps  of  antiquarian  information  to  the 
columns  of  the  Newcastle  Weekly  Chronicle. 




March ) 



at  WaUrf  fltitr  tfte 
CfttUtttgftffiit  25ttll. 

j]HE  boar,  the  bear,  and  the  wolf  may  still  be 
hunted  in  continental  countries  ;  but,  in 
England,  there  remain  nothing  more  ter- 
rible than  the  herds  of  white  cattle,  which  roam 
through  the  well-wooded  dells  of  Chillingham  Park. 
They  are  said  to  be  remnants  of  the  stock  that  ran 
wild  amid  the  forests  and  hills  of  ancient  Northum- 
bria,  and  their  shaggy  appearance  even  now  is  both 
picturesque  and  formidable.  It  is  very  little  more. 
There  are  occasions,  of  course,  when  they  forget  the 
civilizing  tendencies  of  artificial  feeding,  and  resort  to  the 
headlong  charges  of  the  olden  time.  An  incident  of  the 
kind  has  been  depicted  by  no  less  a  master  than  Landseer, 
and  the  large  painting  occupies  a  prominent  place  in  the 

dining  hall  of  Chillingham.  It  appears  that  the  present 
Earl  of  Tankerville,  when  a  young  man,  was  attacked 
while  riding  across  the  cattle  enclosure,  and  would  have 
sustained  serious  injury  if  a  watchful  gillie  had  not 
opportunely  shot  his  incensed  assailant.  But  in  spite  of 
this  occurrence,  the  character  of  the  breed  is  hardly  bad 
enough  to  justify  extreme  precautions  against  them.  The 
Prince  of  Wales  paid  a  visit  to  Chillingham  in  the  month 
of  October,  1872,  when  it  was  announced  that  he  would 
signalise  the  occasion  by  shooting  the  noblest  specimen  of 
the  herd.  His  Royal  Highness  allowed  himself  to  be 
stowed  away  in  a  hay  cart  that  was  carrying  the  pooi 
creatures  their  breakfast,  and  was  thus  able,  from  the 
hungry  and  unsuspecting  herd  that  followed  him,  to 
exterminate  the  king  bull  at  leisure.  The  plan,  no  doubt, 
was  in  accordance  with  courtly  notions  of  safety,  and 
was  eminently  calculated  to  secure  the  object  in  view ; 
but  it  was  scarcely  a  feat  to  warrant  any  unusual  iubi- 

Ik Priocfl ofc-Walos  Mta Chiiiing^ara Bull, o.ctn.isfe; 




\   1889. 

lation.  Yet,  as  the  sequel  shows,  the  feat  was  highly 
appreciated  in  very  distinguished  circles.  A  few  hours 
after  the  tragedy,  the  carcase  wad  brought  from  the 
scene  of  slaughter,  and  carefully  deposited  on  the  castle 
lawn.  The  photographer  was  ready,  the  Prince  not  un- 
willing, and  the  result  as  shown  in  our  sketch. 


£tmt,  pltoU'is  Caaistroag,  Jleektn 
Jttaibm  Wag,  &c. 

j|HE  only  Ermyn  Street  (Eormen  Street)  with 
which  we  have  to  do  was  that  direct  route 
which  ran  from  Pevensey  (Anderida),  on  the 
coast  of  Sussex,  through  London,  and  across 
the  counties  of  Middlesex,  Herts,  Cambridge,  and  Hunt- 
ingdon, to  Lincoln  (Lindum),  and  thence  to  the  Humber 
at  Ferriby,  crossing  that  river  thereabouts,  converging  on 
the  central  city  of  York,  and  sending  out  branches 
through  the  East  and  North  Ridings,  to  Aldborough  in 
Holderness  (the  country  of  the  Parish),  to  Malton  (Der- 
ventio),  Pickering  (Delgovitia),  Filey  Bay  (Portus  Salu- 
taris),  Flamborough  (Ocellum  Promontorium),  and  Duns- 
ley  Bay,  near  Whitby  (the  Dunum  Sinus  of  Ptolemy), 
where  a  terminal  station  is  believed  to  have  been  situated. 
From  York  northwards  the  main  line  seems  to  have  gone 
on  by  Easingwold,  Thirsk,  and  Northallerton—  at  wbich 
latter  place  there  are  indubitable  traces  of  the  Roman 
occupation  —  to  the  Tees,  where  it  probably  ran  into  the 
Watling  Street  between  Stanwick  and  Croft,  so  as  to 
cross  at  Piercebridge.  But,  if  so,  it  shortly  afterwards 
diverged  easterly,  and  went  on  towards  Durham  and 
Newcastle,  by  Aycliffe,  Rushyford,  Chilton,  Ferryhill, 
Sunderlaud  Bridge,  Chester-le-Street  (Condercum),  Birt- 
ley,  and  over  Gateshead  Fell  to  Gateshead  (Gabrosentum) 
and  the  bridge  across  the  Tyne  (Pons  j3Slii).  From  New- 
castle it  may  possibly  have  continued  in  the  same  direc- 
tion, in  the  line  afterwards  taken  by  the  Great  North 
Road,  by  Morpeth,  Aluwick,  Belford,  and  Tweedmouth, 
to  Berwick-upon-Tweed,  where  there  was  a  principal 
station,  on  the  site  of  which  the  remains  of  the  castle  now 
stand.  But,  if  it  pursued  this  route,  all  trace  of  it  seems 
to  have  been  obliterated  long  ago. 

The  Devil's  Causeway  is  a  name  that  was  given  by  our 
ancestors  to  a  road,  likewise  known  as  Ermyn  Street, 
which  ran  across  Northumberland  (the  country  of  the 
Ottodini),  from  Halton  Chesters  (Richard  of  Cirencester's 
Ad  Murum),  passing  on  the  east  side  of  Kirk  Heaton, 
and  thence  over  the  Wansbeck,  near  the  point  where  the 
Wansbeck  Valley  Railway  crosses  that  river,  by  Thornton 
(Roger  Thornton's  birthplace),  a  short  way  to  the  east 
of  Hartburn  Church,  in  a  straight  course  between 
Nether  Witton  and  Witton  Shields,  to  where  the 

ruins  of  Brinkburn  Priory  now  stand.  It  crossed  the 
Coquet  a  little  below  the  priory,  at  a  place  where  the 
remains  of  the  piers  of  the  Roman  bridge  were  perfectly 
distinct  some  years  ago  (and  perhaps  still  are),  "par- 
ticularly the  ashlar  work  on  the  north  side,  covered  with 
elm  trees,"  as  a  learned  correspondent  wrote  to  Mackenzie 
in  1824-.  There  were  likewise  on  the  hill  above  the  priory 
evident  traces  of  a  Roman  villa,  a  few  yards  from  the 
military  way,  the  rampart  and  ditch  across  the  neck  of 
land  being  very  apparent,  likewise  the  foundations  of 
houses  and  lines  of  the  street ;  but  the  stones  had  un- 
doubtedly been  all  used  for  building  the  priory.  After 
passing  Brinkburn  the  Causeway  proceeded  over  Rimside 
Moor,  crossed  the  Aln  below  Whittingham,  passed  Shaw- 
don  and  Glanton  (where  it  was  locally  known  as  the 
Deor  or  Deer  Street),  to  the  Till,  near  Fowberry,  then  by 
Horton  Castle,  Lowick,  and  Ancroft,  to  the  Tweed, 
which  it  crossed,  according  to  some  authorities,  at  a 
place  called  the  Corn  Mills,  near  West  Ord,  a  little 
above  Berwick;  but,  according  to  others,  crossing  the 
river  at  Tweedmouth,  and  thence  passing  by  Ayton  and 
Cockburnspath  over  the  Lammermoors  into  East  and 
Mid  Lothian,  where  several  Chesters,  as  near  Spott, 
Drem,  &c.,  would  seem  to  mark  its  route,  though  there 
are  no  other  existing  traces.  The  Devil's  Causeway  was 
constructed,  like  the  other  Roman  roads, '  with  large 
stones  in  the  centre  and  smaller  ones  at/  the  sides.  It  was 
fully  eight  yards  broad  and  two  yards  high,  with  four 
ditches,  owing  to  there  being  a  carriage  road  in  the 
middle,  and  a  narrow  road  on  each  side  for  foot  passen- 
gers ;  and  so  solidly  was  it  constructed,  that  the  great 
original  ridge  still  in  several  places  remains  unbroken,  as 
stated  in  Maclauchlan's  survey,  executed  at  the  cost  of 
the  Duke  of  Northumberland.  The  road  was  connected 
with  the  Watling  Street  by  two  branches  at  least.  One  of 
these  started  from  Bremenium,  and  went  off  in  a  north- 
westerly direction  by  the  Dudlees,  Branshaw,  and  Yard- 
hope  to  Campville,  close  to  Holystone,  where  Paulinus, 
as  recorded  by  the  Venerable  Bede,  converted  and  bap- 
tised several  thousand  Pagans.  Then,  passing  the  Coquet 
near  Sharperton,  it  went  past  the  Trewitts  to  Lorbottle, 
Callaly,  and  Eslington  to  Barton,  where  it  joined  the 
Devil's  Causeway  before  it  crossed  the  river  Aln,  to  the 
north  of  which  stands  Crawley  Tower,  built  upon  the 
east  angle  of  a  Roman  station  on  an  eminence  near  the 
road,  which  has  been  considered  to  be  the  Alauna  Amnis 
of  Richard  of  Cirencester.  It  is  probable  that  this  road 
was  continued  from  Barton,  by  Alnwick,  down  to  the 
port  of  Alnmouth,  during  the  Lower  Empire,  since  great 
quantities  of  grain  were  shipped  from  Britain  to  supply 
the  Roman  armies  and  garrisons  on  the  Rhine.  The 
second  branch  seems  to  have  been  formed  to  connect  a 
chain  of  forts  running  round  from  the  Watling  Street, 
near  Troughend,  by  Elsdon,  Hepple,  Tosson,  Whitton, 
&c.,  with  the  Devil's  Causeway. 
The  Recken  Dyke,  or  Wrecken  Dyke— so  called  in 

19.  / 




North  Durham— is  supposed  to  be  the  north-eastern 
portion  of  the  Rycknild  Street,  described  in  Drayton's 
"Polyolbion,"  as  well  as  by  Ralph  Higden,  as  stretching 
obliquely  quite  across  the  island,  from  St.  David's 
(Menapia),  the  most  westerly  point  of  South  Wales,  "  to 
the  fall  of  Tyne  into  the  German  Sea."  Beginning  at 
this  end,  Horsley,  who  was  reckoned  in  his  day  "  the 
prince  of  antiquaries,"  says  : — "It  seems  to  have  come 
from  the  station  (at  South  Shields),  and  to  have  crossed 
the  marsh,  then  possibly  a  branch  of  the  river,  not  far 
from  the  station.  Thence  it  has  passed  most  probably 
through,  or  a  little  to  the  east  of,  a  house  called  Lay 
Gate ;  from  thence  it  seems  to  have  gone  near  a  house 
called  the  Barns,  the  garden  wall  probably  standing  on 
it ;  and  so  on  to  the  Draw  Bridge  close  by  Jarrow  Slike. 
For  this  space,  the  traces  of  this  way  are  very  obscure  and 
uncertain.  In  the  6eld  beyond  this  bridge,  the  track  of  it 
is  plain,  and  for  near  the  full  breadth  of  the  enclosure 
sensibly  raised  above  the  level  of  the  rest  of  the  ground, 
though  it  runs  cross  the  ridges.  On  the  west  side  of 
this  field  or  enclosure  there  is  a  small  descent,  and  in  the 
bottom  a  lane,  which  is  the  highway  leading  from  Bowdon 
to  Shields,  and  a  small  ascent  on  the  other  side  in  the  field 
joining  to  this  lane.  As  the  military  way  descends  on  the 
one  side  and  ascends  on  the  other,  it  is  bent  into  a  curve, 
and  then  falls  into  the  right  line,  in  which  it  seems  to  be 
continued  all  the  way  to  Gateshead  Fell,  for  the  space  of 
five  or  six  miles ;  from  thence  it  goes  towards  Lamesley 
and  Kibblesworth,  which  it  leaves  a  little  to  the  south. 
It  was  very  visible  all  the  way,  not  many  years  ago, 
before  Sir  Henry  Liddall  inclosed  and  improved  these 
grounds ;  and  the  gardener  at  Cousin's  House,  who  had 
formerly  wrought  on  Gateshead  Fell,  assured  me  he  had 
seen  and  helped  to  dig  up  some  stones  out  of  Wreken 
Dyke,  which  he  called  Bracken  Dyke,  so  that  he  was 
altogether  of  opinion  that  this  part  of  it  had  been  paved. 
This  way  passes  on  towards  Beamish,  and  I  make  no  doubt 
has  gone  forward  to  Lanchester.  It  is  indeed  lost  on  the 
moor  beyond  Beamish  ;  nor  is  it  any  great  wonder  that  it 
should  be  so,  considering  how  soft  and  mossy  it  is.  ... 
There  is  a  remarkable  tumulus  near  this  way,  not  far 
from  Ravensworth,  besides  which  I  observed  another 
very  considerable  one,  about  a  mile  from  Lanchester, 
called  the  Maiden  Law,  and  probably  the  military 
way  has  not  been  far  from  this  tumulus."  In  another 
place  Horsley  eays  : — "  It  consists  of  firm  gravel  and 
sand,  and  is  hard  and  compact,  so  as  to  make  a  very 
good  way  at  this  time,  at  all  seasons  of  the  year.  I  also 
believe  it  has  a  mixture  of  stones,  or  somewhat  of  pave- 

Horsley  thinks  the  road  must  have  terminated  at  Lan- 
chester ;  but  John  Cade,  of  Durham,  in  a  paper  drawn 
up  by  him,  and  addressed  to  the  Dean  of  Lincoln  (Dr. 
Kaye),  on  the  Roman  roads  in  the  County  of  Durham, 
traces  the  Rycknild  Street  from  St.  David's,  past  Old 
Derby  and  Chesterfield  (Lutudarum),  to  York,  and  from 

thence  by  Thornton-le-Street,  near  Thirsk,  to  Sockburn- 
on-Tees,  where  the  river  was  crossed  by  a  ford,  thence  by 
Sadberge,  Stainton-le-Street,  Bradbury,  and  Mainsforth, 
to  Old  Durham,  where  the  Romans  certainly  had  a  sta- 
tion, over  against  which,  on  a  tall  cliff  now  known  as  the 
Maiden  Scar,  stood  a  fortification  which  has  received  the 
name  of  Maiden  Castle.  From  Durham  the  road  went 
over  Chester  Common  to  Chester-le-Street,  and  thence  by 
the  Black  Fell,  Usworth,  Fellonby,  Simonside,  and  Lay- 
gate,  to  South  Shields  station  on  the  Lawe.  That  such  a 
road  was  carried  by  the  Romans  through  the  central  parts 
of  the  County  Palatine,  on  the  line  here  indicated,  or  near 
to  it,  the  existing  names  of  the  places  would  not  permit 
us  to  doubt,  even  were  there  no  vestiges  remaining  on  the 
surface  at  this  day.  The  obvious  similarity  of  name 
between  Reckon  and  Rycknild  disposes  us  to  think  that 
there  was  but  one  great  transverse  line  of  road  leading 
from  the  south-west  coast  to  the  mouth  of  the  Tyne 
which  received  this  appellation  ;  but  the  authorities  are 
so  confused  and  contradictory,  and  the  positive  informa- 
tion they  convey  so  meagre,  that  it  is  impossible  to  coine 
to  any  satisfactory  conclusion  on  the  point. 

The  etymologies  of  Rycknild  and  Wrekin,  given  by 
Horsley,  Hutchinson,  Bertram,  and  other  antiquaries,  are 
quite  conjectural,  and  of  no  value.  Burton,  in  his  com- 
mentary on  Antoninus's  Itinerary  through  Britain,  reads 
Icknel  instead  of  Rycknild,  and  derives  the  word  from 
the  Iceni,  who  inhabited  Norfolk  and  Suffolk ;  others 
point  to  the  Wrekin  in  Shropshire,  over  or  near  which  the 
Watling  Street  passed,  as  possibly  affording  some  clue 
to  the  meaning  of  the  name.  For  our  own  part  we  con- 
ceive that  the  original  term  must  have  been  Reken  or 
Recken  Dyke,  meaning  the  "Giant's  Dyke."  In 
Icelandic  "  regin  "  is  used  in  the  Eddaic  poems  for  the 
gods,  as  in  "  blith  regin  "  the  blythe  gods  ;  "uppregin," 
the  powers  above,  the  celestial  gods;  "ragnarock, "  the 
twilight  of  the  gods,  the  last  day.  And  in  Hugo  von 
Togenberg's  "Runner,"  a  curious  German  poem  of  tha 
fourteenth  century,  we  are  told  : — 

How  Master  Dietrick  fought  with  Ecken, 
And  how  of  old  the  stalwart  Recken 
Were  all  by  woman's  craft  betrayed. 

The  Maiden  Way  was  the  name  given  by  the  natives  to 
a  great  causeway  which  turned  off  from  the  Watling 
Street,  a  little  beyond  Catterick,  and  went  by  Greta 
Bridge,  where  there  is  a  small  but  very  distinctly  marked 
Roman  camp,  situated  in  the  field  close  behind  the 
Morritt  Arms  Inn,  to  the  more  important  camp  of  Bowes 
(Lavatree)  and  Roy,  Rey,  or  Rere  Cross,  the  Cross  of  the 
Kings,  on  Stainmoor,  at  the  summit  of  the  pass  from 
Yorkshire  into  Westmoreland.  The  cross  standing  there 
marks  the  spot  (so  tradition  says)  where  William  the 
Conqueror  and  Malcolm  Canmore  met  in  arms,  but 
wisely  resolved  to  settle  their  dispute  amicably,  and 
accordingly  set  up  a  stone  to  mark  the  boundary  of  the 
two  kingdoms.  Holinshed  thus  states  the  conditions  on 





which  the  kings  concluded  peace : — "  That  Malcolm 
should  enjoy  that  part  of  Northumberland  which  lies 
between  Tweed,  Cumberland,  and  Stainrnoor,  and  do 
homage  to  the  King  of  England  for  the  same  ;  and  that 
in  the  midst  of  Stainmoor  there  should  a  cross  be  set  up, 
with  the  King  of  England's  image  on  the  one  side,  and 
the  King  of  Scotland's  on  the  other,  to  signify  that  one  is 
to  march  to  England  and  the  other  to  Scotland. "  From 
thence  the  way  went  on  to  Brough  (Vertere  or  Verteris), 
Appleby  (Galacum),  Kirkby  Thore  (Brovonacae),  Temple 
Sowerby,  Brougham  Castle  (Brocavium),  Penrith  (Vo- 
reda),  and  Carlisle  (Luguvallum),  where  it  fell  into  the 
great  north-western  line  leading  into  Scotland,  by 
Netherby,  Middleby,  Castleover,  Lanark,  &c.,  to  Paisley 
and  Dumbarton  (Theodosia). 

Prom  Kirkby  Thore,  the  Maiden  Way  struck  off  in  a 
different  direction  from  what  it  had  previously  followed, 
over  the  skirt  of  Cross  Fell  into  the  valley  of  the  South 
Tyne,  near  Alston,  to  the  station  at  Whitley  Castle 
(Alione),  the  site  of  which  is  nearly  opposite  Kirkhaugh 
Church,  and  on  the  north  side  of  Gilderdale  Burn.  Froir. 
that  place  it  proceeded  eastwards  to  Whittonstall,  be- 
tween Ebchester  and  Corbridge.  where  it  ran  into  the 
Watling  Street.  There  was  most  likely  an  easterly  con- 
tinuation of  it,  by  way  of  Hedley,  Coalburns,  Winlaton, 
&c.,  connecting  it  with  the  Reken  Dyke,  which  ran  to 
Jarrow  and  South  Shields,  and  also  with  the  road 
leading  to  Gabrosentum  and  Pons  ^-Elii.  Local  tradition 
bears  this  out ;  but  all  trace  of  the  road  seems  now  to  be 

The  north  portion  of  the  Maiden  Way  struck  off  from 
the  line  of  the  Roman  Wall  at  the  station  of  Birdoswald 
(Amboglanna),  a  little  to  the  westward  of  the  place  where 
the  Wall  crosses  the  Irthing ;  and  it  proceeded  nearly 
direct  north,  crossing  the  summit  of  the  mountain  ridge 
called  Side  Fell,  and  descending  into  the  vale  of  Bew- 
castle,  passing  that  place  to  the  east  of  the  station,  the 
Roman  name  of  which  is  matter  of  dispute  (like  that,  we 
may  remark  cursorily,  of  many  other  stations),  Horsley 
believing  it  to  have  been  Apiatorium,  Hodgson  Banna, 
and  Maughan  Galava.  From  Bewcastle,  it  ascended  the 
rising  ground  on  the  north  side  of  the  Kirk  Beck,  to  a 
place  called  Raestown.  Between  this  place  and  the 
Scottish  Border  the  line  is  not  easily  traced,  owing  to 
parts  of  the  way  being  covered  with  moss,  and  in  other 
places  through  the  occupants  of  the  ground  having  car- 
ried away  the  stones  to  build  fences.  But  after  crossing 
the  White  Lyne,  a  tributary  of  the  Esk,  it  ran  past  the 
Grey  Crag,  keeping  to  the  right  of  Christenbury  Crags, 
to  a  camp  at  Cross.  It  then  crossed  the  Black  Lyne, 
near  its  junction  with  another  small  stream,  where  there 
has  been  a  strong  position.  Next  it  crossed  the  Skelton 
Pike,  forded  the  Kershope  Water,  and  entered  Scottish 
ground.  The  Maiden  Way  between  the  Wall  and  Bew- 
castle is  descri))ed  as  being  above  twenty -one  feet  broad, 
and  made  with  sandstone.  The  stones  are  laid  on  their 

edges,  and  generally  in  the  centre;  on  the  sides  they 
are  found  lying  flat.  Where  streams  of  water  cross  the 
path,  they  are  carried  below  it  by  means  of  culverts, 
covered  with  large  flags. 

There  are  several  other  Maiden  Ways  in  different  parts 
of  England,  all  so  called,  we  fancy,  from  their  being 
"made,"  that  is,  raised  or  elevated  above  the  surface  of 
the  grounds  through  which  they  ran. 

After  crossing  the  Border,  the  Maiden  Way  received 
another  name — the  Wheel  Causeway— doubtless  from  its 
being  the  only  road  in  the  district  it  ran  through  that  was 
practicable  for  wheeled  carriages.  Proceeding  northward 
a  little  to  the  west  of  Muirdykes,  now  a  station  on  the 
Waverley  route,  it  passed  one  of  the  sources  of  the  Lid- 
dell,  at  a  place  called  Bagrawford,  and  then  went  on  past 
the  Peel  and  the  Wheel  Church  to  the  table  land  which 
divides  Liddesdale  from  Teviotdale,  crossing  between 
Wheeling  Head  on  the  right  and  Needs  Law  on  the  left. 
Then  it  bends  away  to  the  northward,  a  little  to  the  west 
of  Ravenburn,  and  makes  for  the  eastern  slope  of  Wolflee- 
hill,  thence  by  the  west  side  of  Mackside  to  Bonchester 
Hill,  on  the  Rule,  where  there  was  a  principal  station. 
From  this  point  there  are  but  few  traces  left  of  the  road, 
which  seems,  however,  to  have  branched  out  into  several 
ways,  and  in  particular  towards  and  past  Jedburgh,  in  the 
direction  of  Crailing  and  Eckford,  and  also  of  the  Wat- 
ling  Street  at  Street  House,  as  indicated  by  a  chain  of 
forts  or  strengths  running  eastward  from  Bonchester, 
including  Chesters,  Camptown,  and  Cunziertown,  near 
the  station  at  Street  House,  and  thence  probably  by 
Chesterhouse,  near  Hownam  Law,  Morebattle,  Linton, 
and  Lempitlaw,  to  Kerchesters,  in  the  parish  of  Sprous- 
ton,  where  it  would  run  into  the  road  skirting  the  south 
bank  of  the  Tweed  from  Cornhill,  opposite  Coldstream 
where  there  are  very  extensive  earthworks — the  most 
remarkable  possibly  north  of  the  Wall — past  Wark,  Car- 
ham,  and  Maxwellheugh,  to  Roxburgh,  at  the  junction 
between  the  Tweed  and  the  Teviot,  and  so  on  to  the 
Watling  Street  at  Lilliard's  Edge.  But  it  would  be  end- 
less to  pursue  further  the  problematical  ramifications  of 
these  Wheel  Causeways,  which  seem  to  have  permeated 
the  whole  country  immediately  north  of  the  Cheviots,  but 
of  which  the  traces  now  remain  only  in  the  names  of  such 
places  as  Chesters,  Blackchesters,  Rowchesters,  Chester- 
halls,  &c. 

A  name  applied  to  several  parts  of  the  Watling  Street 
running  from  York  and  Catterick  to  Corchester  was  the 
Learning  Lane,  an  appellation  the  memory  of  which  is 
still  preserved  in  the  names  of  many  places  along  the 
line,  in  Yorkshire,  Durham,  and  Northumberland,  such 
as  Learning,  Leamside,  the  Learns,  Ac.  In  all  probability 
the  word  is  just  a  corruption  of  the  Latin  "limes,"  a 

Another  name  current  in  sundry  localities  is  the  Stane 
Street,  about  the  interpretation  of  which  there  is  no 
doubt.  One  of  these  Stane  Streets  or  Stanegates  afforded 

March  \ 
1889.   / 



a  direct  line  of  communication  between  Cilurnum  (Ches- 
ters)  and  Magna  (Caervoran),  for  the  accommodation, 
doubtless,  of  those  whose  business  did  not  require  them 
to  call  at  any  intermediate  point.  It  passed  near  the 
modern  village  of  Newbrough,  and  skirted  the  north  gate 
of  the  station  at  Vindolana  (Chester  Holm). 


^atal  asallfffftt  Ss'ctnt  tvam 
fleto  cattle. 

|JN  the  evening  of  Monday,  August  15,  1859, 
an  immense  number  of  people  were  assembled 
in  the  old  Cricket  Ground,  Bath  Road, 
Newcastle,  to  witness  a  balloon  ascent,  the  aeronaut 
being  a  man  named  William  Henry  Hall,  better  known 
as  "Captain  Hall,"  who  had  a  great  reputation  as  a 
gymnast.  The  entertainment,  or  "grand  gala"  as  it 
was  called,  was  a  speculation  of  Mr.  Smith,  the  first 
lessee  of  the  Victoria  Music  Hall,  Grey  Street,  and 
as  regards  attendance  the  affair  was  certainly  a  suc- 
cess. Special  trains  were  run  to  Newcastle,  not  only  from 
many  places  in  the  locality,  but  from  even  as  far  as 
Berwick.  As  the  evening  was  very  fine,  everything  pro- 
mised to  pass  off  pleasantly.  It  took  three  hours  to 
inflate  the  balloon  ;  but  at  ten  minutes  to  seven  the 
ascent  was  made  amidst  the  crash  of  music  and  the  loud 
cheers  of  the  spectators. 

When  at  the  height  of  about  a  thousand  feet,  Hall  got 
out  of  the  car,  and  began  a  series  of  most  extraordinary 
jjyrations  on  a  trapeze,  holding  on  first  by  his  hands 
and  then  by  his  feet,  while  he  performed  his  sickening 
exploits.  Women  screamed,  and  even  strong  men  averted 
their  faces  in  terror,  so  that  it  was  quite  a  relief  when  the 
acrobat  again  took  his  seat  in  the  car.  Shortly  after  this, 
attention  was  called  to  the  apparent  eccentricities  of  the 
balloon,  which  at  times  descended  quite  low,  and  again 
shot  up  suddenly  to  a  great  height,  until  it  appeared  no 
larger  than  an  ordinary  hat.  Finally,  it  passed  out  of 
sight,  and  the  people  in  the  grounds  became  interested  in 
the  music  of  the  bands  and  other  entertainments  provided 
for  them. 

Soon  after  ten  o'clock,  the  cab  which  had  been  en- 
gaged to  follow  the  balloon  and  its  occupant  arrived 
at  the  Cricket  Ground.  The  driver  had  a  sad  story 
to  tell.  He  reported  that  the  poor  "captain"  had 
fallen  from  the  car,  and  was  then  lying  in  a  critical  con- 
dition at  the  residence  of  Mr.  Hugh  Lee  Pattinson, 
Scots  House,  near  the  Felling.  Mr.  Smith,  accompanied 
by  a  surgeon,  immediately  drove  to  the  scene  of  the 
accident.  Some  men  who  were  working  in  a  field  when 
the  balloon  descended,  stated  that  it  came  down  slowly 
and  steadily,  and  that  Mr.  Hall  was  just  in  the  act  of 
stepping  out  when  it  rose  again  with  great  velocity. 

Hall's  feet  became  entagled  in  the  ropes,  and  for  some 
seconds  he  hung  suspended  head  downwards,  and 
then  fell  a  distance  of  fully  120  feet.  He  was  taken  np 
unconscious,  placed  upon  a  couple  of  corn  "stooks,"and 
carried  into  Mr.  Pattinson's  house.  That  gentleman  did 
all  he  could  for  the  sufferer  ;  and  on  the  arrival  of  Mr. 
Smith  with  medical  assistance,  it  was  found  that  no 
bones  were  broken,  nor  were  there  wounds  of  any 
kind  to  be  seen.  Mr.  Pattinson  provided  a  spring  cart, 
which  was  made  as  comfortable  as  possible  with 
cushions,  &c.,  and  the  injured  man  was  conveyed  to 
Newcastle.  On  his  admission  into  the  Infirmary,  he  was 
attended  chiefly  by  Dr.  Gibb,  who  from  the  first  did 
not  take  a  very  cheerful  view  of  the  case,  and  it  soon 
appeared  that  the  doctor  was  right  in  his  diagnosis. 
Poor  Hall  lingered  until  Thursday,  18th  August,  when  he 
succumbed  to  the  effects  of  his  terrible  fall.  The  funeral 
took  place  on  the  following  Sunday,  at  Elswick  Cemetery, 
an  immense  crowd  being  present  at  the  ceremony. 

Two  or  three  incidents  in  this  fatal  balloon  ascent  are 
worth  recording.  When  Hall  fell  from  the  car,  the 
ground  was  deeply  indented  in  two  places  ;  and  yet  his 
watch  was  quite  uninjured,  and  continued  to  "go"  until 
it  had  run  down.  A  favourite  little  dog,  of  great  intelli- 
gence, was  in  the  car  with  his  master,  and  was  at  his  heels 
ready  to  jump  when  the  balloon  escaped  from  the  grapp- 
lings.  Much  pity  was  felt  for  the  poor  dumb  animal. 
which  was  never  seen  afterwards.  Nor  was  the  balloon 
itself  ever  re-captured. 

JIANGLEY  CASTLE,  the  capital  seat  of  the 
barony  of  Tynedale  in  the  feudal  times,  can 
be  approached  either  from  Haydon  Bridge. 
distant  about  a  mile  and  a  half,  or  from 
Hexham,  eight  and  a  half  miles  off,  by  the  Hexham  and 
Allendale  Railway.  It  is  described  in  Turner's  "Domestic 
Architecture  of  the  Middle  Ages  "  as  a  fine  example  of  a 
tower-built  house  of  the  latter  half  of  the  fourteenth  cen- 
tury. Built  about  1360  by  Sir  Thomas  de  Lucy,  probably 
on  the  site  of  an  older  residence  of  the  Tindales,  it  was 
destroyed  in  1+05  by  Henry  IV.,  as  he  advanced  into 
Northumberland  to  put  down  Archbishop  Scrope's  rebel- 
lion, which  the  Earl  of  Northumberland  had  joined. 
"Its  ashlar  stone  work,"  says  Mr.  W.  J.  Palmer,  in  his 
"Tyne  and  its  Tributaries,"  published  in  1882,  "appears 
as  sharp  and  good  as  though  it  had  only  just  been  put 
up  ;  but  neglect  and  abandonment  have  deprived  its 
upper  parts,  windows,  and  openings  of  some  of  the 
masonry,  the  interior,  with  its  fittings,  having  been  de- 
stroyed by  fire  at  some  remote  period."  "  On  approach- 
ing it  for  the  first  time,"  he  adds,  "we  seem  to  see  the  old 
stronghold  very  much  as  it  must  have  appeared  when  it 



I  March 
\    1889. 

was  the  habitable  seat  of  the  barony  of  Tynedale.  It  has 
a  strong  tower  or  turret  at  each  of  the  four  corners,  and 
immensely  thick  walls.  Its  position  is  not  much  raised 
above  the  plain,  and  there  has  been  no  moat  round  it, 
or  external  defence,  the  founders  having  relied  on  the 
strength  of  its  walls  and  the  garrison  behind  them. "  In 
Hodgson's  "Topographical  and  Historical  Description 
of  the  County  of  Northumberland,"  contributed  to  that 
standard  work  of  reference,  "The  Beauties  of  England 
and  Wales,"  we  find  the  following  description  of  Langley 
Castle  :— 

It  is  well  situated  on  the  south  bank  of  the  Tyne,  and 
though  it  has  of  late  years  been  barbarously  handled,  it  is 
by  far  the  most  perfect  ruin  of  the  kind  in  the  county.  It 
is  in  the  form  of  the  letter  H,  its  walls  near  seven  feet 
thick,  its  inside  twenty-four  feet  by  eighty,  and  the 
towers,  one  at  each  corner,  about  sixty-six  feet  high.  The 
rooms  remaining  are  all  arched  with  stone  ;  those  in  the 
towers  are  fourteen  feet  square,  and  the  four  small  fire 
rooms  on  the  east  each  eleven  feet  by  thirteen.  The 
ground  rooms,  on  the  east  and  west,  four  on  each  side, 
have  been  much  injured  by  being  used  as  farm  offices. 
The  windows  which  have  lighted  the  great  hall,  kitchens, 
&c.,  are  large;  those  in  the  chambers  mostly  small,  and 
built  at  an  angle  that  would  prevent  the  entrance  of  an 
enemy's  arrow.  The  stone  of  which  this  fabric  is  built 
is  yet  so  remarkably  fresh  as  to  exhibit  in  their  primitive 
sharpness  the  characters  of  the  masons.  The  whole  of 
the  inside  is  red  with  marks  of  fire. 

What  here  has  been  said  of  the  old  stronghold  must  be 
understood  to  apply  to  its  condition  a  few  years  ago  ;  for 
Mr.  Cadwallader  J.  Bates,  its  present  proprietor,  has  since 
made  such  changes  and  restorations  as  have  rendered  the 
place  habitable. 

The  manor  and  barony  of  Langley  were  held  by  Adam 
de  Tindale,  qf  King  Henry  I.,  by  the  service  of  one 
knight's  fee ;  and  his  grandson,  of  the  same  name,  had 
livery  of  them  in  the  sixth  year  of  King  Henry  III.  (A.D. 
1222),  by  paying  a  hundred  shillings  for  a  relief,  accord- 
ing to  the  tariff  then  established,  which  was  at  the  rate  of 
centum  solidi  for  every  knight's  fee.  This  Adam  left  only 
two  daughters,  his  co-heirs,  one  of  whom,  named  Philippa, 
became  the  wife  of  Richard  de  Bolteby,  who,  upon  the 
division  of  his  father-in-law's  estate,  obtained  the  barony, 
which  continued  for  some  generations  in  his  family.  But 
male  issue  failing,  it  passed  by  marriage  to  Thomas,  son 
of  Adam  de  Multon,  who  had  assumed  the  name  of  Lucy, 
from  his  mother,  one  of  the  co-heirs  of  Richard  Lucy,  of 
Egremont.  This  Thomas  Lord  Lucy  (so  designated  by 
Wallis,  copying  an  inquisition  in  the*  Tower  of  London, 
of  the  33rd  year  of  King  Edward  I.),  became  the  husband 
of  Isabel,  daughter  and  one  of  the  co-heirs  of  the  last 
Adam  de  Bolteby,  and  therefore  acquired  the  Langley 
lordship.  A  stirring  event  in  the  history  of  one  of  his 
immediate  successors  is  thus  related  : — In  the  year  1323, 
by  order  of  King  Edward  II.,  Anthony  Lord  Lucy 
seized  Andrew  de  Hercla  or  Herkley,  Earl  and  Governor 
of  Carlisle,  for  high  treason,  in  the  castle  of  Carlisle.  He 
was  assisted  in  the  affair  by  Sir  Richard  Denton,  Sir 
Hugh  Lowther,  and  Sir  Hugh  Moriceby,  knights,  and 
four  esquires.  Sir  Richard  killed  the  porter  of  the  inner 

gate  who  attempted  to  shut  it  against  the  party;  but 
one  of  the  earl's  servants  escaped  to  the  Peel,  a  castle  at 
Heihead,  High  Head,  or  as  it  was  anciently  written  Pela 
de  Hivehead,  the  seat  of  his  lordship's  brother,  Michael 
Hercla,  who  by  that  means  was  informed  of  the  disaster, 
and  fled  into  Scotland  with  Sir  William  Blount,  a  Scot- 
tish knight,  and  others  of  his  faction.  In  reward  for  his 
service,  Lord  Lucy  was  made  governor  of  the  castles  of 
Carlisle,  Appleby,  and  Egremont ;  and,  in  the  following 
year,  he  obtained  a  grant  in  fee  of  the  castle  and  honour 
of  Cockermouth,  for  which,  as  also  for  the  manor  of  Lang- 
ley,  he  procured  the  privileges  of  free  warren,  "  for  the 
preservation  of  hares,  conies,  partridges,  and  pheasants, 
or  any  of  them." 

The  hero  of  this  adventure  left  Langley  to  his  son 
Thomas,  who  in  his  turn  left  it  to  his  son  Anthony  ;  and 
he,  dying  without  male  issue,  and  his  daughter  and  heir 
Johanna  surviving  him  only  five  years  and  three-quarters, 
and  dying  unmarried,  was  succeeded  in  his  baronial 
honours  and  estates  by  his  sister  Matilda,  wife  of  Sir 
Gilbert  de  Umfraville,  Earl  of  Angus,  after  whose  death 
she  married  Henry  Percy,  Earl  of  Northumberland,  upon 
whom  and  his  heirs  male  she  settled  her  whole  fortune, 
under  the  easy  condition  that,  as  their  hearts  were,  so  the 
arms  of  the  two  noble  families  might  be  united,  for  a 
memorial  of  her  affection. 

Langley  Castle  and  estate  continued  in  the  Percy 
family  until  the  attainder  of  Henry  Earl  of  Northumber- 
land by  King  Edward  IV.,  after  the  battle  of  Towtou, 
in  which  he  fell,  leading  the  van  of  the  Lancastrians, 
sword  in  hand.  They  then  came  into  the  possession  of 
John  Nevil,  Marquis  of  Montacute,  who  held  them  six 
years,  and  he  resigned  them  to  Sir  Henry  Percy,  Lord 
Poynings,  on  the  latter  being  restored  to  his  position  and 
dignity,  on  subscribing  an  oath  of  allegiance  to  the 
Yorkist  king  in  his  palace  at  Westminster.  The  Percies 
kept  possession  of  the  castle  and  manor  for  about  two 
centuries,  but  lost  it  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth, 
when  Thomas  Percy,  seventh  Earl  of  Northumberland, 
being  involved  in  some  of  the  intrigues  for  restoring 
Mary  Queen  of  Scots,  was  driven  into  rebellion  in  1569, 
and  forced  to  fly  into  Scotland,  whence  he  was,  for  a  sum 
of  money,  betrayed  to  death  in  the  hands  of  the  Lord 
Huusdon,  by  the  Regent,  James  Douglas,  Earl  of  Mor- 
ton, who  had  formerly,  during  his  exile  in  England,  been 
much  indebted  to  Percy's  friendship.  Langley  afterwards 
became  the  property  of  the  Ratcliffes,  with  whom  it  con- 
tinued till  it  was  forfeited  by  James,  the  last  Earl  of  Der- 
wentwater,  in  1745,  when  it  was  transferred,  with  the  rest 
of  his  valuable  estates,  by  Act  of  Parliament,  to  the 
Commissioners  of  Greenwich  Hospital,  by  whom  it  was 
sold,  in  October,  1882,  to  Mr.  C.  J.  Bates,  the  present 

March  1 
18S9.   J 



jjHIS  famous  old  fortalice  is  distant  about  nine 
and  a  half  miles  north -north-west  from  Hex- 
ham,  four  miles  north-west  from  Chollertoni 
and  one  mile  or  thereabouts  from  Wark,  which  lies  on 
the  opposite  side  of  the  North  Tyne.  Leland  calls 
"  Chipchase  a  praty  towne  and  castle,  hard  on  the  easte 
parte  of  the  arme  of  Northe  Tyne. "  Sir  Ralph  Sadler, 
in  a  letter  to  Secretary  Cecil,  says,  "The  most  apte  and 
convenyent  places  for  the  keeper  of  Tindale  to  reside  in 
on  all  the  frontiers  are  Hawgston,  Langley,  or  Chipchase, 
in  one  of  which  iij  placis  men  of  service  have  alwayes 
been  placed,  and  especially  for  the  well  executing  of  that 
office  of  Tyndale."  "The  old  tower,"  says  Hodgson, 
"  still  remains.  Its  roof  is  built  on  corbels,  and  has  open- 
ings through  which  to  throw  down  stones  or  scalding 
water  upon  an  enemy.  The  grooves  of  the  portcullis,  the 
porter's  chamber  above  it,  and  tattered  fragments  of 
Gothic  painting  on  the  walls,  are  exceedingly  curious." 
The  following  more  detailed  description  is  by  the  Rev. 
C.  H.  Hawthorne,  in  his  "  Feudal  and  Military  Antiqui- 
ties":— "The  pele,  properly  so  called,  is  a  massive  and 
lofty  building  as  large  as  some  Norman  keeps.  It  has  an 
enriched  appearance  given  to  it  by  its  double-notched 
corbelling  round  the  summit,  which  further  serves  the 
purpose  of  machicolation.  The  round  bartisans  at  the 
angles  add  to  its  beauty,  and  are  set  in  with  considerable 
skill.  Over  the  low  winding  entrance  door  on  the  base- 
ment are  the  remains  of  the  original  portcullis,  the  like 
of  which  the  most  experienced  archaeologist  will  in  vain 
seek  for  elsewhere.  The  grooves  are  also  visible,  and  the 
chamber  where  the  machinery  was  fixed  for  raising  it  is 
to  be  met  with,  even  as  at  Goodrich,  where  the  holes  in 
which  the  axle  worked,  and  the  oilway  that  served  to  ease 
its  revolutions,  may  be  seen ;  but  at  Chipchase  there  is 
the  little  cross-grated  portcullis  itself,  which  was  simply 
lifted  by  the  leverage  of  a  wooden  bar  above  the  entrance, 
and  let  down  in  the  same  manner. " 

Chipchase  was  anciently  a  member  of  the  manor  of 
Prudhoe ;  and  in  the  reign  of  King  Henry  II.  it  was  the 
property  of  Odonel  de  Umfraville,  who  gave  the  chapel 
there  to  the  Canons  of  Hexham,  but  the  manor  to  his  son 
and  heir,  in  whose  family  it  remained  for  several  genera- 
tions. The  Umfravilles,  however,  it  would  appear,  had 
only  a  little  fort  on  the  present  site.  Godwin,  in  his 
"English  Archaeologist's  Guide,"  says  the  tower  was 
built  by  Peter  de  Insula  about  the  year  1250.  This 
Peter  is  supposed  to  have  been  the  ancestor  of  the  Delisle 
family,  or  at  least  of  a  sept  of  that  name.  It  came  after- 
wards into  the  hands  of  a  branch  of  the  noble  family  of 
the  Herons  of  Ford  Castle.  One  of  those  Herons,  Sir 
George,  was  slain  in  the  Raid  of  the  Redeswire ;  another 
was  seven  years  High  Sheriff  in  succession ;  and  to  a  third, 
Cuthbert  Heron,  we  owe  the  modern  structure,  it  having 

been  built  for  him  in  1621,  as  testified  by  the  initials  of 
his  name,  C.  H.,  cut  in  stone  on  each  side  of  his  coat  of 
arms,  with  the  date,  above  the  south  entrance. 

The  last  of  the  Chipchase  Herons  sold  the  estate  to 
George  Allgood,  Esq.,  who,  in  his  turn,  disposed  of  it 
to  a  cadet  of  the  Troughend  family,  John  Reed,  Esq., 
who  was  High  Sheriff  of  Northumberland  in  1732.  At 
this  gentleman's  decease,  in  1754,  the  property  was 
inherited  by  his  nephew,  Christopher  Soulsby,  who 
assumed  the  name  of  Reed,  and  married  the  eldest 
daughter  of  Francis  Blake,  Esq.,  of  Twizell.  It  after- 
wards, in  consequence  of  the  failure  of  the  Northum- 
berland Bank,  with  which  the  Reeds  were  concerned, 
came  into  the  possession  of  Ralph  William  Grey,  Esq., 
sometime  member  for  Tynemoutb,  and  subsequently 
(1861)  passed  into  the  .hands  of  Hugh  Taylor,  Esq., 
who  represented  the  same  borough  for  several  years. 

The  Rev.  George  Rome  Hall,  F.S.A.,  contributed  to 
the  Transactions  of  the  Natural  History  Society  in  1877 
a  "Memoir  on  the  History  and  Architecture  of  Chip- 
chase  Castle,"  from  which  we  take  the  following  ex- 
tracts : — 

The  name  of  Chipchase  takes  us  back  to  ancient  times, 
when  a  village  of  Chipchase  already  existed  on  the  south 
side  of  the  present  park,  close  to  the  bridge  that  leads  to 
the  mill  and  the  ancient  ford  of  the  river.  Scarcely  a 
vestige  now  remains  of  it,  but  we  can  trace  the  founda- 
tions of  two  or  three  dwellings  on  each  side  of  the  hollow 
track-way.  The  ancient  village  of  Chipchase  was,  no 
doubt,  much  earlier  than  the  great  pele-tower,  and  would 
be  occupied  in  Saxon  times.  Its  name  is  derived  directly 
fron  the  Old -English  word  Cheap,  a  market;  Anglo- 
Saxon,  ceapian,  to  buy ;  cypan,  to  sell ;  and  cheap,  price 
or  sale,  which  occur  in  Cheapside  and  East-Cheap,  the 
old  market-places  of  London,  and  in  the  numerous 
fihippings  scattered  throughout  England,  denoting 
ancient  market-places  and  early  seats  of  commercial 

The  second  part  of  the  name  of  Chipchase  comes  from 
the  Norman-French  chasse ;  French  chasser,  to  hunt, 
signifying  a  place  of  hunting,  ground  abounding  in  game, 
such  as  the  various  species  of  deer,  the  wild  boar,  bears, 
wolves,  and  smaller  objects  of  the  chase.  The  "forest," 
like  William  the  Conqueror's  New  Forest  in  Hampshire, 
seems  to  have  been  the  most  extensive  kind  of  huntintr 
ground;  next  to  this  came  the  "chase,"  like  Hatfield 
Chase,  in  Yorkshire  ;  then  the  "hunt,"  like  Cheshunt,  in 
Hertfordshire  ;  and  last,  and  smallest  of  all,  the  enclosed 
"  park." 

Thus  the  meaning  of  Chipchase  is  the  "market  "  within 
the  "chase  "  or  hunting-ground  of  the  Lords  of  Prudhoe, 
the  great  family  of  the  Umfravilles,  who  held  it  as  a  de- 
tached manor  of  that  important  barony  when  the  light  of 
history  first  dawns  upon  Chipchase. 

It  might  be  thought  that  many  traditions,  super- 
natural and  otherwise,  connected  with  the  old  historic 
tower  at  Chipchase,  ought  to  cluster  around  the  grey 
time-worn  building,  which  bore  the  brunt  of  Border  foray 

the  treasure  she  took  so  much  pains  to  hide  in  her  life- 
time ;  yet  there  is  one  legendary  story  at  least  connected 
with  the  ruinous  pele-tower,  similar  to  that  of  the  Mother 
and  Child  of  Chillingham  Castle.  It  tells  of  an  unfor- 
tunate knight.  Sir  Reginald  Fitz-Urse,  who,  being  for- 
gotten by  the  lord  of  the  castle  and  his  retainers, 
perhaps  intentionally,  as  was  not  uncommon  in  those 
barbarous  times,  perished  by  starvation  in  one  of  the 
dark  prison-chambers  of  the  great  keep.  For  hundreds 
of  years,  it  is  said,  the  ill-fated  Sir  Reginald  has  "  re- 



I  March 
1    1889. 

1889.  t 





1    1889 

visited  the  glimpses  of  the  moon,"  and  the  scenes  of  his 
own  miserable  end ;  revenging  himself  first  on  his  cruel 
captors,  and  then  on  their  successors,  by  haunting  the 
old  pele,  where  the  startled  passer-by  may  yet  sometimes 
hear  the  clang  of  armour  mingled  with  groanings  of  a 
dying  man,  issuing  from  its  dreary  recesses  at  the  weird 
midnight  hour. 

As  with  most  of  the  ancient  Border  towers  and  abbeys, 
there  is  here  a  popular  tradition  of  an  underground  passage, 
or  secret  mode  of  egress  from  the  castle,  which,  in  this 
case,  seems  to  be  founded  on  fact.  A  low  subterranean 
way  has  been  traced  from  the  level  of  the  present  cellar 
for  a  considerable  distance  southward,  beneath  the  car- 
riage drive  at  the  front,  and  leading  towards  the  site  of 
the  ancient  village  of  Chipchase.  This  is  the  traditional 
direction  which  recent  research  has  quite  lately  verified. 
In  case  of  siege  (though  the  pele-tower  is  said  to  have 
been  twice  besieged,  but  never  taken),  such  a  mode  of 
egress  would  be  most  desirable,  and  would  certainly  be  re- 
sorted to  on  extreme  occasions. 

It  may  be  added  that  Edward  I.  (the  greatest  of  the 
Plantaeenets,  perhaps  of  all  our  kings),  on  one  of  his 
journeys  into  Scotland,  is  traditionally  said  to  have 
remained  at  Chipchase  Castle  for  one  or  two  nights.  If 
he  did  so,  it  must  have  been  on  his  way  northwards  into 
Scotland,  on  the  same  occasion  as  that  on  which  he  heard 
mass  at  the  head  of  the  vale  of  North  Tyne,  above 
Keilder,  in  the  "Bell  Chapel,"  which  is  now  entirely 

The  scene  of  the  popular  story  of  the  "Long  Pack" 
is,  by  tradition,  laid  at  Chipchase,  although  Lee  Hall, 
near  Bellingham,  is  also  supposed  to  have  been  the  place 
where  the  tragical  incident  happened  which  James 
Hogg,  the  famous  Ettrick  Shepherd,  took  for  the  founda- 
tion of  his  tale. 


'3Ttot>'t  ftgttt  attlf 

proton    $.p., 


Fanciful  as  was  the  genius  of  Warburton,  it  delighted 
too  much  in  its  eccentric  motions,  and  in  its  own  solitary 
greatness,  amid  abstract  and  recondite  topics,  to  have 
strongly  attracted  the  public  attention,  had  not  a  party 
been  formed  around  him,  at  the  head  of  which  stood  the 
active  and  subtle  Hurd  ;  and  amid  the  gradations  of  the 
votive  brotherhood,  the  profound  Balguy,  the  spirited 
Brown,  ^till  we  descend,— "To  his  tame  jackal,  parson 
Towne. "  Isaac  Disraeli :  "Quarrels  of  Authors. " 

JHE  "spirited  Brown"  of  the  foregoing  ex- 
tract was  one  of  the  most  celebrated,  and  at 
the  same  time  one  of  the  most  unfortunate, 
of  the  many  divines  who  have  held  the 
chief  cure  of  souls  in  Newcastle.  He  was  born,  in  1715, 
at  Bothbury,  where  his  father  (afterwards  Vicar  of 
Wigton)  was  curate.  He  was  educated  at  Wigton 
public  school,  and  in  May,  1732,  was  sent  to  St.  John's 
College,  Cambridge.  After  taking  his  bachelor's  degree, 
in  1735,  he  was  ordained  by  the  Bishop  of  Carlisle,  and 
four  years  later,  obtaining  his  degree  of  M.A.,  was 
admitted  into  priest's  orders,  and  received  a  minor 
canonry  and  lectureship  in  Carlisle  Cathedral.  Being 
reproved  for  omitting  to  read  the  Athanasian  Creed,  he 

threw  up  his  preferment,  and  remained  in  comparative 
obscurity  till  the  rebellion  of  1745.  During  the  siege  of 
Carlisle,  he  acted  as  a  volunteer,  and  when,  a  few  months 
later,  some  of  the  rebels  were  tried  there,  he  preached 
two  notable  sermons  "On  the  Mutual  Connection  between 
Religious  Truth  and  Civil  Freedom,  and  between 
Superstition,  Tyranny,  Irreligion,  and  Licentiousness." 
These  discourses  brought  him  under  the  notice  of  Dr. 
Osbaldiston,  who  induced  the  Dean  and  Chapter  to  give 
him  the  living  of  Moreland,  in  the  adjoining  county,  and 
in  1747,  when  Dr.  Osbaldiston  was  raised  to  the  see  of 
Carlisle,  he  made  him  one  of  his  chaplains. 

Mr.  Brown  had  ventured  into  print  in  1743  with  a  poem 
on  "  Honour,"  which  did  not  attract  much  notice ;  but  his 
next  effort,  an  "Essay  on  Satire,  occasioned  by  the  death 
of  Mr.  Pope,"  drew  the  world  of  letters  around  him.  The 
essay  "breathed  the  very  soul  of  Pope,"  and  gave  so  much 

delight  to  Warburton,  the  literary  colossus  of  his  day, 
that  he  prefixed  it  to  the  second  volume  of  his  edition  of 
Pope's  Works.  "Liberty,  a  Poem,"  followed,  and  added 
to  his  reputation.  Warburton,  writing  to  Hurd  (30th 
January,  1749-50),  says  :— 

Mr.  Brown  has  fine  parts ;  he  has  a  genius  for  poetry, 
and  has  acquired  a  force  of  versification  very  uncommon. 
I  recommended  to  him  a  thing  I  once  thought  of  myself 
— it  had  been  recommended  to  me  by  Mr.  Pope — an 
examination  of  all  Lord  Shaf  tesbury  says  against  religion. 
Mr.  Brown  now  is  busy  upon  this  work. 

Warburton's  suggestion  bore  fruit  in  "Essays  on  the 
'Characteristics'  of  the  Earl  of  Shaf  tesbury  "—a  clear 
and  vivacious  book,  in  which  the  author  maintained  the 
impropriety  of  applying  ridicule  to  the  investigation  of 
religious  truth,  asserted  the  religious  principle  to  be  the 
only  uniform  and  permanent  motive  to  virtue,  and 
defended  the  credibility  of  Gospel  history  and  Scripture 





miracles.  The  volume  was  issued  by  Bowyer  in  1751,  and 
the  following  year  his  faithful  friend  Bishop  Osbaldiston 
presented  him  to  the  vicarage  of  Lazonby.  There  he 
began  to  woo  the  muse  afresh,  and  produced  "  Barbarossa, 
a  Tragedy,"  which  was  acted  in  London  on  the  17th 
December,  1754.  Garrick  wrote  both  prologue  and 
epilogue,  and  spoke  the  prologue  himself  in  the  character 
of  a  Cumberland  chaw-bacon,  supposed  to  be  the  author's 
servant.  In  this  play  occur  the  oft-quoted  lines  : — 

Now  let  us  thank  the  Eternal  Power ;  convinced 
Thai  Heaven  but  tries  our  virtue  by  affliction, — 
That  oft  the  cloud  which  wraps  the  preflent  hour 
Serves  but  to  brighten  all  our  future  days. 

And  in  the  prologue  is  the  equally  well  known  couplet, 
put  into  the  mouth  of  the  Cumberland  lad  seeking  his 
master : — 

He  must  be  there  among  you — look  about ; 
A  weezen,  pale-faced  man ;  do  find  him  out ! 

The  play  was  a  success,  and  with  the  plaudits  of  the 
theatre  ringing  in  his  ears  the  author  took  his  doctor's 
degree,  and  wrote  another  tragedy — "Athelstan" — 
which,  however,  waa  not  so  successful.  In  1757  appeared 
his  most  famous  work—"  An  Estimate  of  the  Manners 
and  Principles  of  the  Times. "  It  was  a  strong  philippic 
against  national  vices,  and  created  a  great  clamour. 
Cowper,  in  the  "Table  Talk,"says  that  it  "rose  like  a 
paper  kite  and  charmed  the  town."  Seven  editions  in 
little  more  than  a  year  marked  the  height  of  public 
excitement,  and  testified  to  the  power  and  genius  of  the 
writer.  A  second  volume  followed,  but  failed  to  attract 
the  same  amount  of  attention,  and  "An  Explanatory 
Defence  of  the  Estimate,"  &c.,  which  the  author  put 
forth  later,  exhausted  public  interest  in  the  subject. 

Just  before  the  publication  of  the  "  Estimate,"  through 
the  influence  of  Warburton,  Lord  Royston  conferred 
upon  Dr.  Brown  the  living  of  Great  Horkesley,  near 
Colchester.  Resigning  his  Cumberland  preferments,  he 
took  up  his  residence  at  Horkesley,  and  republished 
Walker's  "Narrative  of  the  Siege  of  Londonderry,  a 
Useful  Lesson  to  the  Present  Times."  There,  also,  he 
wrote  a  "Dialogue  of  the  Dead,  between  Pericles  and 
Aristides,  being  a  sequel  to  a  Dialogue  of  Lord  Lyttel- 
ton's  between  Pericles  and  Cosmo,"  "The  Curse  of  Saul 
— a  Sacred  Ode,"  set  to  music,  and  performed  as  an 
oratorio,  and  "  A  Dissertation  on  the  Rise,  Union,  and 
Power,  the  Progressions,  Separations,  and  Corruptions  of 
Poetry  and  Music."  His  ministry  at  Horkesley  was  not 
a  long  one.  He  managed  to  offend  his  patron,  and  to 
create  a  coolness  with  Warburton,  who,  in  the  meantime, 
had  been  consecrated  Bishop  of  Gloucester.  While 
matters  were  in  a  state  of  tension,  on  the  first  of  June, 
1760,  tKe  Rev.  Thos.  Turnor,  vicar  of  Newcastle,  died, 
and  his  good  friend  the  Bishop  of  Carlisle  placed  the 
living  at  Dr.  Brown's  disposal.  Soured  by  his  troubles 
at  Horkesley,  disappointed  at  receiving  no  higher  reward 
from  the  Whig  party,  whose  faithful  servant  he  had 
been,  he  hesitated  about  accepting  the  offer.  It  was  not 

until  after  six  months  of  vacillation  that  he  finally  made 
up  his  mind,  and  it  was  not  until  the  7th  of  January, 
1761,  that  he  was  formally  inducted  at  St.  Nicholas'  by 
the  Rev.  Mr.  Dockwray,  and  entered  into  residence  as 
vicar  of  the  chief  town  in  his  native  county. 

Local  history  has  little  to  tell  about  Dr.  Brown's  career 
in  Newcastle.  He  was  absorbed  in  literary  pursuits,  and 
took  but  faint  interest  in  public  life  and  work.  He  had 
hoped  for  better  things,  and  was,  therefore,  a  discon- 
tented, reserved,  and,  at  times,  a  melancholy  man.  His 
only  diversion  was  music,  and  he  certainly  tried  to  assist 
his  friend  Charles  Avison — whose  essay  on  "  Musical 
Expression  "  he  had  probably  prepared  for  the  press — 
in  raising  the  standard  of  musical  taste  in  the  town. 
Adding  a  room  to  the  old  vicarage,  he  and  Avison  started 
a  series  of  Sunday  evening  concerts  there,  which  Dr. 
Rotherham,  Ralph  Eeilby,  Mrs.  Ord  of  Fenham,  and 
other  amateurs  helped  to  make  popular  and  useful. 

Baillie,  the  Nonconformist  historian  of  Newcastle, 
states  that  Dr.  Brown  was  "  passionately  fond  of  music," 
and  a  "very  considerable  master  in  that  enchanting 
science."  But  to  all  his  acquirements  were  joined 
"uncommon  pride  and  weakness."  "He  was  a  High 
Churchman,  and,  of  consequence,  intolerant  to  Dis- 
senters, and  rigorous  in  the  exaction  of  his  dues. 
Though  aspiring  to  a  mitre,  yet  could  he  not  avoid 
treating  his  inferiors  with  contempt,  and  his  superiors 
with  insolence."  William  Hilton,  a  local  poet  ("Works," 
vol.  i.,  218),  defending  the  doctor  from  some  public 
lampoon,  declared,  on  the  other  hand,  that — 

Approv'd,  his  early  numbers  rose, 
All  own  his  pure,  his  nervous  prose ; 
All  own  the  heighth  his  sense  can  reach  ; 
All  own  how  justly  he  can  preach. 
Even  some  who  prize  not  truth  or  song 
Have  felt  the  magic  of  his  tongue. 

Dr.  Brown  published  in  Newcastle  the  following 
works  : — "  The  History  of  the  Rise  and  Progress  of 
Poetry  through  its  Several  Species,"  being  the  portion 
relating  to  poetry  in  the  "Dissertation"  previously 
quoted  (J.  White  and  T.  Saint,  1764);  "Thoughts  on 
Civil  Liberty,  on  Licentiousness,  and  Faction "  (White 
and  Saint,  1765);  a  sermon  "On  the  Natural  Duty  of 
a  Personal  Service  in  Defence  of  Ourselves  and  Country," 
preached  at  St.  Nicholas'  on  the  occasion  of  a  riot  at 
Hexham  (I.  Thompson,  1761),  and  another  "  On  Female 
Character  and  Education,"  preached  before  the  guardians 
of  the  Asylum  for  deserted  female  Orphans,  May  16, 
1765;  "Twelve  Sermons  on  Various  Subjects"  (White 
and  Saint,  1764);  and  a  "Letter  to  Dr.  Lowth"  in  reply 
to  an  attack  which  Lowth  had  made  upon  him  as  a 
creature  and  sycophantic  admirer  of  Warburton.  In 
these  latter  works  he  announced  the  intended  publication 
of  "Principles  of  Christian  Legislation,  in  Eight  Books, 
being  an  Analysis  of  the  Various  Religions,  Manners,  and 
Politics  of  Mankind,  &c.,  the  Obstructions  thence  arising 
to  the  General  Progress  and  Proper  Effects  of  Christi- 



f  March 
I   1889. 

anity,  and  the  Most  Practicable  Remedies  to  these 
Obstructions  " ;  but  this  design,  though  begun,  was  never 

The  closing  scene  of  his  life  ill  corresponded  with  its 
brilliant  beginning.  Dr.  Dumaresque,  a  former  chaplain 
to  the  English  factory  at  St.  Petersburg,  had  been  asked 
by  the  Empress  of  Russia  to  assist  in  preparing  regula- 
tions for  some  schools  she  was  about  to  establish,  and  he, 
hearing  through  a  friend  in  England  that  Dr.  Brown  was 
a  proper  person  to  consult,  wrote  to  him  on  the  subjectt 
and  the  correspondence  being  communicated  to  the  Prime 
Minister  at  St.  Petersburg,  led  to  an  invitation  for  Dr. 
Brown  to  join  the  ex-chaplain  on  the  banks  of  the  Neva_ 
The  doctor  accepted,  and  receiving  an  answer  from  the 
Minister  signifying  that  the  Empress  was  greatly  pleased 
with  his  decision,  and  had  sent  £1,000  to  defray  the  ex- 
penses of  his  journey,  he  prepared  for  his  departure^ 
He  left  Newcastle  in  high  spirits,  made  all  his  arrange- 
ments in  London,  and  was  on  the  eve  of  embarkation, 
when  he  fell  ill  with  a  sharp  attack  of  rheumatic  gout — a 
disorder  to  which  he  had  been  frequently  subject. 
Whether  it  was  this  illness,  as  some  have  asserted,  or 
whether  it  was  a  polite  intimation  that  his  services 
were  not  required,  that  prevented  the  fulfilment  of 
his  intentions,  may  never  be  accurately  known.  In 
either  case  his  disappointment  was  intense.  He 
fell  into  one  of  those  melancholy  moods  which  had 
so  often  afflicted  him,  and  could  not  rally. 
Bequeathing  the  property  in  his  books  and  MSS. 
to  the  Rev.  William  Hall,  M.A.,  of  Newcastle,  and 
arming  his  right  hand  with  a  razor,  at  his  lodgings  in  Pall 
Mall,  September  23,  1766,  he  terminated  his  existence. 

Our  portrait  of  Dr.  Brown  is  copied,  by  permission  of 
Canon  Lloyd,  from  an  oil  painting  in  St.  Nicholas' 
vestry,  placed  there  probably  by  the  doctor's  executors 
—the  Rev.  Nathaniel  Clayton  and  Mr.  George  Ord. 

Lancelot  proton, 


Him  too,  the  living  leader  of  thy  pow'rs. 
Great  Nature  !     Him  the  Muse  shall  hail  in  notes 
Which  antedate  the  praise  true  Genius  claims 
From  just  posterity.     Bards  yet  unborn 
Shall  pay  to  BROWN  that  tribute,  fitliest  paid 
In  strains  the  beauty  his  own  scenes  inspire. 

Mason's   "English  Garden." 

Lancelot  Brown,  the  most  eminent  landscape  gardener 
of  his  day,  who,  from  his  constant  use  of  the  phrase  "  this 
spot  has  great  capabilities,"  became  known  as  "Capa- 
bility Brown,"  was  a  native  of  Northumberland.  He 
was  descended  from  the  Browns  of  Ravenscleugh,  near 
EUdon,  and  was  born  at  Kirkharle,  the  ancestral  home 
of  the  Loraine  family,  where  he  was  baptised  on  the  30th 
of  August,  1716.  At  Cambo  School  he  received  the 
rudiments  of  his  education,  and  while  yet  a  boy,  develop- 
ing a  taste  for  gardening,  he  was  taken  into  the  employ- 
ment of  Sir  William  Loraine,  who,  at  the  time,  was 

making  extensive  improvements  in  the  surroundings  of 
his  mansion.  From  Kirkharle  he  went  to  Benwell,  as 
gardener  to  Mr.  Robert  Shafto,  and  in  1739,  or  soon 
after,  he  entered  the  service  of  Lord  Cobham,  as  one  of 
the  gardeners  at  his  princely  residence  of  Stowe,  near 
Buckingham.  There  he  had  the  opportunity  of  studying 
the  improvements  that,  just  before,  had  been  effected  by 
William  Kent,  painter,  sculptor,  and  architect,  and  there 
it  was  that  he  married,  and  commenced  his  career  as  an 
artist  gardener,  architectural  designer,  and  improver  of 
pleasure  grounds. 

Upon  the  death  of  Lord  Cobham,  in  1749,  Mr  Brown 
settled  at  Hammersmith,  and  became  the  oracle  of  taste 

in  all  matters  relating  to  his  profession.  The  owners  of 
ancestral  piles,  and  the  possessors  of  wide-spreading 
estates,  sought  his  advice  and  carried  out  his  plans  o 
improvement.  Under  his  supervision  some  of  the  great 
houses  of  the  kingdom  were  renovated,  or  rebuilt,  with 
tasteful  regard  to  comfort  and  convenience,  and  their 
environments  of  wood  and  water,  garden  and  pasture, 
were  thoroughly  transformed.  Straight  walks  and  sullen 
ditches  gave  place  to  winding  ways  and  glittering 
cascades ;  rectangular  flower  plots  and  clipped  arcades 
were  replaced  by  stately  terraces  and  undulating 
shrubberies ;  everywhere  that  which  had  been  common- 
place and  formal  was  supplanted  by  something  novel, 
something  unexpected.  His  reputation  brought  him 
under  the  notice  of  George  II.,  who,  although  no 
special  friend  of  art  in  any  shape— for  he  liked  neither 
"boetry"nor  "bainting" — had  sufficient  taste  to  recog- 
nise the  improvements  which  "  Capability  Brown  "  was 
effecting,  and  made  him  his  head  gardener,  with  a  resi- 

March  I 



dence  at  Hampton  Court.  This  post,  being  one  of  honour 
rather  than  of  servitude,  did  not  require  the  holder  to 
curtail  his  professional  work,  and  he  continued  to  plan, 
deyise,  and  superintend  extensive  schemes  of  building  and 
planting  as  before.  For  thirty  years  he  reigned  supreme 
as  the  arbiter  of  fashion  in  landscape  gardening,  and, 
adding  to  genius  graceful  manners  and  good  sense,  was 
honoured  and  trusted,  admitted  to  confidence  and 
friendship  by  men  of  distinction  in  the  highest  ranks  of 

Like  every  other  innovator,  Mr.  Brown  had  to  face 
criticism  and  to  suffer  reproach.  Old-fashioned  people 
saw  with  regret  the  trim  Dutch  gardening  to  which  they 
had  been  accustomed  ruthlessly  replaced  by  clumps  and 
belts  and  mazy  walks,  and  they  shook  their  venerable 
heads  at  the  reckless  expense  which  seemed  to  be 
involved  in  the  change.  Cowper  expressed  the  feelings 
of  many  others  when,  in  the  third  book  of  the  "Task," 
he  thus  satirised  the  all-powerful  gardener  :— 

Improvement  too,  the  idol  of  the  age, 
Is  fed  with  many  a  victim.     Lo  !  he  comes — 
The  omnipotent  magician,  Brown,  appears. 
Down  falls  the  venerable  pile,  the  abode 
Of  our  forefathers,  a  grave  whiskerd  race, 
But  tasteless.     Springs  a  palace  in  its  stead. 

He  speaks.     The  lake  in  front  becomes  a  lawn, 
Woods  vanish,  hills  subside,  and  valleys  rise, 
And  streams,  as  if  created  for  his  use. 
Pursue  the  track  of  his  directing  wand, 
Sinuous  or  straight,  now  rapid  and  now  slow, 
Now  murmuring  soft,  now  roaring  in  cascades, 
E'en  as  he  bids.     Th'  enraptured  owner  smiles. 
Tis  finish'd  !  and  yet,  finish'd  as  it  seems. 
Still  wants  a  grace,  the  loveliest  it  could  show, 
A  mine  to  satisfy  th'  enormous  cost. 

Against  Cowper's  detraction  may  be  set  an  anecdote 
related  to  the  Rev.  John  Hodgson  by  one  of  Mr.  Brown's 
disciples : — 

A  young  nobleman  sent  for  him  to  give  him  a  plan  for 
improving  the  scenery  about  his  house.  After  noticing 
that  his  employer  had  a  numerous  family,  for  whom  he 
showed  great  affection,  and  walking  with  him  over  his 
grounds,  he  observed,  "  My  lord,  your  place  has  high 
capabilities,  but  your  lordship  must  pardon  me  for  saying 
that  I  cannot  promise  to  effect  as  much  as  is  wished, 
without  requiring  a  sum  which  I  am  sure,  from  the 
great  parental  affection  your  children  have  bestowed 
upon  them,  your  lordship  on  their  account  will  not  be 
inclined  to  expend."  The  hint  was  received  with  kind- 
ness and  gratitude,  and  Mr.  Brown  went  away  unem- 

Lord  Orford,  in  the  supplement  to  "  Pilkington's 
Dictionary,"  describes  Mr.  Brown  as  the  "  restorer  of 
the  science  of  architecture,"  the  "father  of  modern 
gardening,"  and  "the  inventor  of  an  art  that  realises 
painting  and  improves  Nature."  Repton  states  that 
Brown's  fame  as  an  architect  was  eclipsed  by  his  cele- 
brity as  a  landscape  gardener,  and  that  "  if  he  was 
superior  to  all  in  what  related  to  his  own  peculiar 
profession,  he  was  inferior  to  none  in  what  related  to 
the  comfort,  convenience,  taste,  and  propriety  of  design 
in  the  several  mansions  and  other  buildings  which  he 
planned."  Nearer  home,  Hodgson,  describing  Kirk- 

harle  in  his  "  History  of  Northumberland,"  adds  : — 
"  The  situation  is  low,  and  shaded  by  a  hill  to  the 
south  ;  but  the  magic  hand  of  Brown  contrived  to 
throw  the  sweetest  charms  into  the  fields  of  the  place 
of  his  nativity,  and  to  convert  the  landscape  around 
the  mansion  of  their  lord  into  a  woody  theatre  of 
stateliest  view." 

Mr.  Brown  was  appointed  High  Sheriff  for  the 
counties  of  Huntingdon  and  Cambridge  in  1770,  and 
filled  the  office  with  dignity  and  credit.  His  friend- 
ship with  the  noblemen  who  had  employed  him  in 
renovating  their  family  houses  and  country  seats  con- 
tinued till  his  death.  One  evening  in  1783,  as  he  was 
returning  from  an  evening  party  at  Lord  Coventry's, 
he  fell  in  the  street,  and  died.  Lord  Coventry  raised 
a  monument  to  his  memory  at  Croome,  and  Mason,  the 
poet,  wrote  his  epitaph,  with  this  ending  : — 

But  know  that  more  than  Genius  slumbers  here, 

Virtues  were  his  which  Art's  best  pow'rs  transcend  ; 

Come,  ye  superior  train,  who  these  revere, 

And  weep  the  Christian,  Husband,  Father,  Friend. 



Michael  Bryan,  an  eminent  dealer  in  pictures,  and  the 
compiler  of  a  well-known  dictionary  of  painters  and 
engravers,  was  born  in  Newcastle  on  the  9th  April, 
1757,  and  received  his  education  at  the  Royal  Free 
Grammar  School,  under  its  great  head-master,  the  Rev. 
Hugh  Moises.  Arrived  at  man's  estate,  he  went  to 
London,  and  devoted  himself  to  the  study  of  the  fine 
arts.  In  pursuit  of  this  object  he  accompanied  one  of 
his  brothers  to  Flanders,  where  he  met  the  Hon.  Juliana 
Talbot,  one  of  the  numerous  siiters  of  Charles,  sixteenth 
Earl  of  Shrewsbury,  to  whom,  on  the  7th  June,  1784,  he 
was  united  in  marriage. 

Mr.  Byran  resided  in  Flanders  till  1790,  and  spent 
most  of  his  time  in  visiting  and  studying  the  masterpieces 
of  art  which  were  somewhat  profusely  scattered  among 
the  chief  towns  of  that  province.  Returning  to  England, 
he  settled  in  London,  paying  occasional  visits  to  his 
native  town,  it  would  appear,  for  Thomas  Bewick,  in  bis 
autobiography,  mentions  that,  when  he  was  preparing 
his  "History  of  British  Birds,"  Mr.  Bryan  lent  him  a 
book  of  Button's  to  read.  But  his  fervid  admiration  of 
art  soon  sent  him  back  to  the  Continent.  Being  in 
Holland  when  an  order  came  from  the  French  Govern- 
ment to  stop  all  the  English  residents,  he  was  detained  at 
Rotterdam.  While  there,  he  made  the  acquaintance  of 
M.  L'Abord,  who,  a  little  later,  negotiated  through  his 
influence  a  sale  of  the  Italian  portion  of  what  was  known 
as  the  Orleans  collection  of  pictures  to  the  Duke  of 
Bridgewater,  Lord  Gower,  and  the  Earl  of  Carlisle,  for 
£43,500.  Eneas  Mackenzie,  in  his  "History  of  New- 
castle, "  states  that  "his  judgment  of  pictures  was  of  the 





first  order,  bis  information  extensive,  and  his  enthusiasm 
for  the  sublime  and  beautiful  in  works  of  art  of  boundless 
fervour.  His  opinion  was  consequently  looked  up  to  as 
decisive  of  the  merit  or  demerit  of  paintings,  whether 
derived  from  the  ancient  masters  or  from  the  easels  of 
modern  genius." 

Through  the  influence  of  the  Duke  of  Bridgewater 
Mr.  Bryan  was  sent  to  Paris  in  1801,  by  royal  authority, 
to  buy  such  pictures  from  the  cabinet  of  a  celebrated 
collector,  M.  Robit,  as  he  should  consider  worthy  to  be 
brought  into  England.  Amongst  his  purchases  on  this 


occasion  were  two  well-known  pictures  by  Murillo— 
"The Infant  Jesus  as  the  Good  Shepherd,"  and  "The 
Infant  St.  John  with  a  Lamb."  Three  years  later  he 
left  the  metropolis,  and,  as  was  supposed,  finally  settled 
down  with  a  brother  in  Yorkshire.  But  the  fine  art  fever 
again  claimed  him,  and  in  1812  he  went  back  to  London 
and  resumed  his  place  in  the  world  of  pictures.  This 
time  he  launched  out  into  literature,  and,  between  1813 
and  1816,  published  in  two  volumes  quarto,  the 
"  Biographical  and  Critical  Dictionary  of  Painters  and 
Engravers"  with  which  it  is  identified.  Soon  after  it 
was  completed  Mr.  Bryan  entered  into  a  fine  art  specula- 
tion which  proved  disastrous,  and  threw  a  cloud  over  the 
sunset  of  his  life.  He  died  at  his  house  in  Portman 
Place,  London,  from  an  attack  of  paralysis,  on  the  28th  of 
March,  1821. 


At  the  beginning  of  the  century,  few  places  were 
better  supplied  than  Newcastle  with  private  schools  for 
the  education  of  the  middle  and  lower  sections  of  the 
community.  At  the  Barras  Bridge  the  Rev.  William 
Turner,  and  in  Pilgrim  Street  the  Rev.  Edward  Prowitt, 
had  flourishing  boarding-schools  for  boys  ;  in  Saville  Row, 
in  Westgate  Street,  and  in  Pilgrim  Street,  again,  were 
half  a  dozen  for  girls ;  while  of  day  schools  for  boys 
(taught  by  men  with  the  familiar  names  of  Tinwell, 
Somerville,  Askew,  Murray,  &c.),  there  were  a  score,  and 
for  girls  about  half  that  number.  Thirty-six  private 
academies  in  Newcastle,  besides  the  Royal  Free  Gram- 
mar School  and  the  charity  schools  of  the  various 
parishes,  at  a  time  when  the  population  of  the  town  was 
little  over  28,000,  testify  to  the  earnestness  of  our  fore- 
fathers in  the  matter  of  education. 

Adding  to  the  number  of  teachers,  and  increasing  the 
efficiency  of  the  instruction  given,  there  came  to  New- 
castle from  Alnwick  two  young  men — Edward  and  John, 
sons  of  Edward  Bruce,  of  that  town,  mason.  As  youths, 
they  had  taught  a  school  at  the  foot  of  Pottergate,  not 
far  from  the  paternal  home,  where  one  of  their  pupils 
was  a  boy  who  afterwards  became  a  famous  Methodist 
Reformer  and  antiquary — the  Rev.  James  Everett. 
But  Newcastle  offered  a  wider  field  for  enterprise,  and 
in  the  year  1793,  when  Edward  was  nineteen  and  John 
eighteen  years  of  age,  they  migrated  from  the  banks  of 
the  Aln  to  the  shores  of  the  Tyne.  So  far  as  can  be 
learned,  they  engaged  themselves  chiefly  in  private 
tuition — giving  lessons  at  the  great  houses  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood. Gradually  they  made  friends  among  the  local 
gentry,  and  were  employed  by  such  well  known  families 
as  those  of  Bigge,  Ibbetson,  Collingwood,  Rowe,  and 
Ingham.  When  a  sufficient  connection  had  been  formed, 
they  opened  a  school  at  West  House,  Byker. 

Under  the  Act  of  Uniformity  every  schoolmaster  who 
was  not  a  member  of  the  Church  of  England  was  re- 
quired to  take  the  oath  of  allegiance.  Edward,  being  the 
elder  brother,  made  the  usual  declarations,  and  received 
the  customary  permit ;  John  devoted  himself  more 
particularly  to  the  out-door  connection,  and  taught  in 
schools  and  families.  In  one  of  the  schools  which  the 
latter  attended — that  of  Mrs.  Wilson,  in  Saville  Place 
(now  the  home  of  the  Young  Women's  Christian  Associa- 
tion)—he  found  a  wife.  The  object  of  his  affections  was 
Mary,  daughter  of  Mr.  John  Jack,  of  Golden  Square, 
London,  to  whom  he  was  united  at  St.  Andrew's  Church, 
on  the  14th  of  June,  1804.  The  marriage  proved  to  be  a 
happy  one  in  every  respect.  Amiable  and  clever,  Mrs. 
Bruce  was  admirably  fitted  to  be  a  helpmate  to  an 
earnest  and  accomplished  man.  The  pair  settled  down  in 
Newcastle  with  bright  prospects,  for  John  Brace's  in- 
dustry and  enterprise  had  already  procured  for  him  the 



respect  and  approval  of  prominent  people  in  the  town, 
who  were  able  and  willing  to  render  him  good  service. 
He  had  become  a  member  of  the  Newcastle  Loyal 
Associated  Volunteer  Infantry,  and  was  learning  to  serve 
his  country  at  an  important  crisis ;  he  was  a  frequent  con- 
tributor to  the  Gentlemen's  and  Ladies'  Diaries,  and  was 
gaining  reputation  as  a  skilled  mathematician  at  a  time 
when  martial  ardour  gave  additional  interest  and  value  to 
mathematical  studies. 

When  John  Bruce  had  been  married  a  couple  of 
years,  his  brother  Edward  died,  and  he  proceeded  to 
carry  out  an  idea  which  he  had  long  cherished.  He 
determined  to  expand  his  school  into  an  establishment 
which  should  provide  for  sons  of  the  local  gentry  and 
commercial  community  of  Tyneside  an  education  ap- 
proaching to  that  which  was  given  at  Winchester  and 
Eton,  Westminster  and  Harrow.  Mrs.  Bruce  entered 
heartily  into  the  project,  and  on  the  18th  of  June,  1806, 
a  circular  was  issued  announcing  the  commencement  of 
a  new  Academy  in  Newcastle,  in  "  that  large  and  airy 
house  in  Percy  Street,  at  present  occupied  by  Mr. 
Fish  wick." 

Mr.  Bruce,  although,  so  to  speak,  a  born  school- 
master, united  to  skill  in  teaching  an  uncommon  capa- 
bility for  business.  While,  therefore,  happy  tact  and 
gentle  firmness  secured  the  goodwill  of  the  pupils,  dili- 
gence and  punctuality  won  the  confidence  of  parents. 
In  no  great  while  Brace's  School  became  one  of  the 
best  known,  because  one  of  the  most  successful,  educa- 
tional institutions  in  the  town.  There  "  county  people, " 
wealthy  merchants,  and  successful  tradesmen  placed 
their  sons,  and  there  the  lads  received  an  education 
which  fitted  them  for  college,  the  Quayside,  or  the 

counter.  Among  them,  at  Midsummer,  1815,  George 
Stephenson,  engineman  at  Killingworth  Colliery,  placed 
his  son  Robert,  then  about  twelve  years  old,  and  in 
after  life  the  great  engineer  was  accustomed  to  say 
that  to  Mr.  Bruce's  tuition  and  methods  of  modelling 
the  mind  he  owed  much  of  his  success,  for  from  him 
he  derived  his  taste  for  mathematical  pursuits,  and  the 
faculty  of  applying  it  to  practical  purposes. 

Not  only  was  Mr.  Bruce  a  skilful  teacher  and  sound 
man  of  business.  He  had  another  quality  which  helped 
his  fortunes.  He  was  an  educational  enthusiast.  About 
the  time  that  Percy  Street  Academy  began  to  prosper, 
public  interest  in  the  matter  of  popular  education  was 
riding  upon  the  crest  of  a  long  and  wide-rolling  wave, 
which  (if  the  simile  will  bear  it)  Lancaster  and  Bell  may 
be  said  to  have  set  in  motion.  Every  movement  which 
tended  to  reduce  intc  practical  shape  the  crusade  against 
ignorance  had  his  earnest  support.  When,  as  a  mark  of 
gratitude  and  loyalty,  it  was  determined  to  commemorate 
the  fiftieth  year  of  the  reign  of  George  III.  in  Newcastle 
by  providing  for  the  unsectarian  instruction  of  "  the 
lower  orders  of  youth, "  he  acted  as  co-secretary  with  the 
Rev.  William  Turner  in  the  arrangements  out  of  which 
the  Royal  Jubilee  School  reared  its  massive  pediment 
above  the  New  Road.  He  officiated  in  the  same  capacity 
to  the  committee  of  management  of  the  school,  sub- 
scribed to  its  funds,  and  in  the  second  year  of  its  existence 
made  the  handsome  proposal  to  admit  into  his  academy 
for  twelve  months  the  boy  who  most  distinguished 
himself  in  the  school  each  year— showing  thereby  that 
his  zeal  in  the  cause  of  intellectual  progress  was  of 
that  practical  sort  which  involves  sacrifice.  Another 
educational  institution  with  which  he  identified  himself 
was  the  Literary  and  Philosophical  Society,  then  in  the 
height  of  its  fame  and  usefulness.  He  read  few  papers, 
and  delivered  no  lectures,  but  he  was  an  active  member 
of  the  committee,  and  by  his  experience  of  teaching,  and 
his  knowledge  of  books,  helped  to  make  the  institution 
the  centre  of  intellectual  life  in  Newcastle.  In  con- 
junction with  his  brother,  he  wrote  an  admirable  school- 
book,  entitled  "An  Introduction  to  Geography  and 
Astronomy,  by  the  Use  of  Globes  and  Maps ;  to  which 
are  added,  the  Construction  of  Maps,  and  a  Table  of 
Latitudes  and  Longitudes."  Other  publications  of  his 
were  an  "Historical  and  Biographical  Atlas,"  and  a 
life  of  his  friend  Dr.  Charles  Button.  If  time  had  per- 
mitted, he  would  probably  have  made  other  contribu- 
tions to  local  literature ;  but,  devoted  to  his  profession, 
Mr.  Bruce  rarely  sought  change  or  relaxation  outside 
the  special  work  which  fell  within  its  scope.  He  became 
a  member  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  but  took  no 
prominent  part  in  its  management  or  in  its  deliberations. 
He  was  an  elder  of  Clavering  Place  Chapel,  but  abstained 
from  participation  in  the  religious  controversies  of  the 
time.  Although  an  ardent  advocate  of  the  abolition  of 
slavery  in  the  West  Indies,  he  kept  aloof  from  political 




conflict.      To  educate  youth  was  his  mission ;   to    that 
object  he  devoted  all  bis  time  azd  all  his  energies. 

Mr.  Bruce  died  on  the  31st  October,  1334,  at  the  age  of 
59,  and  was  buried  in  the  Nonconformist  cemetery  at  the 
top  of  Westgate  Hill,  which,  a  year  or  two  before,  he  had 
helped  to  establish,  and  of  which  he  was  a  trustee.  The 
Newcastle  Chronicle  of  the  8th  November  following  paid 
this  striking  tribute  to  his  genius,  his  piety,  and  his 

The  deceased  possessed  an  enlarged  and  cultivated 
understanding,  and  had  the  comparatively  rare  faculty 
of  communicating  every  variety  of  learning  to  every 
variety  of  intellect,  in  a  manner  which  at  once  secured 
the  respect  and  affection  of  the  pupil  ;  and  so  eminently 
successful  has  he  been  as  a  public  instructor,  that  a 
considerable  portion  of  those  persons  who  are  now  filling 
influential  and  respectable  situations  in  this  district  of 
the  country  have  been  his  pupils,  and  acknowledge  with 
gratitude  their  obligations  to  their  departed  preceptor. 
In  private  life  he  was  eminently  distinguished  for  the 
sincerity  and  constancy  of  his  friendships,  and  for  the 
exhibition  of  those  charities  which  adorn  and  sweeten  the 
family  circle ;  and  whether  we  contemplate  him  in  the 
character  of  a  husband,  a  lather,  or  a  master,  he  affords 
an  example  which  few  reach,  but  which  it  is  desirable 
all  should  follow. 

A  few  days  after  his  interment  j.  public  meeting  of 
friends  and  pupils  was  held  in  Newcastle,  at  which  it 
was  resolved  to  perpetuate  his  memory  by  the  erection 
of  a  monument,  which  should  "express  the  loss  society 
has  sustained  by  his  death,  and  stimulate  posterity  to 
follow  his  bright  example."  Upon  the  committee 
appointed  to  carry  the  resolution  into  effect  were  such 
well-known  men  as  the  Revs.  William  Hawks,  James 
Pringle,  Richard  Pengilly,  and  James  Everett,  Dr. 
Wightman,  Messrs.  Thomas  and  James  Annandale, 
Thomas  Cargill,  R.  R.  Dees,  John  Fenwick,  James 
Finlay,  William  Kell,  William  Nesharu, 
and  Joseph  Watson.  Their  delibera- 
tions ended  in  the  beautiful  monument 
which,  from  a  commanding  position  in 
Westgate  Hill  Cemetery,  overlooks  the 
eastern  end  of  Elswick  Road,  and  re- 
cords the  successful  labours  of  a  man 
who,  "possessing  an  unquenchable 
ardour  in  the  pursuit  of  knowledge, 
stored  his  capacious  mind  with  the 
learning  which  could  expand  the  in- 
tellect, invigorate  the  character,  and 
promote  the  happiness  of  mankind," 
enjoyed  "  the  satisfaction  of  seeing 
many  of  his  pupils  occupying  dignified 
stations  in  the  professional  and  com- 
mercial sections  of  the  community." 

The  fame  of  Percy  Street  Academy 
was  upheld  and  widely  expanded  for 
nearly  a  half  century  after  Mr.  Brace's 
death  by  his  illustrious  son  and  suc- 
cessor, now  the  venerable  Dr.  John 
Collingwood  Bruce,  historian  of  the 
Roman  Wall,  fellow  of  various  learned 

societies,  and  promoter  of  innumerable  schemes  of  phil- 
anthropy and  benevolence.  No  small  portion  of  the 
father's  genius  fell  also  upon  a  younger  son,  George 
Barclay  Bruce,  who,  having  learned  the  profession  of 
an  engineer  under  Robert  Stephenson,  and  filled  high 
positions  among  great  undertakings,  has  recently  re- 
ceived the  honour  of  knighthood. 

ISUa  <Tam. 

|i  1 1  ERE  are  three  mountain  lakxlets  of  this  name 
in  the  English  Lake  District.  One  is  at  the 
head  of  the  Watendlath  valley,  and  another  is 
in  Patterdale  ;  but  it  is  that  which  nestles  in  a  deep  rocky 
hollow  at  the  head  of  Little  Langdale  to  which  attention 
is  now  drawn.  It  is  the  Blea  Tarn  par  excellence — the 
others  being  in  no  way  comparable  to  it  either  for  scenery 
or  poetic  associations.  The  name  i«  derived  from  "blaae, " 
a  Danish  word  meaning  blue ;  or  the  Swedish  word  "bla," 
having  the  same  signification.  The  view  from  the  road 
looking  towards  great  Langdale,  is  most  impressive,  the 
Langdale  Pikes  forming  a  background  hardly  excelled  in 
any  other  part  of  England.  The  highest  peak  is  known 
as  Harrison  Stickle,  next  is  the  Pike  o'  Stickle,  whilst 
the  small  cone  to  the  left  of  the  mountain  group  is  the 
Gimmer  Crag,  having  an  almost  unbroken  descent  of 
over  2,000  feet.  The  immediate  surroundings  of  Blea 
Tarn  were  formerly  destitute  of  foliage.  This  would 
seem  to  have  been  the  condition  of  the  district  even  as 
late  as  the  time  of  Wordsworth.  Now,  however,  a  num- 
ber of  larches  are  flourishing  near  the  tarn,  and  on  the 


March  1 
1889.    f 


hill  side,  near  a  small  farmhouse,  are  tnany  trees,  though 
somewhat  stunted  in  growth.  The  house  is  certainly  in  a 
desolate  spot.  How  the  dwellers  therein  fare  in  the 
depth  of  winter  can  only  be  imagined.  Wordsworth 
looked  at  the  scene  with  a  poet's  eye,  and  selected  it  as 
the  home  of  the  Solitary  in  his  "  Excursion."  His  stand- 
point—not the  same  as  that  selected  by  the  photographer 
of  the  accompanying  view,  Mr.  Alfred  Pettitt,  of  Keswick 
— is  supposed  to  have  been  on  a  ridge  to  the  north  of  the 
road.  It  is  known  as  "Wordsworth's  seat,"  and  is 
pointed  out  to  visitors  by  the  farmer  who  occupies  the 
cottage.  The  view  hence  is  scarcely  less  striking  than 
that  depicted  in  our  engraving,  including,  as  it  does,  a 
fine  prospect  of  Bow  Fell,  and  its  frowning  neighbours — 
that  is  providing  the  weather  be  propitious,  which  is  not 
always  the  case  in  these  higher  latitudes,  as  the  traveller 
often  finds  to  his  cost.  The  tarn  itself  presents  no  feature 
of  interest.  It  is  a  still,  solemn  pool  of  oval  shape,  which 
has  been  described  as  "  reflecting  nothing  but  crags  and 
clouds  by  day,  and  crags  and  stars  by  night."  Here  is 
Wordsworth's  description  of  the  scene  in  the  "Excur- 
sion " : — 

Behold  ! 

Beneath  our  feet  a  little  lowly  vale, 
A  lowly  vale,  and  yet  uplighted  high 
Among  the  mountains  ;  even  as  if  the  spot 
Had  been,  from  earliest  time,  by  wish  of  theirs, 
So  placed,  to  be  shut  out  from  all  the  world. 
Urn-like  it  was  in  shape,  deep  as  an  urn  ; 
With  rocks  encompassed,  save  that  co  the  south 
Was  one  small  opening,  where  a  heath-clad  ridge 
Supplies  a  boundary  less  abrupt  and  close  ; 
A  quiet,  treeless  nook,  with  two  green  fields, 
A  liquid  pool  that  glittered  in  the  sun. 
And  one  bare  Dwelling ;  one  Abode,  no  more  ! 
It  seemed  the  home  of  poverty  and  toil, 
Though  not  of  want :  the  little  fields,  made  green 
By  husbandry  of  many  thrifty  years, 
Paid  cheerful  tribute  to  the  moorland  house. 
— There  crows  the  cock,  single  in  his  domain  : 
The  small  birds  find  in  spring  no  thicket  there 
To  shroud  them,  only  from  the  neighbouring  vales 
The  cuckoo,  straggling  up  to  the  hill  tops, 
Shouted  faint  tidings  of  some  gladder  place. 

jjNE  of  our  best,  earliest,  and  most  persistent 
songsters,  the  skylark  (Alauda  afvensis},  is 
almost  as  great  a  favourite  of  poets  and 
naturalists  as  the  nightingale.  It  commences  to  sing 
quite  early  in  the  season,  and  can  be  heard  in  late 
autumn,  when  other  birds  are  mute,  and  when  the 
migrants  have  departed  for  the  South.  Some  years  ago  I 
heard  a  lark  in  song  at  half -past  one  o'clock  on  a  fine 
moonlight  summer's  morning,  fully  an  hour  before  the 
song  thrushes  and  blackbirds  commenced  to  tune  up. 

Unlike  many  of  our  favourite  birds,  the  lark  has  but 
few  common  names.  In  England  it  is  known  as  the  lark 
and  skylark  ;  in  Scotland  it  is  the  laverock  of  the  common 
people  and  the  poets.  Scottish  schoolboys  propound  a 

kind  of  "guess,"  or  conundrum,  as  to  the  dual  names  of 
the  lark,  cuckoo,  and  snipe,  thus  : — 
The  cuckoo  and  the  gowk,  the  laverock  and  the  lark 
that?  mire-snipe,  how  many  birds  is 

Although  six  names  are  given,  only  three  birds  are  indi- 
cated— cuckoo,  lark,  and  snipe. 

The  lark  is  a  resident,  or  rather  partial  resident,  in  the 
Northern  Counties.  When  severe  weather  sets  in,  many 
of  them  retreat  southwards,  and  their  places  are  occupied 
by  birds  of  the  same  species  from  more  Northern  locali- 
ties, or  from  the  Scandinavian  countries  on  the  other  side 
of  the  North  Sea. 

The  bird  is  a  native  of  the  whole  of  Europe.  It  does 
not  seem  to  penetrate  as  far  north  as  the  Faroe  Islands, 
Iceland,  and  Greenland,  but  it  is  found  in  Asia  Minor 
and  North  Africa.  In  winter,  the  migratory  larks  are 
snared  in  vast  numbers  along  the  North,  North-East,  and 
East  Coasts,  as  also  inland,  and  in  the  large  towns  they 
are  sold  by  thousands  for  the  wretched  mouthful  of  food 
they  furnish.  Some  time  ago  a  large  poultry  and  game 
dealer  informed  me  that  the  bulk  of  his  winter  lark  sup- 
plies were  from  the  Yorkshire,  West  Lancashire,  and 
Lincolnshire  coasts,  though  both  Northumberland  and 
Durham  contributed  no  small  quota  of  slaughtered  song- 
sters to  tickle  the  palates  of  epicures.  Many  thousands 
also  come  from  Ireland  and  the  Continent. 

The  "manners  and  customs"  of  the  skylark,  with  its 
finely  brownish-mottled  plumage,  are  well  known  to  most 
country  residents,  and  its  song  in  summer's  prime  is  a 
"joy  for  ever."  Mr.  Duncan's  drawing  is  a  most  life-like 
representation.  In  early  spring  the  birds  separate  into 
pairs,  and  are  soon  looking  out  for  suitable  nesting  places 
in  the  meadows  and  pastures.  Two  broods  are  usually 
reared  in  the  year — the  first  about  the  middle  of  June,  or 
earlier  if  the  weather  be  favourable ;  the  second  brood  in 
late  July  or  August.  The  male  is  rather  larger  and 
longer  than  the  female,  and  is  distinguished  from  its  mate 
by  the  well-known  crest  on  the  top  of  the  head,  which  is 
raised  and  depressed  at  will.  As  most  schoolboys  know. 




the  simple  nest — not,  however,  so  easily  discovered — is 
placed  in  a  hollow  of  the  ground,  usually  in  a,  grass  field, 
and  on  the  moorlands  amidst  the  tawny  bent  grass.  The 
nest  is  composed  of  dry  grasses,  the  finer  inside,  the 
coarser  outside.  The  eggs,  usually  four  in  number,  vary 
much  in  form,  size,  and  markings.  Some,  especially  in 
the  rich  lowlands,  are  of  a  greyish  white  colour,  with  a 
tinge  of  purple,  freckled  all  over  with  brownish  spots,  the 
darker  colour  being  mostly  concentrated  at  the  larger 
end ;  but  in  moorland  districts  they  are  almost  invariably 
dark-coloured,  and  marked  very  like  those  of  the  meadow 
pipit,  which,  like  the  lark,  nests  amidst  the  dry  bent 

Skylarks  manifest  great  attachment  to  their  nests  and 
young,  and,  when  incubation  is  in  full  swing,  the  hen 
will  almost  allow  herself  to  be  lifted  from  the  nest  rather 
than  fly  off.  The  bird  never  rises  from  or  descends  on  to 
its  nest.  When  the  nest  is  found,  there  may  generally  be 
seen  a  narrow  beaten  track,  extending  often  a  good  way 
from  it,  by  which  the  birds  leave  and  return. 

Professor  Wilson  (genial  Christopher  North)  gives  the 
subjoined  delicious  word  picture  of  the  skylark  and  its 
associations: — "Higher  and  higher  than  ever  rose  the 
tower  of  Belus,  soars  and  sings  the  lark,  the  lyrical  poet 
of  the  sky.  Listen,  listen  !  and  the  more  remote  the 
bird,  the  louder  is  his  hymn  in  heaven.  He  seems,  in  his 
loftiness,  to  have  left  the  earth  for  ever,  and  to  have  for- 
gotten his  lowly  nest.  The  primroses  and  the  daisies, 
and  all  the  sweet  hill  flowers,  must  be  remembered  in  the 
lofty  hill  region  of  light.  But  just  as  the  lark  is  lost— he 
and  his  song  together — both  are  again  seen  and  heard 
wavering  down  the  sky,  and  in  a  little  while  he  is  walk- 
ing, contented,  along  the  furrows  of  the  braided  corn,  or 
on  the  clover  lea  that  has  not  felt  the  ploughshare  for 
half  a  century."  HENRY  KERB. 

jIFTER  the  failure  of  the  Roman  Republic 
JfOTM  of  1849,  in  whose  service  he  had  performed 
prodigies  of  valour,  General  Garibaldi  betook 
himself  to  America,  where  he  worked  as  a 
journeyman  for  some  time  in  the  candle  manufactory  of 
Signor  Meucci,  at  Staten  Island.  He  afterwards  joined  a 
few  of  his  countrymen  and  went  to  Panama.  Five  or  six 
times  he  crossed  the  isthmus  between  the  Atlantic  and 
the  Pacific,  but  found  nothing  to  do.  Then  he  departed 
for  Lima,  where  he  got  the  command  of  a  vessel,  in  which 
he  made  some  voyages — to  Hong  Kong,  the  Sandwich 
Islands,  and  to  Australia,  and  then  round  from  Val- 
paraiso to  Baltimore,  where  he  obtained  the  command  of 
another  ship,  the  Commonwealth,  a  fine  American  clipper 
vessel  of  above  one  thousand  tons  burthen,  carrying  the 
American  flag,  and  registered  in  New  York,  but  owned 

by  Italians.  In  this  ship  he  sailed  for  Burope  in  the 
month  of  February,  1854,  and  in  the  course  of  the  voyage 
he  put  into  Shields  Harbour,  where  the  Commonwealth 
lay  moored  for  a  considerable  time,  taking  in  a  cargo  of 
coals  for  Genoa. 

Garibaldi  having  declined  any  public  demonstration — 
for,  like  all  heroes,  he  was  as  modest  as  he  was  brave — it 
was  resolved,  at  a  meeting  held  in  the  Lecture  Room, 
Newcastle,  on  Tuesday,  March  28th,  to  present  him  with 
an  address  of  welcome  and  sympathy,  accompanied  with 
a  sword  and  telescope,  to  be  purchased  by  a  penny 
subscription.  The  proposal,  when  made  public,  was  re- 
ceived with  great  enthusiasm,  demands  for  subscription 
lists  coming  from  all  parts  of  Tyneside.  The  presentation 
took  place  on  board  the  Commonwealth,  at  Shields,  on 
Tuesday,  April  llth,  the  day  before  she  sailed.  The  fol- 
lowing gentlemen  attended  as  a  deputation : — From  New- 
castle, Thomas  Pringle,  Martin  Jude,  Joseph  Cowen, 
jun.,  James  Watson,  James  Charlton,  John  Kane,  Josiah 
Thomas,  Angus  McLeod,  William  Newton,  William 
Hedley ;  from  South  Shields,  Soloman  Sutherland, 
Robert  Miller ;  from  North  Shields,  Robert  Sutherland, 
Thomas  Hudson  ;  from  London,  G.  Julian  Harney ;  also 
Constantine  Lewkaski,  Polish  exile.  Mr.  Pearson,  the 
general's  broker,  likewise  accompanied  the  deputation. 
The  sword  was  a  handsome  weapon,  with  a  gold  hilt,  on 
which  this  inscription  was  engraved: — "Presented  to 
General  Garibaldi  by  the  people  of  Tyneside,  friends  of 
European  Freedom.  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  April,  1854." 
The  telescope — made  by  Mr.  Joseph  English,  Grey 
Street,  Newcastle — bore  the  same  inscription. 

The  deputation  being  introduced  by  Mr.  Joseph  Cowen, 
jun.,  that  gentleman  said  : — 

General, — We  are  herea  deputation  appointed  by  a  meet- 
ing of  the  friends  of  European  Freedom  in  Newcastle,  to 
express  to  you  the  gratification  we  have  experienced  at  see- 
ing you  amongst  us,  and  to  assure  you  of  our  profound  sym- 
pathy for  that  noble  cause  with  which  you  have  cast  the 
fortunes  of  your  life.  It  is  as  distasteful  for  us  to  indulge 
in  any  complimentary  ajxjlogies  as  I  am  sure  it  is  for  you 
to  listen  to  them,  yet  we  feel  it  necessary  to  offer  a  word 
or  two  in  explanation  of  our  proceedings.  As  soon  as  it 
became  known  that  you  were  to  visit  the  Tyne,  an 
unanimous  and  enthusiastic  desire  was  expressed  by  those 
who  sympathised  with  the  heroic  struggles  of  your 
countrymen  for  their  nationality  and  independence,  to 
give  you  a  welcome  worthy  of  your  great  and  well-won 
reputation  as  a  soldier  of  freedom,  and  befitting  this 
important  district  to  offer.  Your  modesty  would  not 
permit  you  to  accept  such  a  demonstration.  We  could 
well  understand  your  personal  dislike  to  such  a  display, 
yet  we  would  have  rejoiced  at  having  had  such  an  oppor- 
tunity as  the  occasion  would  have  afforded  of  urging  our 
Government  to  regard  the  insurgent  peoples,  and  not  the 
absolutist  and  reactionary  potentates  of  Europe,  as  theii 
most  legitimate  and  faithful  allies  in  the  coming  conflict, 
and  of  demonstrating  to  these  said  sovereigns  the  little 
regard  entertained  by  Englishmen  for  their  characters  and 
calling ;  yet  we  felt  that  in  such  a  matter  you  were  first 
and  alone  to  be  consulted,  and  at  your  request  the  propo- 
sition was  abandoned.  But,  being  unwilling  to  permit  you 
to  leave  without  some  memorial  of  your  visit,  we  have 
chosen  this  private  and  more  acceptable,  but  we  trust  no 
less  significant,  mode  of  expressing  to  you  the  deep  and 
earnest  sympathy  entertained  by  the  people  of  Tyneside 
for  your  country  and  cause. 

1889.   I 



Mr.  Cowen  then  read  the  following  address  :— 
General, — Your  presence  in  Newcastle  affords  an  occa- 
sion for  a  pleasure  and  a  duty.  It  is  indeed  a  pleasure  for 
us  to  welcome  to  our  town  the  glorious  defender  of  the 
Eternal  City,  the  Italian  patriot  and  hero,  the  friend  and 
worthy  helpmate  of  Mazzini  in  the  holy  work  of  Italian 
emancipation.  We  do  welcome  you  right  heartily.  And 
in  offering  you  with  this  welcome,  the  assurance  of  our 
most  profound  respect,  we  do  not  pretend  to  be  conferring 
any  honour  upon  you.  The  hero  always  honours  the 
place  of  his  sojourn.  Neither  do  we  care,  by  any  enumer- 
ation of  your  gallant  deeds,  to  justify  our  estimate  of  your 
worth.  Your  life  and  character  are  well  known  to 
Europe,  and  the  mere  name  of  Garibaldi  is  sufficient 
passport  to  the  admiration  of  his  contemporaries  and  the 
undying  praise  of  history.  Your  example  may  also  keep 
us  in  mind  of  our  duty,  the  never-ceasing  duty  of  at  least 
encouraging  by  sympathetic  words,  if  we  cannot  help  by 
deeds,  all  who,  like  yourself  and  your  compatriots,  are 
ably  engaged  in  the  struggle  for  the  Right.  We  pray 
you  to  believe  that  the  heart  of  England  is  with  your 
Italy.  We,  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  may  take  upon  us 
to  say  so  much.  Whatever  bargains  may  be  made  by 
Cabinets,  whatever  may  be  the  unhappy  complications  of 
diplomacy,  whatever  may  be  our  popular  ignorance  of 
foreign  affairs,  the  people  of  England  can  never  willingly 
be  a  party  to  any  policy  which  would  sacrifice  the  Italian 
nation  to  imperial  or  kingly  interests.  We  would  not  so 
give  the  lie  to  our  own  worship  of  freedom.  You,  ( Jeneral, 
have  not  to  be  told  that  even  a  people  which  is  free  from 
foreign  mastery  may  yet  not  be  so  much  its  own  master 
as  to  always  rule  its  course  in  the  way  its  feelings  and  its 
conscience  point.  Yet  be  sure  of  this  :  England  hopes 
for  Italian  independence.  England  may  yet  help  it, 
when  our  hope  ripens  into  earnest  will.  And  when  they 
who  drive  out  the  Austrian  build  up  again  a  Republican 
capital  upon  the  Seven  Hills,  the  heirs  of  Milton  and 
Cromwell  will  not  be  the  last  to  say,  even  from  their 
deepest  heart,  God  speed  your  work  ! 

After  reading  the  address,  Mr.  Cowen  went  on  to  say  : 

General, — Along  with  this  address  I  have  tn  ask  you  to 
receive  this  sword  and  this  telescope.  The  intrinsic 
value  of  these  articles  is  but  small,  and  to  a  Republican 
chieftain  who  is  accustomed  to  animate  his  compatriots 
by  deeds  of  personal  prowess  such  a  sword  my  be  more 
ornamental  than  useful.  But  when  I  tell  you  that  it  is 
purchased  by  the  pennies  of  some  hundreds  of  working 
men,  contributed  not  only  voluntarily,  but  with  enthusi- 
asm, and  that  each  penny  reprepresents  a  heart  which  beats 
true  to  European  freedom,  it  will  not,  1  think,  be  un- 
worthy of  your  acceptance  and  preservation.  We  are  not 
versed  in  the  polite  phraseology  of  diplomacy  ;  of  the 
refined  conventionalisms  of  courts  we  are  ignorant ;  re- 
presentatives of  the  people,  we  have  no  costly  presents  to 
offer  for  your  acceptance  ;  but  with  that  simplicity  which 
best  befits  Republicans,  we  ask  you  to  receive  as  a  token 
of  our  esteem  the  articles  before  us. 

Garibaldi,  who  was  much  moved  by  this  spontaneous 
expression  of  good-will,  replied  as  follows  :— 

Getitlfcinen, — I  am  very  weak  in  the  English  language, 
and  can  but  imperfectly  express  my  acknowledgments  for 
your  over  great  kindness.  You  honour  me  beyond  my 
deserts.  My  services  are  not  worthy  of  all  the  favours 
you  have  shown  me.  You  more  than  reward  me  for  any 
sacrifices  I  may  have  made  in  the  cause  of  freedom.  One 
of  the  people — a  workman  like  yourself — I  value  very 
highly  these  expressions  of  your  esteem — the  more  so 
because  you  testify  thereby  your  sympathy  for  my  poor, 
oppressed,  and  down-trodden  country.  Speaking  in  a 
strange  tongue,  I  feel  most  painfully  my  inability  to  thank 
you  in  terms  sufficiently  warm.  The  future  will  alone 
show  how  soon  it  will  be  before  I  am  called  on  to  un- 
sheath  the  noble  gift  I  have  just  received,  and  again 
battle  in  behalf  of  that  which  lies  nearest  my  heart — the 
freedom  of  my  native  land.  But  be  sure  of  this — Italy 
will  one  day  be  a  nation,  and  its  free  citizens  will  know 
how  to  acknowledge  all  the  kindness  shown  her  exiled  sons 
in  the  days  of  their  darkest  troubles.  Gentlemen,  I 

would  say  more,  but  my  bad  English  prevents  me  Yon 
can  appreciate  my  feelings  and  understand  my  hesitation 
Again  I  thank  you  from  my  heart  of  hearts,  and  be  con- 
fident of  this— that  whatever  vicissitudes  of  fortune  I  may 
hereafter  pass  through,  this  handsome  sword  shall  never 
3  drawn  by  me  except  in  the  cause  of  liberty. 

An  interesting  conversation  on  the  aspect  of  affairs  in 
Europe  then  took  place  between  Garibaldi  and  his 
visitors.  Subsequently,  Mr.  Cowen  proposed  the  health 
of  "  General  Garibaldi,  and  may  the  next  time  he  visits 
the  Tyne  be  as  the  citizen  of  an  united  Italian  Republic," 
Mr.  Lewkaski  adding  that  he  hoped  the  next  time  he 
met  him  would  be  on  the  banks  of  the  Tiber,  and  not  the 
Tyne— a  wish  which  the  General  very  warmly  recipro- 
cated. Mr.  Harney  proposed  in  fitting  terms  the  health 
of  "Joseph  Mazzini,  the  illustrious  compatriot  of  Gari- 
baldi," which  was  drunk  with  great  enthusiasm.  The 
deputation  then  survejed  the  vessel,  exchanged  friendly 
greetings  with  the  patriot  crew,  and  left  for  South 
Shields,  three  hearty  cheers  being  given  for  Garibaldi  and 
the  good  ship  Commonwealth  as  the  boat  passed  under 
her  bows. 

The  crew  of  the  Commonwealth  were  all  exiles— most 
of  them  Italians  who  had  fought  under  their  captain  in 
Rome  and  the  Banda  Oriental.  Though  they  sailed  under 
the  star-spangled  banner,  none  were  American  citizens. 

The  following  letter  was  penned  just  as  the  writer  left 
the  Tyne  :— 

Ship  Commonwealth,  April  12th,  1854. 

My  dear  Cowen,— The  generous  manifestation  of  sym- 
pathy with  which  I  have  been  honoured  by  you  and  your 
fellow-citizens  is  of  itself  more  than  sufficient  to  recom- 
pense a  life  of  the  greatest  merit.  Born  and  educated  as 
I  have  been  in  the  cause  of  humanity,  my  heart  is  en- 
tirely devoted  to  liberty — universal  liberty — national 
and  world-wide — 'ora  e  sempre'  (now  and  for  ever). 
England  is  a  great  and  powerful  nation — independent  of 
auiliary  aid — foremost  in  human  progress — enemy  to  des- 
potism— the  only  safe  refuge  of  the  exile — friend  of  the 
oppressed  ;  but  if  ever  England,  your  native  country, 
should  be  so  circumstanced  as  to  require  the  help  of  an 
ally,  cursed  be  that  Italian  who  would  not  step  forward 
with  me  in  her  defence.  Your  Government  has  given  the 
Autocrat  a  check  and  the  Austrians  a  lesson.  The  des- 
pots of  Europe  are  against  you  in  consequence.  Should 
England  at  any  time  in  a  just  cause  need  my  arm,  I  am 
ready  to  unsheath  in  her  defence  the  noble  and  splendid 
sword  received  at  your  hands.  Be  the  interpreter  of  my 
gratitude  to  your  good  and  generous  countrymen.  I 
regret,  deeply  regret,  to  leave  without  again  grasping 
hands  with  you.  Farewell,  my  dear  friend,  but  not 
adieu  !  Make  room  for  mo  in  your  heart. — Yours  always 
and  everywhere,  G.  GARIBALDI. 

P.S. — At  Rio  de  la  Plata  I  fought  in  favour  of  the 
English  against  the  tyrant  Rosas. 

The  Rev.  H.  R.  Haweis,  writing  of  the  Battle  of  the 
Volturno,  and  quoting  the  words  of  an  actor  in  that 
conflict,  speaks  of  Garibaldi  "  drawing  his  famous  Eng- 
lish sword  and  leading  the  decisive  charge  which  turned 
the  fortunes  of  the  day."  This  was  the  sword  which  was 
presented  to  the  patriot  by  his  friends  on  Tyneside.  An 
old  Garibaldian,  one  of  the  famous  Thousand  of  Marsala 
who  effected  the  conquest  of  Sicily,  states  that  his  great 
chief  in  all  his  Italian  battles  constantly  carried  the 
weapon  whose  history  we  have  here  related. 



I  Marctt 
1    1889 


|JOT  many  years  ago  it  was  a  popular  belief 
that  a  stone  brought  from  Ireland  possessed 
the  virtue  of  curing  cattle  that  had  the 
misfortune  to  have  been  envenomed  by  the 
bite  of  an  adder  or  similar  reptile.  Not  only  were  Irish 
stones  held  in  high  estimation  as  charms,  but  Irish  sticks 
were  alike  prized.  The  farmer  who  dwelt  in  a  valley  in- 
fested with  adders  was  fortunate  if  he  possessed  an  Irish 
horse  or  an  Irish  cow ;  a  tooth  of  the  former  would  as 
effectually  neutralise  a  sting  as  an  Irish  stone  or  stick, 
and  a  touch  from  the  cow  was  equally  as  efficacious.  If  a 
native  of  Ireland  made  a  circle  with  his  finger  around  a 
reptile,  it  died.  According  to  Pliny,  a  serpent  cannot 
escape  out  of  a  circle  drawn  around  it  with  an  ash  rod,  a 
belief  held  in  Devonshire.  In  Germany  the  sap 
of  the  ash  tree  is  drunk  as  a  remedy  for  serpent 
bites,  whilst  in  Sweden  the  touch  of  a  hazel-rod 
deprives  serpents  of  their  venom.  The  Irish  charm- 
stone,  however,  was  the  most  popular  reptile  remedy 
throughout  the  North  of  England  and  in  Scotland,  and 
the  belief  in  its  virtue  may  be  said  to  yet  linger  in  the 
secluded  dales  north  of  the  Humber. 

The  following  evidence  of  the  belief  in  the  virtue  of  the 
Irish  charm  in  the  North  of  England  has  been  gathered 
by  the  writer,  and  may  be  considered  the  remnants  of  a 
deeply  rooted  superstition  in  the  localities  referred  to. 
In  the  month  of  October,  1884,  I  handled  a  once  famous 
Irish  stone  which  was  in  the  custody  of  a  good  dame, 
residing  beneath  the  shadow  of  the  Old  Abbey  of  Blanch- 
land,  in  Northumberland.  On  inquiry  being  made  for 
the  charm,  a  search  was  made  in  the  corner  of  a  drawer, 
and  a  bag,  yellow  with  age,  was  carefully  brought  out, 
unfolded,  and  its  contents — the  Irish  stone — exhibited. 
The  good  lady  was  seventy-eight  years  of  age,  and  the 
charm  was  in  the  house  when  she  married  into  it,  forty- 
nine  years  before.  It  was  the  property  of  her  husband, 
who  died  about  twenty -nine  years  since,  and  she  had  heard 
him  say  that  the  stone  belonged  to  his  father.  During  her 
time  it  had  been  lent  "all  up  and  down  "  to  individuals 
who  had  got  envenomed,  or  had  cattle  so  suffering,  and 
she  could  testify  that  its  application  stopped  inflamma- 
tion, as  she  remembered  effectually  rubbing  the  face  of 
her  husband,  who  had  been  stuns;  by  a  bee.  The  charm 
which,  as  she  had  heard  them  tell,  came  from  Conuaught, 
is  a  water  worn  flint,  lentiform,  of  a  dark  colour,  blotched 
with  white.  This  Blanchland  charm  had  not  been  used 
for  several  years,  but  within  the  good  lady's  remembrance 
it  was  of  considerable  repute,  it  being  the  only  Irish  stone 
in  the  district.  According  to  popular  belief,  there  is 
probably  no  place  north  of  the  Humber  where  a  "  charm 
for  venom"  could  be  of  more  use  than  at  Blanchland. 
The  banks  of  the  river,  the  Derwent,  a  tributary  of 

the  Tyne,  are  said  to  be  greatly  infested  with  adders. 
They  are  curiously  enough  called  the  "Earl  of  Derwent- 
water's  adders,"  and  thereby  hangs  a  tale,  which,  if  not 
so  poetical  as  the  legend  of  St.  Patrick  and  the  reptiles, 
is  interesting  in  its  way.  Previous  to  the  unfortunate 
earl  suffering  death  no  adders  or  other  reptiles,  so 
the  story  goes,  haunted  the  banks  of  the  Derwent. 
However,  immediately  the  head  of  the  earl  rolled  from 
the  block  in  1715,  adders  appeared  in  abundance  on 
the  river's  banks  almost  from  the  source  of  the  stream  to 
where  it  enters  the  Tyne.  The  Derwent  partly  bounds 
some  of  the  Derwentwater  estates,  and  here  adders  are 
at  the  present  day  particularly  numerous.  Hence  the 
Blanchland  charm  was  held  in  very  high  estimation, 
numerous  applications  being  formerly  made  for  it. 

An  "  oldest  inhabitant "  at  the  head  of  the  Wear  valley, 
in  the  County  of  Durham,  once  informed  me  that  he  had 
had  his  arm  rubbed  with  an  Irish  stone.  When  a  boy 
and  helping  his  father  to  build  a  stone  wall  in  the 
fields,  he  had  his  thumb  envenomed  by  some  kind  of 
a  reptile.  His  father,  a  shrewd  Scotchman,  had 
previously  procured  a  stone  brought  from  the  Emerald 
Isle  by  a  wandering  native.  This  charm  stone  was 
brought  out  and  applied,  commencing  at  the  shoulder 
from  whence  the  rubbing  with  the  stone  was  gradually 
brought  down  the  arm,  until  the  pain  was  driven 
out.  My  informant  was  an  intelligent  resident  who 
died  five  or  six  years  ago  at  the  age  of  92  years.  At 
Stanhope,  in  Weardale,  a  similar  charm  was  kept  by 
a  Mrs.  Clarke,  who  applied  it  to  all  comers  with  en- 
venomed limbs.  The  Stanhope  stone,  as  described  to 
me  by  a  person  who  once  had  his  hand  rubbed  with  it  to 
cure  a  sting,  was  about  two  inches  square  and  about  an 
inch  thick.  A  few  years  ago  a  friend  informed  me  that 
an  Irish  stone  existed  in  a  house  on  the  banks  of  the 
Tees,  near  the  town  of  Middlelon-in-Teesdale,  and  was 
kept  expressly  for  the  purpose  of  curing  venom. 
Both  of  these  charms  have  their  history  of  wonderful 

Irish  sticks  were  also  held  in  high  estimation  for 
their  healing  powers  in  the  Northern  dales.  Seventy 
years  ago  Weardale  possessed  one  owned  by  a  per- 
son named  Morley.  An  elderly  woman,  now  dead, 
gave  me  the  following  particulars  respecting  herself  and 
this  wonderful  stick  : — When  a  scholar  at  the  village 
school  she  had  a  ring- worm  on  her  arm,  and  the  mistress  of 
the  school  rubbed  the  part  affected  with  her  gold  wedding 
ring,  a  supposed  remedy  ;  but  the  wedding  ring  charm 
failed,  and  the  scholar  was  despatched  to  Morley's.  The 
famed  stick,  which  had  a  great  reputation  in  the  valley, 
was  brought  into  operation  and  as  far  as  my  informant 
could  remember  a  cure  was  affected.  Sixty  odd  years 
ago  an  innkeeper's  daughter,  at  St.  John's  Chapel, 
got  stung  in  the  hand,  whilst  working  in  the  garden. 
The  hand  was  cured  by  the  application  of  an  Irish 
stick,  which  was  about  five  inches  long  and  an  inch 

1889.   / 



thick.  It  was  well  polished,  through  repeated  operations, 
and  the  charm  remained  at  the  public-house  for  many 
years,  having  almost  as  much  practice  as  the  village 
doctor.  My  informant,  who  died  a  few  months 
ago,  was  eye  witness  to  the  operation,  and  was  a  brother 
of  the  young  woman  who  was  thus  cured. 

The  teeth  of  an  Irish  horse  were  evidently  as  efficacious 
as  stones  and  sticks.  Seventy  odd  years  ago  peats 
were  largely  used  as  a  fuel  by  the  dwellers  in  the 
higher  reaches  of  the  Wear  valley.  A  Weardale  resi- 
dent informed  me  that  he  remembered  a  lead  miner's 
wife,  who,  whilst  stacking  peats,  or  in  local  parlance, 
mooing  peats,  in  the  yard,  had  her  hand  envenomed  .by 
some  reptile  which  had  been  amongst  the  peats  when 
brought  in  from  the  moors.  A  neighbour,  hearing  of  the 
good  woman's  misfortune,  sent  an  Irish  horse  tooth  with 
instructions  to  rub  it  over  the  envenomed  hand.  The 
order  was  obeyed,  a  cure  was  effected,  and  the  tooth, 
having  added  to  its  reputation  as  a  charm,  was  kept  as 
such  for  many  long  years  afterwards.  A  farmer  in  the 
same  district  informed  me  that  an  Irish  horse  tooth  was 
for  many  years  kept  on  his  premises  as  a  charm  for 

An  Irish  cow  possesses  the  hidden  virtue  accord- 
ing to  the  following: — A  friend  in  Teesdale  informs 
me  of  a  person  who  was  envenomed  by  the  bite  of  an 
ether.  His  hand  and  arm  swelled  to  such  a  degree  that 
he  could  not  get  his  ncif  through  his  great  coat  sleeve  but 
with  difficulty.  Though  this  was  alarming,  a  remedy 
was  looming  in  the  distance.  In  Holwick  village,  on  the 
Yorkshire  side  of  the  Tees,  a  farmer  kept  an  Irish  cow 
reputed  to  be  of  the  right  kind  for  working  a  cure. 
Thither  posted  the  suffering  man.  On  the  patient  nearing 
the  farmstead,  the  sympathising  animal  trotted  to  meet 
him,  and  energetically  licked  his  hand.  The  cure  was 
miraculous.  A  relation  of  mine  witnessed  some  sixty 
years  ago  an  extraordinary  result  of  this  virtue  in  Irish 
cattle.  Large  herds  of  these  animals  are  driven  through 
Northumberland  to  the  Southern  markets.  They 
were  frequently  depastured  for  a  night  at  Redesdale 
in  one  particular  pasture  which  was  infested  with 
adders.  One  morning,  after  a  drove  of  Irish  cattle  had 
departed,  hundreds  of  dead  adders,  as  witnessed  by  my 
friend,  were  found  on  the  ground.  The  belief  is  that  if 
an  adder  gets  on  to  where  an  Irish  cow  has  been  lying  it 
cannot  get  off,  but  dies.  As  previously  stated,  adders 
abound  on  the  banks  of  the  Derwent  in  North- 
umberland. At  a  place  called  Ackton,  close  to  this 
stream,  cows  frequently  get  envenomed  in  the  pastures. 
A  dweller,  having  a  cattlegate  on  a  neighbouring  farm, 
called  Winnoshill,  bought  an  Irish  cow,  and,  fortunately 
for  the  owner,  no  reptile  would  touch  it.  My  informant 
was  an  observing  man.  He  had  seen  eight  young  adders 
bolt  into  the  mouth  of  their  parent  and  disappear  on 
being  suddenly  surprised  \ 


j]R.  JOHN  KOBINSON,  a  tradesman  of  New- 
castle, was  fortunate  enough,  in  the  course  of 
the  year  1838,  to  rescue  from  destruction  a 
large  mass  of  documents  which  throw  more  or  less  light 
on  the  history  and  doings  of  the  famous  Northumbrian 
family  of  the  Delavals.  Some  account  of  this  family  has 
already  been  given  in  the  Monthly  Chronicle  (see  vol.  i., 
p.  4-37) :  but  we  are  concerned  now  with  what  we  may 
fairly  describe  as  the  Delaval  Find. 

The  finder  himself  has  explained  to  the  Society  of 
Antiquaries  the  nature  of  the  documents  he  has  saved 
from  oblivion.  The  late  Dr.  Charlton,  about  twenty 
years  ago,  made  mention,  in  an  interesting  lecture  on 
"Society  in  Northumberland  in  the  17th  Century,"  of 
the  thousands  of  papers  belonging  to  the  Delaval  family 
which  were  preserved  at  Ford  Castle,  among  which 
were  letters  from  nearly  all  the  principal  families  of  the 
North  of  England,  as  well  as  from  the  leading  literary 
men  of  the  last  century.  Ever  since  the  delivery  of  Dr. 
Charlton's  lecture,  said  Mr.  Robinson,  local  historians 
had  longed  to  have  an  opportunity  of  inspecting  the 
collection  at  Ford.  Yet  during  all  these  years  there  had 
been  a  vast  pile  of  letters,  despatches,  and  old  records 
lying  in  a  roofless  warehouse  at  Old  Hartley,  not  a  dozen 
miles  from  Newcastle.  Some  few  of  these  had  been 
reduced  to  a  decomposed  mass  of  pulp,  through  the 
action  of  the  winters'  snows  and  summers'  rains  of 
more  than  fifty  years.  It  was  only  by  a  portion  of  the 
roof  falling  upon  the  old  papers  that  any  of  them  had 
been  preserved.  Among  these  were  the  great  seal  of 
Henry  VII.,  the  privy  seal  of  James  I.,  an  autograph 
of  Queen  Anne,  and  an  autograph  of  the  ill-fated  Earl  of 

It  was  through  the  courtesy  of  Mr.  Lumsden,  agent  to 
the  Marchioness  of  Waterford,  that  Mr.  Robinson  was 
allowed  to  collect  what  he  thought  would  be  of  any 
interest.  He  began  his  labours  among  a  vast  collection  of 
ledgers,  tabulating  the  wages  paid  to  the  various  work- 
men engaged  in  constructing  Seaton  Sluice  a  hundred 
years  ago ;  but,  as  he  turned  over  ledger  after  ledger  and 
countless  piles  of  vouchers,  he  began  to  pick  up  packets 
of  private  letters  of  the  Delavals,  Irish  State  papers,  and 
Admiralty  despatches  to  Capt.  Delaval,  with  innumer- 
able receipts  for  legacies  and  annuities  paid  to  almost 
every  family  in  Northumberland  of  any  importance, 
together  with  the  cost  of  cows  bought  at  Hexham  and 
Morpeth  in  the  year  1590,  as  well  as  receipts  for  the 
daily  articles  used  in  castle  and  cot  from  time  im- 

The  following  is  an  extract  from  one  of  the  family 
letters  written  by  Mrs.  Astley  (Rhoda  Delaval),  probably 
in  1751  :— 

Yesterday  se'nnight  we  were  all  at  Newcastle  assembly. 



\    18«9. 

There  was  a  great  deal  of  good  company.  It  was  the 
day  of  the  Mayor's  feast.  Ridley  is  Mayor.  My  Lady 
Blackett  was  there,  and  made  many  inquiries  after  you. 
My  Lord  Ravensworth  dined  here  the  other  day.  We 
have  pitched  the  tent  by  the  sea-side.  It  is  placed  in  the 
Ijreat  oval  in  the  garden,  all  the  warm  weather,  where  we 
drink  tea  every  afternoon.  I  imagine  you  have  heard 
that  Mr.  Bailey  is  dead.  Mrs.  Symms  says  he  left  ten 
thousand  pounds.  He  died  of  a  fever.  It  is  surprising 
to  know  what  great  cures  have  been  done  by  Dr.  James's 
powders.  Here  a  sad  fever  has  gone  round  the  country. 
All  who  have  taken  it  have  recovered.  I  believe  I  told 

Sm  that  Sir  John  Grey  is  quite  well,  and  seven  more  at 
artley  that  have  taken  the  powders  are  cured  of  very 
sad  fever  after  they  had  been  light-headed  some  daya. 

The  same  lady  writes  again  : — 

Tinmouth  and  Cullercoates  are  much  in  fashion  ;  not  a 
room  empty.  My  Lady  Kavensworth  and  my  Lady 
Clavering  were  a  month  at  Cullercoates  bathing.  My 
Lady  (Swinburne  and  Miss  Swinburne  are  gone  to  live  at 
York.  I  must  leave  off,  as  it  is  chappie  Sunday,  though 
I  am  in  a  very  scribbling  humour.  We  shall  have  a  very 
thin  congregation  to-day.  It  is  the  first  Sunday  divine 
service  has  been  performed  at  Mr.  .Ridley's  chappie  at 
Blyth,  and  curiosity  will  carry  most  of  the  people  thither. 

The  old  letters  abundantly  confirm  the  popular  stories 
about  the  amusements  at  Seaton  Delaval.  George 
Delaval,  writing  to  his  brother  Thomas  in  February, 
1753,  says: — "It  was  in  the  Daily  Advertiser  that 
upwards  of  four  thousand  gentlemen  and  ladies  had  been 
assembled  at  Seaton  Delaval  to  see  the  rope  dancers." 
Mrs.  Astley  writes  in  December  : — "  Bob  has  undertaken 
to  entertain  us  with  a  pantomime  entertainment  of  his 
own  composing  these  Christmas  holidays.  He  has  taken 
in  most  all  the  people  in  the  house  as  performers.  I 
fancy  it  will  be  a  very  curious  sight."  Later,  she  informs 
her  correspondent  how  the  affair  had  gone  off  : — "  Bob 
has  performed  his  pantomime  entertainment  before  a 
great  number  of  county  folk,  who  showed  their  approba- 
tion by  great  fits  of  laughter." 

Much  theatrical  and  other  gossip  of  the  time  is  con- 
tained in  the  following  letter  from  Foote,  the  actor  and 
dramatist  of  Dr.  Johnson's  day  : — 

London,  March  13. 

In  the  North.  What  d'ye  do  in  the  North  when  you 
are  wanted  in  the  West?  On  the  24th  instant  appears  a 
Farce  of  your  H'ble  Servant,  which  without  the  power- 
ful aid  of  such  Freinds  as  Mr.  Delaval  will  I  fear  en- 
counter a  most  disastrous  Destiny. 

The  Recorder  of  your  Town  of  Newcastle  has  lately  oc- 
casiund  a  small  inflammation  at  Court.  About  four  months 
since  he  dind  with  Ld.  Kavensworth,  and  takeing  up  a 
newspaper  which  mentiond  the  Bishop  of  Glouscester  as 
the  Bishop  of  Chichesters  successor  in  the  Prince  of  Wals's 
family,  declard  that  was  the  seccjd  great  officer  about 
the  Prince  whom  he  had  formerly  known  to  drink 
treasonable  Healths,  Andrew  Stone  being  the  other. 

Ld  Ravensworth  made  a  Report  of  this  to  the  Cabinet 
Council,  which  the  two  delinquents  with  the  Solicitor- 
General,  he  being  equally  culpable,  were  ordered  to 
attend  ;  sundry  examinations  were  had,  of  what  nature 
has  not  transpird  ;  the  result  of  all  is  that  the  sub- 
sequent loyal  attachment  of  these  Gentlemen  should 
obliterate  the  stain  of  their  former  principles,  and  the 
prosecution  be  branded  with  the  ignominious  titles  of 
groundless,  trifling,  and  vexatious. 

There  is  no  news  but  what  the  papers  will  bring  you, 
but  we  have  long  and  pompous  accounts  of  the  Tilts, 
tournements,  tumblings,  and  Bull-baitings  at  Seaton. 
Your  Uncle  Price  says  Mr.  Pelham  has  hired  the  two 
danceing  Bears  to  transmitt  to  your  Brother  by  way  of 

keeping  him  in  the  country  till  the  Parliament  is  up,  and 
Chitty  swears  that  the  coliers  ac  Billinsgate  imploy  all 
their  Leizure  hours  in  flinging  of  Somersets.  You  must 
expect  the  Wits  to  be  arch,  but  I  dont  know  how  to  take 
your  calling  me  one,  in  your  last,  as  I  know  in  what  light 
you  men  of  Bussness  regard  that  Character,  but  I  give  you 
leave  to  think  of  me  as  you  please  in  every  other  respect, 
provided  you  do  me  Justice  in  one  Article,  that  I  am  & 
ever  shall  be  Dear  Mr  Delaval's 

Most  obligd  &  obedt  Servt 


Another  letter  of  Foote's,  as  ill-spelt  as  the  one  just 
quoted,  is  addressed  to  Mr.  John  Delaval.  It  will  be 
seen  that  the  dramatist  mixes  up  some  scandal  with  his 
theatrical  small  talk  : — 

Pal  Mai,  Jany.  17th. 

I  am  sorry  Dear  Mr.  Delaval  should  suppose  he  wanta 
a  subject  to  interest  and  entertain  me,  whilst  he  has  it  in. 
his  power  to  communicate  his  own  happiness,  &c.,  and 
that  of  his  family.  To  the  latter  you  have  this  morning  a 
collateral  addition  by  the  birth  of  a  Son  to  Miss  Roach.* 

The  Theatres  have  each  producd  a  pantomime.  That 
of  Covent  Garden  is  the  Sorcerer,  revivd  with  a  new 
piece  of  Machinery  that  is  elegantly  designed  and  happily 
executed.  The  subject  is  a  Fountain.  The  Genii  of 
Drury  Lane  has  some  pretty  contrivances,  but  the 
Inspector  complains  of  its  being  barren  of  Incidents, 
defective  in  the  plan,  and  improbable  in  the  Denoue- 
ment. We  have  had  no  new  Comedys  but  one  given  by 
Mr.  Weymondsel  and  his  Lady,  Jo.  Child  is  gone  to 
France,  the  frail  fair  one  turnd  outof  Doors,and  a  suit  for 
a  Divorce  commencd.  Francis's  Tragedy  called  Con- 
stantiu  is  to  be  acted  at  Covent  Garden.  A  Comedy 
called  the  Gamester  is  soon  to  be  played  at  Drury  Lane. 

1  am  writing   the  English   Man   at  Paris  for  Macklyn's 
benefit.     The  Attorney  General  is  to  be  made  a  Peer,  the 
Solicitor  Attorney,  and  York  Solicitor  General. 

This  is  all  the  news  I  have  now  to  offer,  and,  indeed, 
all  that  I  have  to  say,  except  that 

I  am  most  sincerely  yours, 


The  scale  and  magnificence  of  the  private  theatricals 
given  by  the  Delavals  can  be  best  understood  by  the  cost 
of  one  of  the  entertainments  at  Seaton  Delaval.  Here  is 
a  financial  record  which  Mr.  Robinson  haa  discovered 
among  the  wreckage  at  Hartley  : — 

FEBR.  1,  179a 

Ibs.  £  B.  D 

6  Hams  Ornamented,  at  a  mean  2011).  each,  120  at  7d. . .  3  10    0 

2  Do.     Swarm  and  Boar's  Head,201lj.  ea.        10  at  7d. . .  1    3    4 

6  Turkey  pyes,  calculated  at  12s.  each 3  12    0 

6  Ox  tongues  ornamented,  2s.  6d.  p 0  15    0 

2        Do.          plain.  Do.         0    5    0 

2  Fillets  Veal,  51hs.  each,  lOlbs.  at  6d 050 

SPlatesof  Collard  Beef,  at  l/6p 0  12    a 

4  Aspeaks,  contg  40  smelts  io  strong  sauce,  3s.    p 0  12    0 

52  Fowls  includg  Baisting,  &c.,  compd  1/6  p 318    0 

12  Ibs.  Butter,  estimated  for  ornamentg  Hams,  &C,    012    0 

6  Ibs.  Hog:s  lard  for  Swann,  &c.,  8d 0    4    6 

12  Lobsters,  at  9d.  p. 090 

16  Plates  of  Jellys,   2/6 200 

14    Do.         Blomonge,    2s 180 

7  Large  and  small  Savoy  Cakes,  at  5s.  p. 1  15    0- 

10  Apple  Tarts,  1/6       0  15    0 

80  Cneese  Cakes.    Id.   068 

30  Apricot  Tartletts,  3d.  p 076 

24  Strawberry  do.      2(1.  p. 040 

40  Raspberry    do.      2d.  p. 0    6    8 

Confectionery  acct.  for  cakes  and  Sundry  sweet-  V  4    0    ft 

meats,  mottos,  &c.,  &c f 

Cakes  charged  by  Mr.  Nuthwaite 0  17    6 

200  Golden  pippins,  9s. ,  and  89  oranges,  10s.  6d. 0  19    6 

10  Plates  of  Blanched  Almonds  and  Raisins,  Is.  6d.  p. .  0  15    0 

24    do.    of  Figs.  French  Plumbs,  &c.,  at  4d  p. 080 

White    Bread    used    and    crumbled    away,    &c,, 

2d.p.forl20 100 

31    0    2 

See  Monthly  Chronicle,  1888,  p.  283. 




1  Pye  left  nearly  whole  ..                .0100                     &  ""  "'  ?fter  havj"?  Perused  it  lately  (for  'twas  by  mere  accident 

1  large  Savoy  Cake  ................    070  i  recover  d  it)  two  or  three  times,  I  cannot  find  out  what 

1  Tongue  ..........................    0    2    6  I  aim'd  at  by  such  a  reverie. 

!h?n?  atn,'J,Bo<?r's,H^  nea,r'y  wk°;e     1    0   0  J.have  read  the  GoosequiU  twice  since  I  have  seen  you 

kit              Confectioner's  Articles  with  very  great  satisfaction,  and  ajjree  with  Dr    Hill 

Jellys',  none  of  consequence.'  .....  -             3    4    0  *r±  'her,M°Tnody  '*  as  fine?  Pief  of  "dicule  as  ha,  lately 

27  16    2  appeared.     I   am  to  spend  a  classical  hour  or  two  with 

Beef  for  Gentlemen's   servts.,   drivers,  &c.,  Dlm  tnis  week,  and  we  both  wish  you  wou'd  be  so  kind 

abt.  112  Ibs.  at  4d  .........................    117    4  as   to  give  us  the  favor  of  yr  company.     If  you  shou'd 

nhtoTn         y      d°'                     d°"  come  t°  Vauxhall  any  night  this  week,  yr  chariot  must  of 

abt.  4  loaves  2s.  p.  ........................    OJ    0  necessity  pass  by  My  lodgings  which  Ire  at  Mr.  Bob" 

Hay  for  abt.  80  horses,  computed  80.  p.              2  13    4     '  Larsan  s,  burgeon  in  Lambeth,  where  I  shou'd  be  obliged 

Oats  for        do.,                            3d.  p               100  to  you  for  a  Bow  as  you  go  by  the  window.     I  am  already 

-    3  13    4  ln.  2reat    Imputation,    from    having    been  seen   to  walk 

4  Ibs.   Wax  Candles  for  Dining  Table  extra,  privately  with  you  in  the  Gardens 

2s.  Wd  ...................................    Oil    4  lamSr 

51b&  Sperm,  for  Chandellicrs,  &a,  2s.  6d.  ____    0  12    6  Yr  mnst  nhliVrl  ft,  nlWI*   «     f 

Jibs.      do.    for  Side  Tables,  &c.    .                   076  *  r  most  oblig  rt  &  obedt  bert. 

1  11    4  THOMAS  SWITZEB. 

12  Ibs.  Mold  Candles  for  stage  Candlesticks,  HINT  TAKEN  FROM  THE  GOOSEQUILL 

^.Tano^or^;^:::::::::::::::::  c°108  8  ^MStS38£»» 

Musicians  supd.  wages    ............    4  14    6  As  a  -!•  air-one  commanded  he  came  at  the  word 

Painter  and  Horse  hire,  about  ......    1  11    6  And  did  the  grand  ofh'ce  in  tyewig  and  sword. 

Chaise  Hire  for  Musicians,  about.  ...    0  15    0  The  atfair  being  ended  so  sweet  and  so  nice 

-  —    710  He  held  out  his  hand  with—  a—  you  know  M'era  my  price  • 

Woman  In  kitchen,  meat  4  wages,  6  days,  Is.  Yr  price?  says  my  Lady-why  Sr  'tis  a  brother 

Da      in  house  3  days','  'da'.:  :::'.:::           :     0    4    I  And  Dootors  must  nevet  take  feesof  each  other. 
3  Joiners,  1  Day,  each"  2s  .....................     060 

3Labrs.  takinecare  Horses,  &c.,  Is.  6d.  p.    ..046 
2  Turners  Waiters  supd.  will  have  £1  Is.  p.  ..220 

^Sr3davVassistinginHouse,ls:6ip:    3Jji 

2  Fidlers  for  the  dance  after  supper  ...................    110 

47  17    0 
Sundry  Wines,  Spts  ,&  Ale,  &c  ...................  17    4    9 

65    1    9  -  _  __ 
j  Ibs.  Tea,  10s  ..............................    0    7    6 

2  Ibs.  Coffee,  4s  .............................    080  C  A.PT  \I\  BOVFR 

5  Ibs.  Sugar  for  Mull'd  Wine,  at  13d  ..........     0    5    5  ==, 

Bibs'    Da    forNea''us0lM.'>SC"UPStoir8'16id'    0    *    ^  ^^SSjURING  the  greater  portion  of  the  eighteenth 

12  Lemonsfor  Do.riid....:.':::::::.'.'.'.':::::    0    1    6  IB  K^il  II     century,    when    all  the    nations  of  Europe 

0Quarts0Cretla9p.rCOaee:^d'.'.'.'.'.'.'.-.'.'.'.'.'.     0   |    I  IRU     WCre   "    ^^   ^'^    ^    "*   °ther' 

2*  ESK8  ....................................    016  \£*^*^S&\     conscription  enabled  the  Continental  Powers 

^^——  ^    2    2    9A 

__  to  provide  soldiers   for  their    armies,    while  the  English 

6  Ibs.  Com.  Cands.  Extra  for  House,  Stables,  &c  .........  %    3    8*  Government  had   in   turn    to    resort    to    the    "Law    of 

Impress  "  to  procure  seamen  to  man  their  ships  of  war, 

14  Own  Ffamy.  Supr.  14s.  &  Tea  7s.  dedt  ..............    1    1    0  the  Royal  Navy  being  then,  as  now,  the  right  arm  of 

neatExpence    £55    7    2*  England.       This  oppressive    and   unpopular  law,    when 

„,,..,,,       ,          „.       T,  ,  .  brought   into    operation,    naturally    created    an    uneasy 
The   last  letter  from  Mr.    Robinson's  collection  it  is 

.,      ..          ...       ,  sense  of  individual  danger  amongst  the  sailors,  keelmen, 
necessary  to  quote  here  was  evidently  written  by  a  poor 

Gu  c*      *.   u     i       n'u           o    -i.      "j              11-  and  all  workers  on  Tyneside  whose  avocations  partook 
rub  Street   hack.     Thomas  Switzer  s  grovelling  appeal 

for  the  honour  of  a  bow  from  the  wealthy  Mr.  Belaval  is  of  a  nautical  cha!-aotCT'  and  were  made  sti»  more  hateful 

of  a  piece  wrth  his  boast  that  he  is  already  in  great  ^  the  arbltrary  and  cruel  aots  of  the  officlals  to  whom 

reputation  from  having  been  seen  to  walk  with  him  in  had   been  entrusted   the    <=^ymg    out  of    these    laws. 

Vauxhall  Determined  resistance,   resulting  in  rioting  and   blood- 

13th  May.  shed,  often  followed  the  arrival  of  a  vessel  of  war  in  the 

Sr,—  I  have  brought  two  of  my  Friend's,  Collins  and  T         ,.0n  His  Majesty's  Service"  on   the  commence- 
honest  master  Randolph,  to  wait  on  you.    I  hope  you  will 

find  something  in  the  former  as  a  Lyric  ;  and  (if  I  have  a  ment  of  a  press. 

right  notion  of  your  taste)  am  confident  that,  notwith-  Only  a  few  songs  expressive  of  the  popular  feeling  on 
standing  the  nuaintness  of  the  times,  in  which  Donne  and 

others  his  contemporaries  hew'd  out  every  line  they  wrote,  the  dolnSs  of  the  Press  Kane  have  survived  the  days   of 

you  will  desire  a  better  acquaintance  with  the  latter.    A  their  interest,  and  these  are  nearly  all  in  an  incomplete 

good  critic  in  beauty  can  discover  many  fine  features  ...       ,,.,,,    ,    i  n     ^  •     r>          •              * 

under  the  monstrous  ruffs  and  farthingales  with  which  all  form  •  but  the  short  ballad  of  CaPtam  Bover  18  one  of 

our  old  pictures  are  crouded  and  disgraced,  the  best. 

and  if  you  can  have  the  patience  to  read  a  morceau  of 
mine  written  when  1  was  a  mere  boy,  under  a  love  dis- 
appointment,  I  shall  be  glad  to  know  whether  you  can 
find  any  drift  or  meaning  in  it,  for  1  seriously  declare, 


chief,  by  Mr.  Richard  Welford,  appeared  not  long  since 
^  th    Nemastle  Weeklv  chronicle  :- 
The  first  commission  for  the  impressment  of  seamen 




was  issued  in  the  reign  of  Edward  III.  (1355),  and  upon 
occasions  of  emergency  the  practice  continued  down  to 
recent  times.  Upon  the  Tyne,  where  the  oversea  coal 
trade  furnished  an  excellent  training  ground  for  seamen, 
the  system  of  forced  service  fell  with  remarkable 
severity.  Local  annals  teem  with  records  of  riot  and 
violence  occasioned  by  the  proceedings  of  the  press  gang 
at  Shields  and  Newcastle.  Performing  obnoxious  duties, 
aided  by  spies  and  informers,  the  officers  and  men  of  the 
impress  service  were  hated  by  the  seafaring  and  riverside 
people  with  an  intensity  of  abhorrence  that  knew  no 
limit.  "Retaining  a  vivid  recollection  of  the  scenes  of 
impressment  which  I  have  witnessed  in  my  youth  in 
the  streets  of  this  very  town,"  writes  Mr.  Salmon 
("South  Shields:  Its  Past,  Present,  and  Future"),  "the 
screams  of  the  women  and  the  shouts  and  imprecations 
ot  the  men,  and  the  curses  of  the  press  gang  who  were 
tracking  like  bloodhounds  the  flying  steps  of  some  un- 
happy sailor,  just  returning  perhaps  in  joy  and  expecta- 
tion to  his  wife  and  children  after  an  absence  of  years, 
I  cannot  wonder  at  the  abhorrence  of  the  impress 
service  which  always  prevailed  among  the  North- 
Country  seamen."  To  drub  the  gang,  to  outwit  it,  to 
escape  from  its  clutches,  to  tar  and  feather  its  minions, 
were  considered  highly  meritorious  achievements,  which 
often  found  expression  in  stirring  rhyme  and  thrilling 

During  the  war  with  America,  the  Regulating  Captain 
of  the  port  of  Newcastle,  as  the  head  of  the  impress 
service  here  was  officially  designated,  was  John  Bover. 
He  had  been  a  captain  in  the  Royal  Navy,  had  seen 
service,  and  was  a  brave  and  gallant  officer.  While  he 
remained  in  office,  the  barbarous  system  over  which  he 
presided  was  carried  out  with  tact  and  discretion.  Aided 
by  his  lieutenant,  Cuthbert  Adatnson,  father  of  John 
Adamson  the  antiquary,  he  made  the  forces  under  his 
command  respected  as  well  as  dreaded,  for,  although  he 
could  not  at  all  times  restrain  the  eagerness  of  his  sub- 
ordinates to  rescue  men,  he  did  his  spiriting  gently,  and 
accompanied  by  as  little  hardship  as  the  nature  of  the 
service  permitted.  With  the  one  exception  of  the  song, 
no  ill-feeling  towards  Captain  Bover  displays  itself  in 
Tyneside  literature  ;  no  local  annalist  associates  his  name 
with  discreditable  incidents  ;  no  local  poet  perpetuates 
disagreeable  episodes  of  his  life  in  scathing  rhyme. 
Among  the  official  classes,  the  municipal  authorities,  and 
the  leading  people  in  Newcastle,  he  was  held  in  high 

When  he  died  (May  20,  1782),  aged  68  years,  he  was 
honoured  by  a  public  funeral,  "as  a  testimony  of  his 
meritorious  services  to  his  king  and  country."  Sykes 
informs  us  that  the  East  York  and  Westmorland 
Militias,  with  their  bands  joined,  marched  from  the 
parade  to  the  house  of  the  deceased  in  the  Bigg  Market, 
where  the  rank  and  file  divided  and  lined  the  street  to  St. 
Nicholas'  Church.  First  came  Grenadiers  with  reversed 
muskets ;  the  beadles  of  St.  John's  and  St.  Nicholas' 
with  covered  staves  ;  bands  playing  the  "Dead  March," 
with  covered  drums ;  the  boatswain  and  crew  of  the 
deceased's  barge;  then  the  corpse,  the  pall  borne  by  eight 
naval  officers;  Lieut.  Adamson,  R.N.,  chief  mourner,  and 
other  mourners ;  the  ensigns  of  the  militia,  and  of  the 
26th  Regiment  from  Tynemouth  ;  lieutenants,  captains, 
and  colonels,  General  Beckwith  and  Lord  Adam  Gordon ; 
the  Sheriff,  Aldermen,  and  Recorder  of  Newcastle  ;  the 
Mayor,  with  his  attendants,  and  a  battalion.  In  the 
churchyard  the  Grenadiers  fired  three  volleys,  "and 
thus, "  adds  Sykes,  "did  navy,  military,  and  civil,  with 
many  thousands  of  people  of  all  ranks,  with  the  most 
minute  decorum,  pay  the  last  tribute  to  the  remains  of  a 
good  and  gallant  officer,  and  a  worthy  man." 

Captain  Bover  was  Regulating  Captain  of  the  Port  of 
Tyne  for  twenty-four  years  at  least.  There  is  in  Mr. 
Joseph  Crawhall's  possession  a  letter  from  the  War 
Office  to  the  Commander  of  the  Land  Forces  at  New- 
castle, as  follows  : — 

War  Office,  19tt  May,  1759. 

Sir,— The  Right  Honble.  the  Lords  of  the  Admiralty 
having  represented  to  me  that  Capt.  Bover,  who  is  em- 

ployed in  raising  men  at  Newcastle,  will  soon  have  a 
sufficient  number  of  Men  to  send  round,  and  their  Lord- 
ships having  desired  tha»  he  may  have  a  Party  of  Soldiers, 
consisting  of  a  Sergeant  and  twelve  Men  to  go  up  with 
them,  in  case  the  Men  should  be  mutinous,  I  desire  you 
will  be  pleased  to  comply  with  their  Lordships'  request, 
when  applied  to  by  Capt.  Bover  for  that  purpose. — I  have 
the  honour  to  be,  Sir,  your  most  obedient  humble  servant, 

To  Major-General  Whitmore,  Newcastle. 

The  Rev.  Dr.  Bruce  informed  the  writer  some  years 
ago  that  he  had  heard  Captain  Bover  was  of  French 
extraction,  and  that  the  family  name  was  "Bouvier." 

The  tune  was  taken  down  by  the  late  Mr.  Thomas 
Doubleday  from  the  singing  of  a  street  musician,  but  he 
was  unable  to  recover  more  than  one  verse  of  the  ballad. 
In  his  opinion  the  melody  was  undoubtedly  Northum- 
brian, and  he  thought  could  be  traced  back  as  far  as  the 
latter  part  of  Queen  Anne's  time  or  the  accession  of  the 
Hanover  family.  It  is  a  tender  and  beautiful  air, 
enough  to  deserve  the  best  elforta  of  a  Burns  to  fit  it 
with  appropriate  verse. 

Where  he3     f    been,       maw       can    -    ny     hin  -  ny? 

Where  hes       ti'     be«n,         maw         win  -  some     man? 

Aw    been  ti'  the  nor-'ard  cruis  -  ing   back  and    for-'ard, 

i \ m . s =^ ^ 

—  -m—m-f  JV  :r~l V      m    2        fJI         i 

Aw  been   ti'   the   nor-'ard   cruis  -  ing    sair    and   lang, 

-jfr-fr-+--\t-=£s=         =q^= 

•ffrr1    •  It       ~  V          &^  — t — 

Aw        been 




Cruis  -  ing         back         and        for    -    'ard, 


daur  -  na  come  a  -  shore  for     Bov-er    and    his    gang. 

,  ilirtftljttrg* 

HITTON  TOWER,  anciently  Whetton,  which 
has  long  been  the  residence  of  the  Rectors  of 
Rothbury,  stands  at  a  short  distance  west 
from  the  small  but  pleasant  village  of  Whitton,  about 
half  a  mile  south  from  Rothbury.  Like  several  other 
parsonage-houses  in  Northumberland,  it  was  formerly 
a  very  strong  castlet,  »nd  formed  part  of  a  range  of 




towers  whicb  extended  from  Hepple,  about  five  miles 
further  west,  to  Warkworth  at  the  mouth  of  the  Coquet. 
These  towers  are  now  all  in  ruins  except  Whitton,  which 
has  always  been  inhabited.  In  1381,  Earl  Gilbert 
Humfranville  or  Umfraville  died  possessed  of  the  manor 
in  which  it  is  situated,  and  which  his  widow  conveyed  in 

t  a 

marriage  to  the  first  Lord  Percy,  by  one  of  whose 
descendants  it  was  given  in  exchange  to  the  Rectory  of 
Rothbury  for  the  old  hall  and  glebe  of  that  benefice, 
"  which  lay  intermixed  through  the  demesne  of  Rothbury." 
The  walls  of  the  tower,  at  the  foundation,  are  eleven  feet 
thick  ;  in  the  kitchen,  nine ;  in  the  bed-chambers,  six. 
A  vaulted  cellar  beneath  is  supposed  to  have  been  used  as 
a  refuge  for  the  cattle  in  the  event  of  a  Scottish  inroad  or 
border  raid  previous  to  the  Union  of  the  Crowns.  In  this 
cellar  there  is  a  deep  well,  which  supplied  the  inmates 
with  water  when  the  place  was  besieged  or  blockaded. 
The  tower  has  been  frequently  repaired  and  beautified, 
and  is  now  an  elegant  and  commodious  edifice.  The  Rev. 
John  Thomlinson,  Dr.  Thomas  Sharp,  the  Rev.  William 
Birdmore,  and  the  Rev.  Dr.  Drummond,  who  successively 
held  the  living  during  the  last  century,  expended  many 
thousands  of  pounds  in  enlarging  the  buildingandbeautify- 
ing  the  surrounding  grounds ;  and  the  two  Vernon-Har- 
courts,  sons  of  Edward,  Lord  Archbishop  of  York,  made 
many  improvements  about  the  place  during  their  incum- 
bencies, at  a  cost,  it  is  said,  of  something  like  four  thousand 
pounds.  The  Rector  of  Rothbury  (now  the  Rev.  A.  O. 
Medd)  is  lord  of  the  manor  of  Whitton  by  virtue  of  his 
office,  and  entitled  by  ancient  custom  to  "command  the 
freeholders  to  work  for  him  so  many  days  in  the  year  at 
the  hay  and  corn  harvest." 

l  VISIT  to  Sunderland  Church  cannot  fail  to 
recall  the  memories  of  half  a  century  back, 

j  wnen  the  Rev.  Robert  Gray,  M.A.,  was 
interred  in  the  old  churchyard.  Mr.  Gray  had  held 
the  rectory  of  Sunderland  for  eighteen  years,  during 
which  time  he  was  indefatigable  in  his  pastoral 
labours,  so  as  to  merit  and  obtain  the  most  sincere 
respect  of  the  whole  body  of  his  parishioners,  whether 
they  belonged  to  the  Established  Church  or  not. 
During  the  terrible  cholera  visitation,  he  showed  an 
example  which  only  few  of  his  clerical  brethren  were 

brave  enough  to  follow,  visiting  the  filthy  slums  where 
the  plague  prevailed  most  fatally,  and  ministering 
to  the  material  as  well  as  the  spiritual  wants  of  the 
poor  patients  to  whose  bedsides  he  came  without 
shrinking.  No  wonder  that  the  common  people,  who 
found  in  him  a  warm  friend,  ever  ready  to  sacrifice  his 
own  ease  and  comfort  for  their  special  welfare,  looked 
up  to  him  with  feelings  surpassing  common  reverence, 
and  that  the  name  of  Rector  Gray  is  still  current 



i   IS 


amongst  them  as  designating  one  who  was  a  model  of 
sacerdotal  excellence. 

Mr.  Gray's  father  was  a  jeweller  in  London,  into  whose 
debt  the  Duke  of  York  ran  deeply,  and  who  at 
length  got  his  bill  settled  out  of  a  Parliamentary 
grant  voted  to  that  illustrious  scapegrace.  Mr.  Gray 
himself  camo  to  the  North  in  1816,  as  evening  lecturer  to 
his  uncle,  Dr.  Gray,  Rector  of  Bishopwearmouth  ;  and  he 
acquitted  himself  so  well  in  this  comparatively  humble 
capacity  that  when  he  got  the  presentation  to  Sunderland 
parish,  from  Bishop  Barrington,  in  1819,  on  the  death  of 
the  Rev.  John  Hatnpson,  the  people  all  congratulated 
themselves  on  having  so  earnest  and  diligent  a  man  as  he 
was  to  labour  amongst  them,  "  in  season  and  out  of 
season,"  as  they  felt  sure  he  would  do.  And  they  were 
not  disappointed.  An  old  lady  (now  ninety-three  years 
of  age),  relates  that  she  has  seen  him  carrying  a 
lantern  and  a  basket,  on  a  round  of  visits  to 
the  poor  families  at  night,  when  few  people  could 
have  faced  the  stormy  and  inclement  weather ;  and 
many  an  aged  person,  who  may  have  been  cheered  by 
these  kindly  visits,  or  whose  relatives  may  have  bene- 
fited by  them,  could,  doubtless,  tell  the  same  tale.  Mr. 
Gray  married  a  lady  belonging  to  Sunderland,  daughter 
of  Mr.  Rowland  Webster,  of  the  Deptford  Patent 
Rojwry,  and  sister  of  Mr.  Christopher  Mating  Webster, 
of  Pallion  Hall. 

This  benevolent  and  popular  clergyman  died  of  a 
fever,  caught  in  visiting  the  sick,  on  the  llt'n  of  February, 
1838,  aged  forty-eight  years.  His  funeral  took  place  on 
the  20th,  and  old  residents  say  that  "there  never  was 
such  a  funeral  in  the  town  as  Rector  Gray's."  The 
Sunderland  Beacon  wrote  of  it  as  follows  : — "There  could 
not  be  less  than  between  twenty  and  thirty  thousand 
individuals  assembled  on  the  solemn  occasion.  The 
working  classes  appeared  in  their  best  apparel ;  and  all 
classes  and  degrees  seemed  impressed  with  feelings  of 
deep  emotion,  as  the  solemn  and  sublime  spectacle  moved 
slowly  along."  The  funeral  train  was  composed  of  up- 
wards of  seven  hundred  of  the  principal  inhabitants  of 
the  town,  a  great  number  of  carriages  of  the  neighbouring 
gentry,  and  a  detachment  of  the  30th  Regiment  then 
quartered  in  the  barracks.  Both  Jews  and  Catholics 
marched  amongst  the  mourners.  A  subscription  was 
commenced  shortly  afterwards  for  erecting  a  memorial  to 
the  deceased,  and  the  sum  received  amounted  to  nearly 
£800.  One-third  of  the  fund  was  expended  on  the  erection 
of  a  statue  of  Carrara  marble,  which  was  placed  in 
the  church  entrance,  under  the  tower,  in  March,  1840. 
The  remainder  of  the  fund  was  invested  as  an  endow- 
ment for  the  Sunderland  Parochial  Schools,  situated 
round  by  the  Moor,  which  were  thenceforth  called  the 
"Gray  Schools." 

The  sketch  which  accompanies  this  article  is  copied 
from  a  portrait  (the  only  one  we  have  seen)  made  by  a 
wandering  artist  at  the  time  the  Rector  was  living.  It 

originally  belonged  to  Mrs.  Burton,  one  of  the  aged 
inmates  of  the  old  Almshouses,  Church  Street,  Sunder- 



In  the  January  number  of  your  interesting  Monthly 
Chronicle,  I  observe,  on  page  44,  an  error  in  the  paragraph 
regarding  the  Greenhow  family.  As  the  daughter  of 
Dr.  Thomas  Michael  Greenhow,  perhaps  you  will  permit 
me  to  state  that  his  youngest  sister,  Sarah,  became  the 
wife,  not  of  a  brother,  but  of  a  cousin,  of  Mrs.  T.  M. 
Greenhow  and  Harriet  Martineau.  Mr.  George  Mar- 
tineau  was  a  son  of  David ;  the  two  ladies  were  daughters 
of  Thomas  Martineau.  David  and  Thomas  were,  respec- 
tively, the  second  and  the  youngest  sons  of  David  Mar- 
tineau, of  Norwich,  a  physician  of  Huguenot  descent. 

The  need  of  the  watchman's  rattle  which  is    shown  in 
the    accompanying   sketch     is    well    enough    illustrated 

in  the  following  lines   taken   from  an  old  bacchanalian 

song  :— 

We'll  break  windows,  we'll  break  doors, 
The  watrh  knock  down  by  threes  and  fours, 
Then  let  the  doctors  work  their  cures, 
And  tinker  up  their  bruises ; 
We'll  beut  the  bailiffs  out  of  fun, 
We'll  make  the  mayor  and  sheriffs  ran  ; 
We  are  the  boys  no  man  dares  dun, 
If  he  regards  a  whole  skin. 

The  sound  of  the  rattle,  harsh  and  loud,  could  hardly 
fail  to  bring  assistance  if  law-abiding  folks  were  within 

The  particular  instrument  figured  above  has  been  pre- 
sented to  the  Sunderland  Museum  by  Mr.  John  Moore, 
of  Beckenham.  Some  "old  Charley"  of  the  year  1820  had 
been  obliged  to  give  it  up  during  a  row  at  the  foot  of 
George  Street  (in  High  Street),  Sunderland.  A  watch- 

March  I 



man's  box  was  placed  somewhere  near  the  present 
Exchange,  and  more  than  once  it  was  found  turned  on  its 
face,  with  the  tenant  underneath.  The  number  of  "  the 
watch  "  was  but  small,  and  the  men  employed  were  old,  and 
sometimes  portly,  thus  giving  special  ad  vantages  to  young 
fellows  "out  for  a  lark."  J.  G.  B.,  Sunderland. 


A  correspondent  calls  my  attention  to  a  misstate- 
11  ii 'lit  which  occurs  in  the  paper  on  "football  in  the 
North,"  p.  55,  as  to  the  borough  of  Alnwick  being 
still  unreformed.  I  confess  that  I  must  have  been 
"oblivious,"  like  Dominie  Sampson,  when  I  wrote  to 
that  effect.  For  Alnwick  was  one  of  the  places  to  which 
the  Commissioners,  appointed  in  1876  to  inquire  into 
such  municipal  corporations  as  were  not  subject  to  the 
Municipal  Corporation  Acts  then  in  force,  considered 
that  these  Acts  should  be  applied.  In  pursuance  of  this 
recommendation  an  Act  was  passed  (46  and  47  Viet., 
c.  18),  cited  as  the  Municipal  Corporations  Act,  1883 ; 
and  in  accordance  with  its  provisions  "  the  chamberlains, 
common  council,  and  freemen  "  of  Alnwick  were  recon- 
stituted as  a  corporate  body,  in  the  same  way  as  if  they 
had  been  mentioned  in  schedule  B  of  the  Municipal 
Corporations  Act,  1835.  But  this  corporate  body  pos- 
sesses no  magisterial  authority,  the  town  being  still 
within  the  jurisdiction  of  the  county  magistrates. 

W.  B. 



A  boiler  explosion  occurred  recently  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Dunston,  happily  unattended  by  injury  to  any 
of  the  workmen.  A  man  who  happened  to  be  very  near 
the  scene  of  the  accident  got  a  terrible  fright.  Rushing 
up  to  one  of  his  mates,  he  exclaimed  in  his  terror  : — "  Is 
aa  onny  warse?  "  to  which  his  mate  replied  :  "  No,  thoo's 
aall  reet."  Whereupon  he  added  :  "Man,  aa  thowt  aa 


A  pitman  was  about  to  "  flight  "  a  favourite  pigeon 
near  the  Central  Station,  Newcastle,  when  a  policeman 
came  up  and  told  him  no  pigeon  had  to  be  flighted  there, 
because  of  blocking  the  road  up.  The  miner,  pulling  out 
his  watch  to  see  the  time  to  a  second,  said  to  his  pet  bird, 
as  he  threw  it  on  the  flags,  "Mind,  Bessy,  ma  bonny 
bairn,  thoo  hes  not  to  flee  :  se  waak  hyem,  and  say  it's 
aall  Bobby  if  thoo  dissent  win  !" 


A  few  days  ago,  in  Blyth,  two  or  three  young  ladies 
met  while  out  shoppinor,  and  the  conversation  turned  on 
the  all-important  event,  to  them,  of  the  annual  full  and 
fancy  dress  ball.  Said  one  young  lady  to  another  :  "  I  sup- 

pose you  and  your  sister  will  be  going  ?"  "  Oh !  yes,"  was 
the  reply.  "  Who  is  going  to  chaperone  you  ?"  "I  beg  your 
pardon?"  "  Who  is  going  to  chaperone  you  ?"  A  pause 
—then,  suddenly  seeing  it,  as  she  thought— "Oh  !  we 
always  do  our  own  hair  !" 


An  express  train  in  a  fog  is,  of  course,  anything  but  an 
expeditious  vehicle  of  travel.  The  other  day,  a  market 
woman,  with  her  basket  of  butter  and  eggs,  was  heard 
grumbling  aloud  to  herself,  as  the  train  cautiously  felt 
its  way  on  the  line  from  South  Shields  to  Newcastle. 
"  Stopping  agyen  !  A  bonny  express  !  It's  waaking  noo  ; 
onnyway,  aa  could  waak  as  fast !"  As  tlie  train 
approached  Gateshead,  it  jolted  over  the  points,  where- 
upon she  laughed  and  said  :  "It's  trotting  noo  !" 


An  old  lady,  known  as  Jenny  Latimer,  resides  not  a 
hundred  miles  from  Newcastle.  One  day  a  friend, 
referring  to  her  name,  asked  her  if  she  was  any  relation  to 
Latimer  the  martyr,  who  was  burnt  at  the  stake. 
"Wey,"  said  she,  "aa's  not  sartin  aboot  it ;  but  aa  had 
an  uncle  whe  wes  aythor  scaaded  or  bornt !" 

Mr.  John  James  Clay,  a  prominent  member  of  the 
Masonic  body  at  Sunderland,  died  on  the  16th  January, 
at  Ventnor,  Isle  of  Wight,  whither  he  had  removed  for 
the  benefit  of  his  health.  The  deceased,  who  was  48  years 
of  age,  was  a  son  of  Mr.  John  Clay,  of  Herrington  Hall. 

On  the  20th  of  January,  Mr.  Benjamin  Carr  Lawton, 
at  one  time  an  extensive  contractor,  died  at  his  residence, 
Fern  Avenue,  Newcastle,  at  the  age  of  upwards  of  70 
years.  A  native  of  Uewsbury,  he  came  to  this  district 
when  a  young  man,  as  a  member  of  the  firm  of  Rush  and 
Lawton,  who  constructed  part  of  the  Newcastle  and  Ber- 
wick Railway.  Subsequently  he  obtained  the  contract 
for  the  masonry  work  in  connection  with  the  High  Level 
Bridge  and  its  approaches,  and  afterwards  was  engaged 
in  making  the  branch  railway  between  Haltwhistle  and 
Alston.  The  most  important  undertaking  with  which 
Mr.  Lawton  was  associated,  however,  was  the  construc- 
tion of  the  piers  at  the  mouth  of  the  Tyne  ;  but  after  the 
works  had  been  in  progress  for  several  years,  differences 
arose,  and  the  Commissioners  assumed  the  control  them- 
selves. These  disputes  led  to  a  long  and  most  costly 
arbitration,  resulting  in  a  verdict  for  Mr.  Lawton  for  a 
large  sum.  The  last  contract  upon  which  the  deceased  gen- 
tleman was  engaged  was  that  for  the  construction  of  the 
Team  Valley  Railway  between  Gateshead  and  Durham. 

Mr.  Thomas  Kay,  who  had  been  a  member  of  the  Mid- 
dlesbrough Town  Council  since  1872,  and  an  alderman 
from  1886,  died  at  Linthorpe  on  the  20th  of  January. 

On  the  24th  of  January,  Mr.  Alderman  Edward  Lucas 
Pease,  of  Mowden,  Darlington,  died  from  the  effects  of 
injuries  received  by  an  accident  in  the  hunting  field  about 
a  week  previously.  The  deceased,  who  was  50  years  of 
age,  was  a  son  of  Mr.  John  Beaumont  Pease,  of  North 



\   1889. 

Lodge,  Darlington,  and  was  a  member  of  the  Society  of 
Friends.  He  had  been  a  member  of  the  Darlington  Cor- 
poration since  its  formation ;  he  had  also  held  the  office 
of  Mayor,  and  had  for  a  long  time  been  chairman  of  the 
Waterworks  Committee.  He  was  a  magistrate  of  Dur- 
ham, and  of  Radnorshire,  of  which  latter  county  he  was 
High  Sheriff  some  years  ago.  Mr.  Pease  had  come  for- 
ward as  a  candidate  for  the  Durham  County  Council ; 
and  on  receipt  of  information  of  his  death,  the  poll  in  the 
Darlington  (4th)  Division,  in  which  there  was  a  contest, 
waa  closed  after  it  had  proceeded  two  or  three  hours.  A 
fnsh  election  was  thus  rendered  necessary. 

On  the  26th  January,  there  died  at  his  residence, 
Weitern  Hill,  Durham,  Mr.  John  Reed  Appleton,  a 
member  of  several  local  learned  bodies.  He  belonged 
to  khe  Surtees  and  nearly  every  other  antiquarian  and 
archaeological  society  in  the  North,  and  was  a  fellow 
of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  England.  He  possessed 
considerable  literary  ability,  and  was  the  author  of  a 
number  of  poems,  which  were  collected  and  published, 
with  other  works,  by  Mr.  Tweddell,  of  Stokesley.  Mr. 
Appleton  was  64  years  of  age. 

On  the  same  day,  died  in  Newcastle,  Mr.  James  Mac- 
donald,  who  was  well  known  in  the  theatrical  profession 
as  actor  and  manager  in  the  North.  During  his  career, 
he  was  manager  for  the  famous  Sam  Roxby  at  Shields, 
Scarborough,  and  Hartlepool.  He  was  one  of  the  prin- 
cipals in  the  direction  of  Drury  Lane  Theatre  in  the  time 
of  Chatterton,  and  played  one  of  the  Dromios  on  the 
clamic  boards  of  "Old  Drury  "  in  the  great  production  of 
"  The  Comedy  of  Krrors."  The  deceased  was  a  native  of 
Newcastle,  and  was  60  years  of  age. 

Mr.  Archibald  Singers,  of  the  firm  of  Singers  and  Co., 
vinegar  manufacturers,  Newcastle,  died  on  the  31st  of 
January,  at  an  advanced  age. 

On  the  20th  of  January,  Mr.  Henry  Philip  Archibald 
Buchanan  Riddell,  C.S.I.,  late  of  the  Bengal  Civil  Ser- 
vic«,  died  in  London,  at  the  age  of  69  years  ;  and  on  the 
30A,  in  the  same  city,  died  his  sister,  Jane  Buchanan 
Riddell,  aged  77.  Both  were  members  of  one  of  the  oldest 
and  most  respected  families  in  the  North  of  England. 

Mr.  James  Stott,  nurseryman,  died  at  Alnwick,  at  the 
advanced  age  of  90  years,  on  ihe  31st  of  January.  He 
wa«  a  pupil  and  friend  of  the  late  Rev.  William  Turner, 
tht  eminent  Unitarian  minister,  of  Newcastle,  and  for 
nearly  half  a  century  he  acted  as  pastor  of  the  Unitarian 
Church  at  Alnwick. 

On  the  1st  of  February,  there  were  interred  in  Earsdon 
Churchyard  the  remains  of  Mr.  William  Short,  for  fifty 
ye»r»  foreman  engineer  at  East  Holywell  Colliery,  who 
had  died  at  the  age  of  85  years. 

Mr.  Robert  Utterson,  cashier  and  court-keeper  at  the 
Newcastle  County  Court,  died  on  the  4th  of  February,  at 
the  age  of  about  33  years. 

On  the  5th  of  February,  Mr.  James  Outterside,  a  lead- 
ing shipowner  in  the  palmy  days  of  wooden  vessels,  and  a 
prominent  member  of  the  Manchester  Uuity  of  Odd- 
fellows, died  at  South  Hylton,  in  the  78th  year  of  his  age. 

On  the  5th  of  February  was  announced  the  death,  as 
having  taken  place  at  Chicago,  U.S.,  on  January  12,  of 
Mr.  Andrew  Paxton,  formerly  of  Blaydon-on-Tyne,  in 
the  county  of  Durham. 

Dr.  John  Coatsworth  Watson,  a  well-known  medical 
practitioner  at  Sunderland,  died  in  that  town  on  the  5th 
of  February. 

In  the  Newcastle  Daily  Chronicle  of  February  7  was  an- 

nounced the  death,  which  had  taken  place  a  few  days  pre- 
viously in  America,  of  Mr.  George  Searle  Phillips,  a 
genleman  at  one  time  resident  in  this  district.  Better 
known  by  his  pseudonym  of  "January  Searle,"  he  was 
born  at  Peterborough,  Northamptonshire,  in  January, 
1815,  or  1816.  Mr.  Phillips  took  the  degree  of  B.A.  at 
Cambridge.  When  he  left  the  University,  he  gave  him- 
self up  to  literary  pursuits,  and,  proceeding  to  America, 
he  wrote  occasional  articles  for  magazines  and  newspapers. 
He  did  not,  however,  stay  there  long.  Returning  to  this 
country,  he  was,  for  a  short  time,  connected  with  the 
Leeds  Times.  But  about  the  year  1845,  he  was  appointed 
secretary  to  the  Huddersfield  Mechanics'  Institution, 
which  was  then  one  of  the  most  prosperous  societies  of  the 
kind  in  England.  Under  Mr.  Phillips's  energetic  direc- 
tions it  achieved  still  greater  success.  When  he  was  at 
Huddersfield  he  associated  himself  with  Dr.  F.  R.  Lees 
in  the  editorship  of  The  Truth  Seeker,  and  some  of  his 
best  writing  is  to  be  found  in  that  magazine.  After 
leaving  Huddersfield,  he  lectured  in  connection  with  the 
Yorkshire  Union  of  Mechanics'  Institutions,  and  after- 
wards as  agent  for  the  Northern  Union  of  Mechanics 
Institutions.  A  notable  feature  of  his  appearance  was 
the  presence  of  a  big  black  dog,  which  be  had  christened 
"Satan,"  and  which  invariably  accompanied  him  on  the 
platform.  His  first  visit  to  Tyneside  was  about  the- 
year  1848,  but  it  was  only  a  short  one.  He  came  back 
again  afterwards,  and  resided  two  or  three  years,  lectur- 
ing at  many  of  the  Mechanics'  Institutes,  and  writing 
for  various  publications,  local  and  national.  Some 
special  contributions  as  to  the  social  condition  of  the 
people  were  written  by  him  for  the  Newcastle  Chronicle. 
When  he  left  Newcastle  he  joined  for  a  season  a  gang 
of  gipsies.  He  embodied  his  impressions  of  them  in  an  in- 
teresting volume  entitled  "The  Gipsies  of  the  Dane's 
Dyke."  A  favourable  offer  having  been  made  to  him  by 
some  of  his  American  acquaintances,  he  returned  to  the 
States,  and  held  a  variety  of  appointments  in  connection 
with  the  press  there.  About  1870,  however,  he  had  a  severe 
affliction,  from  the  effects  of  which  he  never  recovered. 
In  1873,  he  was  taken  to  Trenton  Asylum  for  the  Insane ; 
but  his  case  being  declared  to  be  hopeless,  he  was  trans- 
ferred, three  years  afterwards,  to  the  Morristown  Lunatic 
Asylum,  in  New  Jersey,  where  he  ultimately  died. 

Dr.  Matthew  Brumell,  who  for  a  long  time  had  been  at 
the  h«ad  of  the  medical  profession  at  Morpeth,  died,  at 
the  age  of  77,  on  the  8th  of  February. 

On  the  9th  of  February,  Mr.  Jasper  Stephenson,  who 
was  widely  known  throughout  the  North  of  England  for 
his  breeding  and  feeding  of  black-faced  sheep,  died  at  the 
residence  of  his  son,  Mr.  Thomas  A.  Stephenson,  Mill 
Hills  Farm,  near  Haydon  Bridge.  He  was  about  70 
years  of  age. 




14. — A  sculling  match  was  decided  on  the  Tyne  be- 
tween George  Phillips  Telford,  of  Newcastle,  and  Henry 
Follett,  of  Richmond,  London,  for  £50  a-side,  the  course 
being  from  Dunston  Gangway  to  Scotswood  Suspension 


1SSO.   / 



Bridge.  The  Metropolitan  rower  ultimately  won  by 

— At  the  final  meeting  of  the  executive  committee  of  the 
Bishop  of  Durham's  Special  Church  Building  Fund,  at 
Durham,  it  was  stated  that  the  sum  raised  in  con- 
nection with  the  fund  had  reached  the  grand  total  of 
£134,915  15s.  6d. 

15.— Mr.  F.  W.  Wyndham,  co-lessee  of  the  Theatre 
Royal,  Newcastle,  was  entertained  to  a  dinner,  previous 
to  his  departure  on  a  visit  to  Australia.  Accompanied 
by  Mrs.  Wyndham,  he  left  Newcastle  on  the  30th. 

—  A  widow,  named  Louisa  Gillespie,  32  years  of  age, 
committed  suicide  by  drowning  herself  in  a  vat  of  beer  in 
a  brewery  at  Gateshead. 

16. — The  polling  in  connection  with  the  election  of 
members  of  the  Northumberland  County  Council  took 
place.  The  following  is  a  complete  list  of  the  sixty 
gentlemen  composing  the  first  Board  : — 

Mr.  Adam  Robertson,  AInwick 
Mr.  Albert  Grey,  Embleton 
Earl  Percy,  Lesbury 
Rev.  J.  Bowron,  Warkworth 
Mr.  R.  H.  Taylor,  Hamburgh 
Mr.  G.  D.  A.  Clark,  Belford 
Mr.  W.  O.  Charlton,  Bellinjrham 
Mr.  R.  B.  Sanderson,  Otterburn 
Aid.  A.  Darling,  Berwick 
Captain  Forbes,  Berwick 
Mr.  James  Gilroy,  Tweedmouth 

and  Spittal 

Mr.  J.  R.  Black,  Islandshire 
Mr.  R.  Nicholson,  Norhamshire 
Mr.  H.  N.  Middleton,  Belsay 
Mr.  S  H.  Farrer,  Gosforth 
Sir  M.  W.  Ridley,  Ponteland 
Mr.  J.  W.  Spencer,  VValljottle 
Mr.  Jacob  Wilson,  Chatton 
Mr.  Watson  Askew,  Crookham 
Mr.  George  Rea,  Wooler 
Mr.  W.  Hudspeth,  Haltwhistle 
Mr.  J.  Thompson,  Plenmellor 
Mr.  T.  Carnck,   Alleudale  and 

Haydon  Bridge 
Mr.  Hugh  Fenwick,  Corbridge 
Mr.  R.  Stainthorpe,  Hexham 
Mr.  J.  M.  Ridley,  Humshaugh 
Mr.  G.  A.  Fenwick,  Bywell 
Mr.  M.  Liddell,  Prudhoe 
Mr.  S.  Stobbs,  Slaley 
Mr.  R.  Nicholson,  Morpeth 
Dr.  James  Trotter,  Bedlington 

Mr.  And.  Fairbairn,  Bedlington 
Mr.  Geo.  Grocock,  Longhirst 
Mr.  J.  B.  Cookson,  Netherwitton 
Mr.  W.  Millons,  Widdrington 
Mr.  W.  Forster,  Harbottle 
Lord  Armstrong,  Rothbury 
Mr.  J.  W.  Pease,  Benwell 
Mr.  R.  M.  Tate,  Tynemouth 
Mr.  J.  T.  Davison,  Tynemouth  • 
Mr.  J.  P.  Spencer,  Tynemouth 
Mr.  J.  L.  Gracie,  Tynemouth 
Mr.  J.  M.  Winter,  Tynemouth 
Mr.  Aaron  Watson,  Tynemouth 
Mr.  S.  Morrison,  Tynemouth 
Mr.  J.  Eskdale,  Tynemouth 
Mr.  R.  Walton,  Tynemouth 
Mr.  H.  Richardson,  Backworth 
Mr.  G.  B.  Forster,  Blyth 
Dr.  Alex.  Trotter,  Cowpen 
Mr.  James  Routledge,  Cowpen 
Mr.  R.  O.  Lamb,  Cramlington 
Mr.  M.  Dodd,  Longbenton,  Weet- 

slade,  and  Willington  (,juay 
Mr.   J.    Simmons,    Longbenton, 

Weetslade,     and     Willington 

Mr.  Jos.  Snowball,  Longbenton, 

Weetslade,  &  Willington  Quay 
Mr.  R.  E.  Ornesby,  Seghill 
Mr.  J.  W.  Richai-dson,  Walker 
Col.  H.  F.  Swan,  Walker 
Mr.  H.  H.  Aitchison,  \Vallsend 
Mr.  L.  W.  Adamson,  Whitlcy 

The  first  meeting  of  the  Council  was  held  in  the  Moot 
Hall,  Newcastle,  on  the  24th  of  January,  when  Sir 
Matthew  White  Ridley,  M.P.,  was  unanimously  elected 
Provisional  Chairman.  The  twenty  gentlemen  elected  as 
aldermen  were : — 

Sir  M.  W.  Ridley 
Mr.  J.  M.  Winter 
Mr.  A.  Darling 
Mr.  R.  M.  Tate 
Mr.  J.  L.  Gracie 
Rev.  Dixon- Brown 
Mr.  L.  W.  Adamson 
Mr.  George  Rea 
Mr.  John  Craster 
Mr.  Watson  Askew 

Mr.  J.  R.  Carr-Ellison 
Sir  Edward  Blackett 
Mr.  John  Carr 
Mr.  James  Black 
Mr.  Adam  Robertson 
Mr.  George  Anderson 
Mr.  L.  C.  Chrisp 
Mr.  H.  H.  Scott 
Mr.  R.  Stainthorpe 
Mr.  W.  O.  Charlton 

The  second  meeting  of  the  Council  was  held  in  the  Nisi 
Priua  Court  at  the  Moot  Hall,  Newcastle,  on  the  14th  of 
February,  when,  on  the  motion  '.of  Earl  Percy,  seconded 
by  Lord  Armstrong,  Sir  Matthew  White  Ridley,  M.P., 
was  unanimously  elected  chairman  for  the  first  year. 

— Efforts  to  bring  about  a  compromise  having  failed,  the 
shipyard  workmen  at  Stockton  and  the  Hartlepools 
ceased  work.  On  the  5th  of  February,  however,  an 
amicable  settlement  was  effected,  the  masters  conceding 
an  advance  of  ?i  per  cent,  in  wages  on  all  piece  work,  and 

Is.  6d.  per  week  on  time  wages.     Work  was  recommenced 
next  day. 

17. — A  new  water  supply  for  Hexham,  drawn  from  the 
Ladle  Well  Springs,  ten  miles  distant  from  the  town,  and 
provided  at  an  estimated  cost  of  £10,000,  was  turned  on 
at  the  source  by  Mr.  J.  T.  Robb,  chairman  of  the  Local 

18. — The  Durham  Salt  Company,  Limited,  was  regis- 
tered at  Somerset  House,  with  a  capital  of  £80,000, 
the  field  of  operations  being  63  acres  of  freehold  land 
adjoining  Haverton  Hill, 

— It  was  officially  announced  that  St.  Mary's  School, 
Ryehill,  Newcastle  had  been  closed,  under  a  recent  local 
Act  of  Parliament. 

19.—  A  deputation  of  the  Northumberland  miners  made 
formal  application  for  an  advance  of  10  per  cent,  in 
wages ;  and  a  joint  committee,  representing  masters  and 
men,  was  appointed  to  deal  with  the  question.  The 
masters  subsequently  offered  a  sliding  scale,  but  this  was 
rejected  by  the  men.  The  owners,  on  the  12th  of  Feb- 
ruary, offered  an  advance  of  7£  per  cent,  and  another 
advance  of  2  per  cent,  on  the  standard  in  a  month's  time. 
This  proposal  was  submitted  to  the  vote  of  tho  men  by 

— At  an  aggregate  meeting  of  the  Amalgamated  Society 
of  Engineers  in  Newcastle,  a  resolution  was  unanimously 
passed  approving  of  the  action  of  the  Grand  Committee 
in  applying  for  an  advance  of  2s.  per  week  in  wages,  to 
ccme  into  operation  on  the  4th  of  February.  An  amicable 
compromise  was  arrived  at  between  masters  and  men. 

20. — Damage,  to  the  extent  of  nearly  £8,000,  was 
caused  by  a  fire  which  broke-  out  in  the  grocery  depart- 
ment of  the  Co-operative  Stores,  Newgate  Street,  New- 

— Mr.  Charles  Bradlaugh,  M.P.,  lectured  to  an  im- 
mense audience  in  the  Tyne  Theatre,  Newcastle,  on  tho 
British  Government  of  India. 

21. — Fifteen  persons  were  injured  by  a  railway  collision 
at  Carlisle. 

— On  this  and  the  following  day,  Mr.  J.  H.  Black- 
burne,  the  famous  chess-player,  gave  exhibitions  of  his 
skill  in  the  Art  Gallery,  Newcastle. 

22. — Lady  Eleanor  Lambton,  sister  of  the  Earl  of 
Durham,  was  married  to  Lord  Robert  Cecil,  third  son  of 
the  Marquis  of  Salisbury,  the  ceremony  taking  place  in 
St.  George's  Church,  Hanover  Square,  London. 

23. — Arrangements  were  concluded  for  the  installation 
of  the  electric  light  at  Cowpen. 

— The  Prince  and  Princess  of  Wales  visited  Middles- 
brough for  the  purpose  of  opening  the  new  Town  Hall 
and  Municipal  Buildings.  (See  page  111.) 

24. — It  was  announced  in  the  Newcastle  Daily  Chronicle 
that  a  communication  had  been  received  from  the  rela- 
tives of  Mrs.  Lough,  widow  of  the  eminent  sculptor,  in- 
timating that,  in  accordance  with  the  last  wishes  of  the 
deceased  lady,  the  whole  of  the  remaining  models  and 
statuary  forming  her  private  collection  would  be  pre- 
sented to  the  city  of  Newcastle,  for  addition  to  the  Lough 
Models  in  Elswick  Hall. 

24.— A  terrible  tragedy  was  enacted  at  Wrekenton,  a  vil- 
lage at  the  extreme  boundary  of  the  borough  of  Gateshead. 
The  victim  was  John  Graham,  a  member  of  the  Gateshead 
police  force  stationed  at  that  place,  who  was  suddenly  sefc 
upon  by  Edward  Wilkinson,  a  butcher,  who  first  stabbed 
him,  and  then  beat  him  to  death  with  his  own  truncheon. 



X  1889. 

On  the  morning  of  the  same  day,  the  man  Wilkinson  had 
been  fined  at  Gateshead  for  disorderly  conduct,  on  evi- 
dence given  by  the  unfortunate  officer.  The  perpetrator 
of  the  shocking  crime  was  arrested  at  a  late  hour  in  the 
«vening  at  South  Hylton.  On  the  30th  a  verdict  of  wilful 
murder  was  returned  by  the  coroner's  jury  against  Wil- 
kinson, whom  the  magistrates,  on  the  1st  of  February, 
committed  for  trial  on  that  charge. 

— The  130th  anniversary  of  the  birth  of  the  Scottish 
poet  Robert  Burns  was  celebrated  by  a  dinner,  held 
under  the  auspices  of  the  Newcastle  and  Tyneside  Burns 
Club,  at  the  County  Hotel,  the  chair  being  occupied  by 
Mr.  Councillor  Adam  Carse. 

25. — The  election  of  members  for  the  Durham  County 
Council  took  place,  there  being  72  divisions,  each  return- 
ing one  councillor.  The  following  gentlemen  were  re- 
turned : — 

Mr.  Theodore  Fry,  Darlington 
Mr.  Ed.  D.  Walker,  Darlington 
Mr.  Arthur  Pease,  Darlington 
Mr.  J.  L.  Wharton.M.P., Durham 
Mr.  Francis  Greenwell.  Durham 
Mr.  T.  Richardson,  Hartlepool 
Mr.  John  Horsley,  Hartlepool 
Major  Gray,  West  Hartlepool 
Mr.  Jonathan  Samuel,  Stockton 
Mr.  J.  A.  I'ease,  Crook 
Earl  of  Durham,  Lamhton 
Lt.-Col.  Sheppee,  Birtley 
Mr.  C.  E.  Hunter,  Edmondsley 
Mr.  John  Feetham,  Ayeliffe 
Mr.  Wm.  Robinson,  Sherburn 
Mr.  G.  11.  Wraith,  Tudhoe 
Marquis  of  Londonderry, Seaham 
Mr.  Wm.  Armstrong,  Thornley 
Mr.  W.  F.  Hall,  llaswell 
Lt.-Col.  A.  S.  Palmer,  Felling 
Mr.  W.  W.  Pattinson,  Felling 
Mr.  J.  B.  Simpson,  Kyton 
Earl  of  Ravensworth,  Whickham 
Mr.  Jas  Annandale,  Benfieldside 
Mr.  J.  A.  Curry,  Collierly 
Mr.  W.  J.  Joicey,  Tanfleld 
Mr.  C.  F.  Former,  Hebburn 
Mr.  Thos.  W.  Stewart.  Hebburn 
Mr.  E.  ,1.  J.  Browell,  Wustoe 
Mr.  J,  W.  Page- Page,  Norton 
Mr.  Robt  Thompson,  Southwick 
Mr.  W.  T.  Soarth,  Teesdale 
Mr.  W.  H.  Richardson,  Jarrow 
Mr.  Richd.  Handvsirle,  Jarrow 
Mr.  A.  M.  Palmer,  Jarrow 
Mr.  C.  Furncss,  West  Hartlepool 
Mr.  W.  H.  Fisher,  W.  Hartlepool 

Mr.  Thos.  Nelson,  Stockton 
Mr  Jos.  Richardson,  Stockton 
Mr.  Timothy  Crosby,  Stockton 
Mr.  J.  Lingford,  Bp.  Auckland 
Mr.  George  Pears,  Shildon 
Rev.  E.  A.  Wilkinson,  Spenny- 


Mr.  W.  Lishman,  West  Auckland 
Mr.  W.  R.  I.   Hopkins,  Witton- 


Mr.  Thos.  Douglas,  Hunwick 
Mr.  Ralph  Peverell,  Eldon 
Mr.  N.  R  Lamb,  Coundon 
Mr.  James  Lisle,  Washington 
Mr.  T.  Koliaon,  Chester-le-Street 
Mr.  S.  Galbraith,  Brandon 
Mr.  A.  W.  Elliott,  Willington 
Mr.  John  Shiel,  Elvet 
Mr.  R.  Armstrong,  Easington 
Col.  J.  A.  Cowen,  Blaydon 
Major  R,  Burdon,  Greatham 
Mr.  Frank  Stobart,  Houghton 
Mr.  John  Wilson,  Herrington 
Mr.  Lindsav  Wood,  Hetton 
Mr.  V.  C.  S.'W.  Corbett,  Rainton 
Mr.  Wm.  Jenkins,  Consett 
Mr.  George  Nicholson,  Leadgate 
Mr.  Utri<-k  A.  Ritson,  Manchester 
Col.  Leadbitter,  Esh 
Mr.  William  Morson,  Ferryhill 
Mr.  E.  G.  Marshall,  Sedge'tidd 
Mr.  W.  Palmer,  Bishopwearui'th. 
Mr.  L.  A.  Gregson,  Ryhope 
Mr.  W.  Watson,  Barnard  Castle 
Mr.  Thos.  Livingstone,  Stanhope 
Mr  Joseph  Ridley,  Wolsintrhara 
Mr.  W.  J.  Oliver,  Darlington.* 

The  first  meeting  of  the  Council  was  held  on  the  7th  of 
February,  in  the  Court  Buildings,  at  Durham.  Mr.  John 
Lloyd  Wharcon  was  unanimously  elected  Provisional 
Chairman.  The  Council  then  proceeded  to  the  election  of 
the  24-  aldermen,  the  result  being  as  follows  : — 

Sir  11  llavelork-Allan 
Mr.  H.  J.  Beckwith 
Mr.  Thomas  Bell 
Colonel  John  A.  Cowen 
Mr.  Wm.  Crawford,  M.P. 
Mr.  David  Dale 
Earl  of  Durham 
Mr.  Theodore  Fry,  M.P. 
Mr.  Wm.  Jenkins 
Mr.  W.  J.  Joice.v 
Mr.  James  Laing 
Marquis  of  Londonderry 

Mr.  R.  Old 
Mr.  Arthur  Pease 
Earl  of  Ravensworth 
Mr.  Joseph  Richardson 
Mr.  Ralph  Richardson 
Mr.  W.  H.  Richardson. 
Mr.  U.  A.  Ritson 
Rev.  A.  D.  Shaftoe 
Mr.  John  Shields 
Mr.  John  Lloyd  Wharton 
Sir  H.  Williamson 
Rev.  O.  P.  Wilkinson 

26. — It  was  found  that  an  advance  of  1£  per  cent,  in 
the  wages  of  the  Durham  miners  had  accrued  under  the 
sliding  scale  arrangement. 

27.— Under  the  auspices  of  the  Tyneside  Sunday  Lec- 

*  This  gentleman  was  eventually  declared  by  the  Local  Govern- 
ment Board  to  have  been  duly  elected  for  the  South  Ward,  Dar- 
lington, the  announcement  of  the  death  of  Mr.  Aid.  Lucas  Pease, 
the  other  candidate,  having  been  received  shortly  after  the  poll 
bad  been  opened. 

ture  Society,  Mr    John  Augustus  O'Shea,  a  well-known 
newspaper  correspondent,  delivered  a  lecture  in  the  Tyne 

Theatre,  on  "Explorers  I  have  Known."  The  chair  was 
occupied  by  Mr.  Alderman  M'Dermott,  of  Gateshead. 

— Late  at  night,  a  serious  fire  broke  out  at  the  works  of 
the  North  of  England  School  Furnishing  Company, 
Limited,  Darlington.  The  premises  were  almost  com- 
pletely destroyed.  About  half-past  ten,  a  section  of  a 
gable  end,  which  the  fire  had  not  reached,  fell  upon  the 
crowd  standing  below,  killing  two  persons  on  the  spot — a 
man  named  Hogg  and  another  called  Thomas  Boddy, 
while  a  third  man,  named  Thompson,  died  shortly  after- 
wards. Robert  Wilson,  a  workman  in  the  company's 
establishment,  died  from  the  effects  of  injuries  on  the  fol- 
lowing day ;  while  Lionel  Stainsby,  a  fifth  victim,  suc- 
cumbed on  the  30th.  On  the  4th  of  February,  a  lad, 
named  James  Ham,  died.  The  accident  also  led  to  a  fatal 
result  in  the  case  of  Ralph  Smith,  on  the  7th,  and  in  that 
of  Robert  Hall  on  the  9th,  making  in  all  eight  deaths 
from  the  sad  occurrence. 

— At  Alnwick  Police  Court,  four  policemen,  named 
Harrison,  Chambers,  Sprott,  and  Gair,  were  charged 
with  conspiring  to  give  false  evidence  at  the  trial  of  Bran- 
nagan  and  Murphy,  in  connection  with  the  Edlingham 
Burglary,  in  1879.  The  hearing  concluded  on  the  1st  of 
February,  when  Harrison,  Sprott,  and  Gair  were  com- 
mitted to  the  assizes  for  trial,  Chambers  being  discharged 

30. — The  lifeless  body  of  Mr.  William  Robinson,  rate 
collector,  Jarrow,  was  found  in  the  Felling  Pit  Pond. 

31. — It  was  announced  that  the  personalty  of  the  late 
Colonel  H.  J.  Trotter,  M.P.,  who  died  on  the  6th  of 
December  last,  had  been  sworn  at  £66,176  19s.  lOd. 


1. — On  this  and  the  following  day,  Lord  George  Hamil- 
ton, First  Lord  of  the  Admiralty,  paid  a  visit  to  New- 
castle, and  officially  inspected  the  Elswick  Works  of  Sir 
W.  G.  Armstrong  and  Co. 

— Mr.  Fred  L.  Moir,  manager  of  the  African  Lakes 
Trading  Company,  lectured  in  Newcastle,  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Tyneside  Geographical  Society,  on  "The 
Slave  Trade  of  Nyassaland,"  the  chair  being  occupied  by 
the  Mayor  (Mr.  Thomas  Richardson). 




2. — On  this  and  the  following  day,  a  severe  gale  of  wind 
and  rain  raged  in  Newcastle  and  district,  and  on  the  3rd, 
the  schooner  Alert,  of  Montrose,  ran  ashore  at  Blyth, 
the  captain,  Mr.  James  Carr,  being  drowned. 

3. — Professor  John  Stuart  Blackie,  of  Edinburgh,  de- 
livered a  lecture  in  the  Tyne  Theatre,  Newcastle,  on 

"Burns,"  in  connection  with  the  Tyneside  Sunday 
Lecture  Society.  Mr.  Joseph  Baxter  Ellis,  ex-SheriiF, 

— A  collision  took  place  in  the  English  Channel,  be- 
tween the  steamer  Nereid,  of  Newcastle,  and  the  Scot- 
tish ship  Killochan,  both  vessels  sinking  within  a  few 
minutes  of  the  crash.  Of  the  17  men  composing  the  crew 
of  the  former,  11  were  rescued.  The  crew  of  the  other 
vessel  consisted  of  25  hands,  of  whom  nine  were  saved,  but 
one  man— John  Stephen,  a  negro — died  shortly  after- 
wards of  exhaustion. 

4. — The  Right  Hon.  John  Morley,  M.P.,  and  Mr.  James 
Craig,  M.P.,  addressed  their  constituents  in  the  Town 
Hall,  Newcastle,  and  received  a  vote  of  confidence. 

5. — In  the  London  Gazette  was  printed  the  text  of 
an  Order  in  Council  constituting  a  new  parish  of  Jes- 
mond,  Newcastle,  to  be  called  the  District  Chapelry  of 
St.  George's.  On  the  evening  of  the  10th,  the  Bishop  of 
Newcastle  instituted  the  Rev.  Canon  Pennefather  as  vicar 
of  the  new  parish.  On  the  same  occasion  his  lordship 
dedicated  the  ring  of  eight  bells  which  had  been  presented 
by  Mr.  Charles  Mitchell,  of  Jesmond  Towers,  the  donor 
of  the  church.  They  had  been  manufactured  by  Messrs. 
John  Taylor  and  Co.,  of  Loughborough,  Leicestershire. 

— A  report  was  presented  at  the  fifth  annual  meeting  of 
the  Bishop  Newcastle's  Fund,  under  the  presidency  of 
Mr.  Albert  Grey,  showing  that  something  like  £70,000 
had  been  subscribed  ;  and  it  was  resolved,  on  the  motion 
of  Mr.  James  Joicey,  M.P.,  to  continue  the  effort,  and 

add  the  other  £30,000  to  complete  the  scheme  of  church 

— Mrs.  Fulton,  wife  of  a  labourer  at  Sunderland,  gave 
birth  to  three  children— two  boys  and  a  girl.  One  of  the 
boys  was,  however,  still-born,  and  the  girl  shortly  after- 
wards died. 

6. — A  verdict  of  "wilful  murder"  was  returned  by  a 
coroner's  jury  at  Sunderland,  against  a  young  girl  named 
Mary  Elizabeth  Stockdale,  whose  child,  Robert  Stock- 
dale,  14-  months  old,  had  been  found  drowned  in  a  pond 
in  that  town. 

7. — The  annual  dinner  of  the  Bewick  Club  was  held  in 
the  large  room  of  the  Exhibition,  Pilgrim  Street,  New- 
castle, under  the  presidency  of  Mr.  H.  H.  Emmerson. 
On  the  following  evening  the  Exhibition  was  opened  by 
the  Mayor  of  Newcastle. 

— The  Rev.  Frank  Smith  was  welcomed  as  the  first 
minister  of  the  Jesmond  Baptist  Church,  Newcastle. 

8. — A  terrific  gale  prevailed  over  Newcastle  and  the 
North  of  England. 

9. — A  society,  to  be  called  the  United  Tyne  District 
Labourers'  Association,  was  formed  in  Newcastle. 

10. — The  premises  of  Messrs.  Heclley  and  Co.,  drapers 
and  outfitters,  Linthorpe  Road,  Middlesbrough,  were  de- 
stroyed by  fire,  the  damage  being  estimated  at  £30,000. 

—At  the  Tyne  Theatre,  Mr.  Henry  Blackburn,  editor 
of  "  Academy  Notes,"  lectured  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Tyneside  Sunday  Lecture  Society,  on  "Pictures  of  the 

Year  :  the  Royal  Academy  and  the  Paris  Salon,  "  the 
chair  being  occupied  by  Mr.  R.  Jobling,  vice-president  of 
the  Bewick  Club. 

—  James  Robinson,  a  boy  14  years  of  age,  was  drowned 
while  endeavouring  to  rescue  another  lad,  named  John 
Elliott,  who,  on  the  ice  giving  way,  had  fallen  into  a  pond 
at  Spen  Colliery,  Elliott  being  afterwards  saved  by  some 




I    188'J. 

11. — The  Claimant  in  the  celebrated  Tichborne  case 
appeared  and  delivered  an  address  in  the  Gaiety  Theatre, 

(general  ©crarreneejs. 


16. — A  German  mission  station  at  Tuga,  Zanzibar,  was 
attacked  by  Arabs.  Many  missionaries  were  killed  and 
barbarously  mutilated. 

18. — An  explosion  occurred  at  Hyde  Colliery,  near 
Chester,  when  nearly  thirty  men  lost  their  lives. 

— An  election  of  a  Parliamentary  representative  in 
the  place  of  Sir  William  Pearce  (Liberal  Unionist) 
took  place  at  Govan.  The  result  was  as  follows : — John 
Wilson  (Gladstonian),  4,420 ;  Sir  John  Fender  (Liberal 
Unionist),  3,349  ;  majority,  1,071. 

24.— Mr.  William  O'Brien,  M.P.,  was  to  be  tried  at 
Carrick-on-Suir,  Ireland,  for  offences  under  the  Crimes 
Act.  Owing  to  a  disturbance,  the  magistrates  ordered 
the  court  to  be  cleared.  A  disorderly  scene  ensued,  in 
the  course  of  which  Mr.  O'Brien  left  the  court,  despite 
the  efforts  of  the  police  to  prevent  him.  Mr.  O'Brien 
eluded  capture  till  the  29th,  when  he  was  arrested  in  Man- 
chester, and  thence  transferred  to  an  Irish  prison. 

25. — A  telegram  announced  that  an  English  missionary 
and  sixteen  followers  had  been  murdered  near  Tan- 
ganyika, East  Africa,  by  Arabs. 

26. — General  Boulanger  was  elected  for  the  Department 
of  the  Seine,  France,  by  a  majority  of  81,550. 

—Death  of  Archduke  Rudolph,  Crown  Prince  of 
Austria.  At  first  it  was  reported  that  death  arose  from 
apoplexy,  but  it  was  afterwards  revealed  that  he  had 


2.— Miss  Susan  Cobbett  died  at  Farnham  Villa, 
Wilmslow,  near  Macclesfield,  at  the  age  of  81.  The 
deceased  lady  was  the  youngest  daughter  of  the  late 
William  Cobbett,  the  editor  of  The  Political  Register. 
Mr.  Cobbett  had  four  sons,  and  three,  if  not  more, 
daughters.  Mr.  William  Cobbett,  the  eldest  son,  was 
well-known  for  his  long  quarrel  with  the  law  courts. 
He  was  imprisoned  for  contempt,  and  he  and  his  wife 
made  repeated  and  ingenious  attempts  to  secure  his 
release  without  complying  with  the  stipulation  of  the 
judges.  Mr.  James  Paul  Cobbett,  the  second  son,  was 
a  barrister.  It  was  to  him  his  father  wrote  the 
famous  letters  that  constituted  "Cobbett's  Grammar." 
The  third  son,  Mr.  John  Morgan  Cobbett,  married  a 
daughter  of  Mr.  Fielden,  the  well-known  supporter  of 
the  Ten  Hours  Bill,  and  was  for  several  years  member 
for  Oldham.  Mr.  Richard  B.  B.  Cobbett  was  a  solicitor 
in  large  practice  in  Manchester.  The  two  youngest 
daughters,  Susan  and  her  sister,  for  several  years  lived, 
in  modest  competency,  at  Wilmslow.  The  elder  of  the 
two  sisters  still  survives.  (For  an  account  of  Cobbett's 
visits  to  the  Northern  Counties,  see  vol.  i.,  p.  467.) 

3.— During  the  arrest  of  Father  McFadden,  at  Gwee- 
dore,  Ireland,  Inspector  Martin,  of  the  Irish  police,  was 
beaten  to  death  by  a  mob.  Several  arrests  were  after- 
wards made. 

5-13.— Evidence  of  a  startling  character  was  given  before 
the  Parnell  Commission  by  Major  Le  Caron,  otherwise 

taken  his  own  life.  The  most  remarkable  rumours  were 
current  for  a  time,  and  the  rash  act  was  ascribed  to  an 
improper  alliance  with  a  lady. 

Thomas  Willis  Beach,  who  had  been  in  intimate  associa- 
tion with  the  Irish  secret  societies  in  America,  but  had 
had  all  the  time  been  in  communication  with  the  British 

Printed  by  WALTER  SCOTT,  Felling-on-Tyne. 





VOL.  III.— No.  26. 

APRIL,  1889. 


at  23itflric&  antt  tfte 


j|HE  battle  of  Culloden  decided  finally  and 
fatally  the  fortunes  of  the  young  Pretender. 
Amongst  the  families  of  the  Scottish 
nobility  who  took  part  in  this  great  last 
attempt  to  restore  the  house  of  Stuart  to  the  throne  of 
Britain  was  that  of  Drummond,  Earls  of  Perth.  This 
family  was  at  that  time  represented  by  James  Drummond, 
the  sixth  earl.  His  grandfather,  the  fourth  earl,  had  been 
created  Duke  of  Perth  by  James  II. ;  but  this  was  done 
after  that  monarch's  abdicatiou.  So  our  hero  was  sixth 
earl,  or,  if  you  have  Jacobite  sympathies,  third  Duke  of 

At  the  battle  of  Prestonpans,  and  at  the  sieges  of 
Carlisle  and  Stirling,  Drummond  commanded  a  detach- 
ment of  the  rebel  army,  and  at  Culloden  he  is  said  to 
have  led  the  left  wing  of  the  Pretender's  forces,  which 
was  principally  formed  of  the  clan  of  Macdonald.  When 
swords  were  drawn  and  guns  fired,  the  right  wing,  led  by 
Lord  George  Murray,  rushed  to  the  onslaught.  The 
Macdonalds  considered  themselves  insulted  by  this  mili- 
tary movement,  and,  in  their  vexation,  hacked  the  turf 
beneath  their  feet  with  their  swords.  Drummond  endea- 
voured to  soothe  their  wrath,  telling  them  that,  if  they 
fought  with  the  bravery  of  their  clan,  they  would  make 
their  left  wing  the  right  wing,  and,  in  honour  of  their 
'deeds,  he  would  ever  after  call  himself  a  Macdonald. 
But  the  fortunes  of  the  day  were  against  the  rebel  prince. 
The  clans  led  by  Gordon  rushed  forward  to  be  slaughtered. 
The  battle  was  brief,  but  bloody.  And  when,  at  last,  the 
rebel  ranks  turned  and  fled,  the  Macdonalds  and  their 
leader  fled  also. 

The  Earl  of  Perth  fled  from  the  field  on  horseback. 
He  rode  on  till  the  darkness  of  night  covered  the  land, 
and  then  sought  a  hiding-place  amongst  friends.  For  a 
time  he  remained  in  concealment  in  Scotland.  It  is  said 
that  he  even  returned  to  Drummond  Castle,  where  his 
widowed  mother  then  resided.  The  castle  itself  was  less 
safe  than  the  neighbouring  woods,  in  which  he  spent  most 
of  his  time,  always  disguised,  and  often  strangely  so.  He 
was  sometimes  seen,  by  persons  who  recognised  him,  in 
female  dress,  barefooted  and  bareheaded.  Meantime,  he 
and  his  brother,  and  other  rebel  lords  of  Scotland,  were 
attainted  of  high  treason  by  Act  of  Parliament.  One  day 
a  search  party  came  to  the  castle,  expecting  to  find  the 
earl  there.  Their  arrival  was  unexpected,  and  he  had  no- 
time  to  escape.  At  length  they  came  to  the  room  where 
he  was.  When  he  heard  them  at  the  door,  he  stepped 
into  a  closet  in  the  wall,  before  which  a  domestic  planted 
herself  and  stood  motionless  until  the  searchers  had  gone 
elsewhere.  Drummond  then  came  from  his  hiding- 
place,  clambered  through  the  window,  and  gained  the 
trackless  woods. 

This  and  other  adventures  convinced  him  of  the 
necessity  of  leaving  his  native  land.  He  succeeded  in 
reaching  a  vessel  bound  for  the  Tyne,  and  landed  at 
South  Shields.  From  Shields  he  went  to  Sunderland, 
where  he  remained  for  a  time,  but  at  length  removed  to 
South  Biddick,  a  village  on  the  Wear — an  abode  principally 
of  pitmen,  but  a  place  noted  in  traditions  of  the  past  for 
its  smuggling  propensities,  and  for  its  unlicensed  manu- 
facture of  spirituous  liquors. 

All  this  had  occurred  in  less  than  a  year  from  the  fatal 




day  of  Culloden.  The  earl's  only  brother,  John  Drum- 
mood,  involved  like  himself  in  tha  young  Pretender's 
rebellion,  and  included  in  the  same  Act  of  attainder,  had 
fled  to  France,  and  was  now  at  Boulogne.  From  thence 
he  addressed  a  letter  to  his  brother  at  Biddick,  dated  the 
16th  of  April,  1747 — exactly  a  year  after  the  battle  of 
Culloden — in  which  he  said: — "I  think  you  had  better 
come  to  France,  and  you  would  be  out  of  danger,  as  I 
find  you  are  living  in  obscurity  at  Hough ton-le-Spring." 
(Biddick  was  then  in  the  parish  of  Houghton.)  "I  doubt 
that  is  a  dangerous  place  yet.  .  .  .  You  say  it  is 
reported  you  died  on  your  passage  to  France.  I 
hope  and  trust  you  will  still  live  in  obscurity."  The 
brothers  continued  to  correspond  for  a  time,  but 
John  Drummond  died  at  Antwerp  in  the  same  year,  1747, 
having  never  been  married. 

When  the  Earl  of  Perth  settled  at  Biddick,  he  took  up 
his  abode  in  the  family  of  one  John  Armstrong,  "persons 
in  a  very  humble  situation,  but  of  reputable  character." 
Armstrong  was  a  pitman,  and  the  motives  which  led 
Drummond  to  seek  a  residence  in  his  family  are  believed 
to  have  been,  first,  to  allay  suspicion  of  his  rank  by  the 
humble  character  of  his  surroundings ;  and,  second,  the 
consideration  of  the  facilities  a  pitman  might  afford  him, 
in  case  of  need,  to  find  a  secure  hiding-place  in  the 
recesses  of  a  coal  mine. 

Drummond,  with  a  view  to  sustain  his  slender  finances, 
now  turned  his  attention  to  trade,  and  became  a  vendor  of 
shoes.  In  this  enterprise  he  did  not  succeed.  Between 
the  importunity  of  his  creditors  and  the  impecuniosity  of 
his  debtors,  he  found  himself  fast  going  to  the  wall,  and, 
to  avoid  complete  ruin,  gave  up  his  small  business. 

Between  the  Earl  of  Perth  and  the  humble  people 
with  whom  he  dwelt  a  cordial  and  sincere  friendship 
sprung  up.  To  John  Armstrong  and  his  wife  Drum- 
mond had  entrusted  the  secret  of  his  rank,  and  in  conse- 
quence they  took  the  most  vivid  interest  in  his  forlorn 
fortunes.  But  this  was  not  all.  They  had  a  daughter, 
Elizabeth,  named  after  her  mother.  She  is  described  as 
a  girl  "  of  exquisite  beauty,  and  amiable  disposition  and 
manners."  She  had  only  reached  about  her  fourteenth 
summer  when  Drummond  entered  her  father's  household. 
He  conceived  a  strong  affection  for  the  girl,  which  she  as 
ardently  returned — a  result  to  which  her  lover's  romantic 
career  no  doubt  contributed  not  a  little.  On  the  6th  of 
November,  1749,  there  was  a  wedding  in  the  church  of 
Houghton-le-Spring,  and  the  Earl  of  Perth  was  married 
to  the  pretty  daughter  of  the  pitman  of  Biddick.  The 
earl  was  thirty-six  and  the  countess  seventeen. 

For  a  time  the  newly-married  couple  still  continued  to 
live  in  Armstrong's  house ;  but  by  and  bye  a  baby  was 
born,  and  Nicholas  Lambton,  of  Biddick  Hall,  who 
seems  to  have  learned  the  story  of  Drummond's 
life,  gave  the  unfortunate  earl  the  Boat  House  of 
Biddick  for  a  residence.  The  occupant  of  this 
house  had  charge  of  the  ferry-boat  which  here  plied 

across  the  Wear.  The  earl  became  a  ferryman,  and  in 
the  Boat  House  he  established  in  a  limited  way  the  busi- 
ness of  a  country  shopkeeper — one  of  those  modest  mer- 
cantile establishments  where  almost  everything  of  small 
cost,  in  every  branch  of  mercery,  grocery,  and  mongery, 
can  be  purchased.  With  the  combined  profits  of  the  shop 
and  the  ferry  he  brought  up,  in  a  humble  but  respectable 
way,  a  family  of  six  or  seven  children,  'all  born  within  a 
dozen  years  after  his  marriage.  So  far  as  the  father's 
time  permitted  he  diligently  endeavoured  to  educate  his 
offspring,  and  even  at  one  time  formed  the  ambitious 
project  that  his  eldest  son,  James,  should  become  a  clergy- 
man. He  had  not,  however,  the  means  to  afford  him  the 
requisite  scholastic  training,  but  was  compelled  to  send 
him  to  work  in  the  coal  pits. 

The  second  son,  William,  was  sent  to  sea,  and,  in  time 
became  mate,  and  afterwards  master  of  a  vessel,  of 
which  latterly  he  was  also  part  owner.  During  a  pas- 
sage to  London,  he  had  the  misfortune  to  be  run  down  by 
another  ship.  The  master  and  all  hands  were  lost.  The 
collision  was  characterised  by  details  of  most  horrible 
character.  The  vessel  which  ran  into  Drummond's  ship 
appears  to  have  been  practically  uninjured,  and  might 
have  rescued  most,  if  not  all,  of  the  shipwrecked  crew. 
Some  of  these  unfortunate  men  swam  to  the  surviving 
vessel  and  clambered  up  its  sides,  but  were  beaten  off  by 
its  sailors,  who,  for  this  murderous  purpose,  had  armed 
themselves  with  handspikes  and  other  weapons.  This 
worse  than  barbarous  inhumanity  was  perpetrated  by  the 
crew  at  the  command  of  the  master,  whose  carelessness 
had  occasioned  the  calamity,  in  order  that  no  one  from 
the  wrecked  ship  should  live  to  tell  the  story.  These 
facts  were  afterwards  made  known  by  a  boy  who  was  on 
the  vessel  that  escaped.  Steps  were  taken  to  bring  the 
murderers  to  justice;  but  the  lapse  of  time  and  the  ab- 
sence of  sufficient  evidence  rendered  this  impracticable. 

It  has  been  said  that  at  thetimeofWilliam  Drummond's 
death  at  sea,  he  had  with  him  a  number  of  family  papers 
and  other  documents  which  related  to  his  father's 
title  and  claims  to  the  earldom  of  Perth.  If  this  was 
actually  the  case,  they  were  irrecoverably  lost. 

The  earl  had  been  the  occupant  of  Biddick  Boat  House 
a  little  more  than  twenty  years,  when  a  most  disastrous 
flood  occurred  throughout  the  North  of  England.  This 
was  during  the  night  of  the  17th  of  November,  1771.  The 
boat-house  was  carried  away  by  the  torrent.  The  lives 
of  its  occupants  even  were  in  the  greatest  danger.  But 
the  ferry-boat,  which  had  been  so  long  a  means  of  adding 
to  their  income,  stood  them  in  good  stead  now.  By  its 
means  Drummond  carried  his  family  to  a  place  of 
safety,  and  their  little  homestead  was  left  to  its 
fate.  When  the  flood  had  subsided,  it  was  found 
that  scarcely  a  single  article  of  furniture  had  been 
saved.  Amongst  all  the  treasures,  however,  which  they 
had  lost,  that  which  they  chiefly  regretted  was  a  chest 
This  chest  contained  "  a  tanned  leather  pouch,  or  bag. 

April  1 



or  paper  case,  with  three  pockets,  wherein  were  con- 
tained his  (Drummond's)  memorandm  book,  various 
family  papers,  letters,  documents,  &c. ;  amongst  which  was 
a  Ducal  Patent  of  Nobility,  as  it  was  called  when  spoken 
of  by  him  to  the  family,  and  also  a  favourite  diamond 
ring,  all  which  things  had  belonged  to  the  Drummond 
family."  The  loss  of  these  articles  was  deeply  regretted, 
for  it  seems  to  have  been  at  all  times  a  hope  amongst 
Drummond's  family  that  the  day  would  come  when  they 
might  claim  the  lands  of  their  ancient  inheritance,  and 
when  these  documents  would  be  of  the  greatest  value  as 
evidence  of  their  title.  The  "  Ducal  Patent  of  Nobility  " 
is  supposed  to  have  been  the  original  patent  granted  by 
James  II.  when  he  created  James  Drummond,  the  fourth 
earl,  the  Duke  of  Perth.  So  anxious  was  the  sixth  earl 
to  recover  this  document  that  he  spent  many  days  in 
wandering  along  the  shores  of  the  Wear,  hoping  to  find 
it.  He  was  doomed  to  disappointment. 

More  than  once  after  the  earl  took  up  his  abode  at 
Biddick,  he  returned  in  disguise  to  his  native  land,  and 
visited  the  scenes  of  his  early  life.  On  one  occasion  he 
went  to  Drummond  Castle,  and  asked  the  housekeeper  to 
conduct  him  through  the  apartments.  She  complied  with 
his  request,  humming  as  she  went  from  room  to  room, 
"The  Duke  of  Perth's  Lament."  When  he  reached  the 
apartment  which  once  was  his  own,  he  cried  out,  "  This 
is  the  duke's  own  room,"  and  burst  into  tears.  At 
another  time,  when  he  was  disguised  as  a  beggar,  ne 
entered  the  house  of  a  garrulous  weaver,  probably  to 
gather  up  the  traditions  and  gossip  of  the  district.  The 
clock  struck.  "  What  do  you  think  of  a  machine  like  that 
in  a  poor  weaver's  house  ?"  exclaimed  the  man  of  warp 
and  woof.  To  which  the  earl,  taking  out  his  massive 
ancestral  gold  watch,  replied,  "What  do  you  think  of  a 
thing  like  that  in  a  poor  beggar's  pocket  ?" 

Towards  the  close  of  his  life  Drummoud  was  seized  by  a 
strone  desire  once  more  to  visit  the  home  of  his  fathers. 
To  effect  a  full  disguise  a  soldier's  old  red  coat  was  pur- 
chased at  Newcastle  by  his  wife.  Attired  in  this,  he  set 
out.  In  the  neighbourhood  of  Drummond  Castle  he  made 
himself  known  to  various  persons  in  whom  he  had  confi- 
dence, and,  amongst  others,  to  a  Mr.  Graeme.  His  friend 
induced  him  to  lay  aside,  at  least  whilst  his  guest,  the 
soldier's  coat,  and  lent  him  one  in  its  place  which  better 
befitted  his  true  rank.  Throughout  his  career  he  seems 
to  have  maintained  the  bearing  of  a  nobleman  ;  for,  no 
sooner  was  the  beggar's  disguise  put  off  and  the  dress  of 
a  gentleman  assumed,  than  a  lady  who  was  present  in- 
voluntarily exclaimed,  "the  duke  looks  like  himself 
again."  It  was  no  doubt  his  distinguished  figure  which 
led  General  Lambton,  the  relative  of.  Nicholas  Lambtaa, 
Drummond's  benefactor,  to  exclaim  one  day  on  meeting 
him,  far  more  in  jest  than  in  earnest,  "  Ah,  you  are  the 
rebel  Drummond ;  111  have  you  beheaded."  Nicholas 
himself  is  said  to  have  employed  a  similar  but  milder  form 
of  greeting.  "  I  know  you  well  enough ;  you  are  one  of  the 

Drummonds,  the  rebels,  but  the  Boat  House  and  garden 
are  yours  for  all  that."  . 

The  inevitable  lot  of  humanity  <jame  at  length  to  the 
fallen  Earl  of  Perth.  He  died  at  Biddick  early  in  June, 
1782,  in  his  seventieth  year,  and  was  buried  at  Painshaw 

Two  years  after  the  death  of  James  Drummond,  sixth 
Earl  of  Perth,  the  Act  of  attainder  passed  soon  after  the 
young  Pretender's  rebellion  was  repealed,  and  another 
Act  was  passed  to  enable  George  III.  to  restore  forfeited 
estates  to  the  heirs  of  attainted  persons.  The  Act  itself, 
in  most  cases,  states  who  these  heirs  were,  but  the  heirs 
of  the  Earl  of  Perth  had  not  been  ascertained.  It,  there- 
fore, declares  only  "That  it  shall  and  may  be  lawful 
to  his  Majesty,  his  Heirs  and  Successors,  to  give,  grant, 
and  dispose  to  the  Heirs  Male  of  the  said  John 

Drummond all  and  every  the  lands. 

lordships,  baronies,  fisheries,  tithes,  patronages,  and  other 
heritages  and  estates,  which  became  forfeited  .... 
by  the  attainder  of  the  said  John  Drummond."  The  Act 
was  evidently  framed  under  the  belief  that  James  Drum- 
mond, the  sixth  earl,  had  died  before  his  younger  brother 

If,  at  this  point  in  the  story,  the  sixth  earl's  eldest  son, 
James  Drummond,  then  a  pitman  at  Biddick,  had  come 
forward  and  asserted  his  claims,  the  subsequent  course  of 
events  might  have  been  very  different  from  what  it  was. 
But  he  did  not.  He  is  represented  as  being  deterred 
from  doing  this  by  several  reasons.  He  was,  in  the  first 
place,  to  a  large  extent,  unacquainted  with  passing 
events.  In  addition  to  this  he  was  extremely  poor,  and 
scarcely  able  to  afford  a  shilling  for  any  purpose  except 
the  maintenance  of  his  family.  But  he  appears  princi- 
pally to  have  been  deterred  from  making  any  claim  by  a 
timidity  of  disposition  which  was  probably  fostered  by 
the  secluded  life  which  his  father  had  necessarily  led. 
He  lived  to  the  age  of  70  years,  and  died  at  Biddick  on 
the  7th  February,  1823,  and  was  buried  near  his  father  at 
Painshaw  Church. 

During  this  long  period,  however,  other  claimants  had 
not  been  idle.  Soon  after  the  repeal  of  the  Act  of  at- 
tainder, one  Captain  James  Drummond  came  forward, 
and  represented  himself  as  the  direct  lineal  descendant 
and  nearest  heir  male  of  James,  fourth  Earl  of  Perth. 
At  this  time  the  sixth  earl  and  his  brother  were  both  be- 
lieved to  have  died  shortly  after  the  battle  of  Culloden, 
and  the  descendants  of  their  grandfather  were,  in  conse- 
quence, regarded  as  their  heirs-at-law.  This  Captain 
Drummond  appears  to  "have  been  able  to  bring  forward 
evidence  which  satisfied  the  Court  of  Session  that  he  was 
heir  to  the  earldom  ef  Perth,  and  on  payment  of  a  fine  of 
£52,547  Is.  6id.,  the  estates  of  the  Drummonds  were 
granted  to  him  by  the  king. 

It  has  been  asserted  that  this  Captain  Drummond 
attained  the  estates  by  personating  an  individual 
who  died  at  Lisbon  four  or  five  years  before 



I  April 

the  claim  was  made,  and  who  was  the  real  heir 
of  the  fourth  Earl  of  Perth.  But  as  this  question  does 
not  affect  the  claim  of  the  pitman's  family  of  Biddick,  we 
need  not  stay  to  discuss  it.  Tbis  Captain  James  Drum- 
mond,  whoever  he  might  be  in  reality,  was  afterwards 
created  Lord  Perth,  and  died  in  1800,  leaving  an  only 
daughter,  who  afterwards  married  Lord  Gwydyr. 

The  second  James  Drummond  of  Biddick  left  a  family, 
of  whom  the  eldest  son  was  Thomas  Drummond,  a  man 
of  very  different  disposition  from  that  of  his  father.  He 
inherited  the  traditions  of  his  family,  and,  soon  after  his 
father's  death,  devoted  himself  diligently  to  the  accumu- 
lation of  evidence  of  his  heirshlp  to  the  earldom  of  Perth. 
The  first  Lord  Durham  is  known  to  have  believed  in 
Drumniond's  claim,  and  to  have  aided  him  in  collecting 
evidence  and  pursuing  his  cause.  In  June,  1831,  the  case 
came  on  for  hearing  at  the  Cannongate  Court  Room, 
Edinburgh,  when  the  jury  unanimously  decided  that 
Thomas  Drummond,  of  Biddick,  was  "nearest  and  lawful 
heir  male  of  his  deceased  great-granduncle,  Lord  Edward 
Drummond,"  and  so  had  every  legitimate  claim  to  the 
earldom  of  Perth  and  the  estates  of  the  Drummonds. 

The  time  was  now  approaching  when  the  case  was  to 
come  before  the  House  of  Lords.  The  Earl  of  Durham 
was  ready  to  exert  himself  in  every  way  in  the  claimant's 
favour.  Unfortunately,  however,  at  this  point,  Drum- 
mond incurred  his  patron's  displeasure.  The  pitman  was 
"a  tolerable  performer  on  the  violin,"  which  he  used  to 
carry  with  him  into  public-houses,  and  entertain  his 
friends  with  stories  of  his  family  history,  interspersed 
with  musical  performances.  The  company  freely  paid 
for  his  liquor,  and  he  ceased  to  be  a  sober  man.  He  used 
to  tell  them  that,  when  he  came  to  his  estates,  "worth 
eighty  thousand  a  year,"  he  would  set  them  all  right. 
But  this  was  not  all.  Drummond  must  be  prepared  to 
appear  at  the  bar  of  the  House  of  Lords; 
so  a  dress  suit  was  procured  for  him.  Anxious 
to  impress  the  villagers  of  Biddick  with  his  finery, 
he  displayed  himself  in  the  lane  dressed  as  he  in- 
tended to  appear  before  the  Lords  in  London.  Alas ! 
the  roughs  of  Biddick  assailed  him,  and  tore  his  swallow- 
tailed  coat  to  shreds.  The  night  before  he  was  to  appear 
at  the  House  of  Lords,  the  Earl  of  Durham's  butler,  in  a 
mischievous  lark,  plied  him  with  as  much  wine  as  he 
could  induce  him  to  swallow.  The  consequence  was  that, 
when  he  was  summoned  into  the  earl's  room,  he  was 
"drunk  and  incapable."  Lord  Durham  was  disgusted,  and 
refused  to  have  anything  further  to  do  with  the  claimant. 

The  case  was  at  length  heard  in  the  House  of  Lords, 
but  the  decision  of  the  peers  was  against  the  pitman. 

The  claimant  died  on  the  18th  November,  1873,  at  the 
age  of  81  years.  Some  of  his  descendants  still  live  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Biddick,  but  have  wisely  refrained  from 
reviving  their  claims,  except  perhaps  in  the  fireside  gossip 
of  the  village. 

I  have  told  the  story  of  the  Earldom  of  Perth  as  it  was 
told  by  the  Drummonds,  pitmen  of  Biddick.  There  it, 
of  course,  another  version.  The  printed  genealogies  of 
the  family  state  that  James  Drummond,  the  sixth  earl, 
died  on  board  the  vessel  in  which  he  and  his  brother  had 
embarked  for  France,  shortly  after  the  battle  of  Oulloden. 
There  seems,  in  the  case  printed  on  behalf  of  the  Biddick 
claimant,  to  be  strong  evidence  against  thi»  state- 
ment. On  the  other  hand,  Robert  Chambers,  in  his 
"History  of  the  Rebellion,"  mentions  that  in  the  chapel 
of  the  English  Nuns  at  Antwerp,  where  John  Drummond, 
the  sixth  earl's  brother,  was  buried,  there  are  elegantly 
expressed  Latin  epitaphs  on  both  brothers.  The  epitaph 
on  James  Drummond,  the  sixth  earl,  is  strong  evidence 
that  he  was  actually  dead  at  the  time  when  it  was 
inscribed,  which  was,  I  take  it,  shortly  after  the  death  of 
his  brother.  If  this  be  granted,  there  is  no  ground  left  on 
which  to  call  in  question  the  award  of  the  Drummond 
estates  made  in  1785,  unless,  indeed,  it  be  contended  that 
the  Captain  James  Drummond  who  then  claimed  and 
had  his  claim  allowed,  was  a  personator.  But,  if  this 
even  were  assumed,  it  would  in  no  way  affect  the  case  of 
the  pitmen  of  Biddick.  J.  R.  BOYLE,  F.S.A. 


I  HE  illustration  of  a  Chartist  spear,  copied 
from  a  sketch  kindly  made  by  Mr.  W.  H. 
Knowles,  architect,  recalls  to  memory  the 
political  turmoil  that  accompanied  the  agitation  for 
reform  in  the  first  quarter  of  the  nineteenth  century.  In 
the  North  of  England  especially  the  "  physical  force  " 
part  of  the  movement  is  associated  with  the  hardy 
blacksmith  community  which  had  grown  up  at  Win- 
laton.  The  organization  of  the  great  Crowley 
establishment  at  that  village*  was  originally  carried 
out  on  lines  upholding  Church  and  King  in  a 
highly  orthodox  fashion.  Even  the  celebration  of 
the  North-Country  "bonefire"  was  altered  from 
Midsummer  Day,  and  made  an  annual  festival  in  loyal 
commemoration  of  Royal  Oak  Day.  But  the  com- 
munistic principles  which  had  been  fostered  under  the 
system  of  working  grew  apace  in  latter  days  ;  and 
"Crowley's  Crew"  developed  a  school  of  independent 
and  unorthodox  political  thought  in  striking  contrast 
with  the  ways  of  the  older  time. 

It  was  thus  that  the  movement  for  reform  in  Parlia- 
ment found  staunch  adherents  in  the  Blacksmith 
City.  The  Winlaton  men  had  indeed  "thews  and 
sinews  like  their  ancestors,"  and  as  they  were 
also  the  cunningest  of  craftsmen  in  ironwork  they 
naturally  expressed  their  feelings  and  prepared  to 

*  For  »n  account  of  Growler's  Crew,  see  Monthly  Chronicle, 
vol.  ii.,'  page  97. 



enforce    their     claims 
weapons      made       by 

at  the  point  of  formidable 
their  own  hands.  These 
home-made  arms  were  turned  out  in  hundreds. 
Fowling-pieces  were  craftily  acquired. 
Pattereeriet  (the  survival  of  the  ancient 
paterero,  or  ship's  cannon)  were  also 
obtained,  and  no  less  than  fourteen  of 
them  were  ready  for  use.  Hand-gren- 
ades were  ingeniously  constructed  from 
the  strong  stoneware  material  of  empty 
blacking  bottles.  These  were  wrapped 
in  stout  canvas  bags,  filled  with  cuttings 
of  nailrods  and  gunpowder,  and  then 
fitted  with  a  fuse  passing  through  the 
cork.  But  the  characteristic  weapons 
were  those  forged  on  the  anvil  by  the 
Winlaton  men  themselves,  and  these 
were  of  three  kinds.  The  "  craa's  foot " 
(the  caltrop  of  the  military  strategist) 
was  produced  in  large  quantities.  It 
was  like  a  spur  made  with  four  sharp 
points  arranged  in  triangular  form,  so 
that  when  thrown  on  the  ground  three 
points  formed  the  base,  and  left  a  single 
deadly  point  upright.  These  contri- 
vances were  intended  to  be  sown  thickly 
on  the  roads  to  impede  the  passage  of 
cavalry.  There  was  also  the  "  pike,"  a 
light  iron  head,  made  like  a  halbert  in 
shape,  with  a  sharp  thrusting  point  at 
the  end.  It  had  two  edges,  with  an  axe 
on  one  face,  and  a  sharp,  bent,  knife- 
edged  spur  on  the  other.  The  pike  had 
a  short  handle,  and  it  could  be  concealed 
on  the  person.  Its  use  was  intended  to 
be  that  of  cutting  the  bridle  of  a  cavalry 
soldier  with  the  knife-like  projection, 
and  of  either  thrusting  with  the  point, 
or  giving  a  blow  with  the  axe-faced 
side.  The  third  weapon  fabricated  was 
the  formidable  arm  here  illustrated.  It 
was  a  spear-head,  and  was  socketed  on 
a  staff  about  eight  or  nine  feet  loner. 
The  one  here  shown  was  forged  by  Mr. 
George  Marshall,  of  Winlaton,  who  emi- 
grated to  the  United  States  in  March, 
1840.  It  is  a  really  fine  specimen 
of  smith- work  "off  the  hammer,"  no 
finish  having  been  put  upon  it  after  it  left  the  anvil.  For 
fifty  years  this  weapon  has  been  preserved  in  the  possession 
of  the  family  from  whom  it  was  obtained  for  presentation 
to  the  Black  Gate  Museum,  Newcastle,  where  it  now  rests. 
It  is  at  once  an  evidence  of  the  skilful  handicraft  of  the 
smith  who  wrought  it,  and  a  vivid  memento  of  a  turbulent 
time  gone  by. 
It  will  occur  to  anyone  that  these  arms  of  the  "  physical 

force  Chartists  "  were,  after  all,  not  weapons  of  offence, 
but  of  defence.  Pike,  and  crowfoot,  and  spear  were  chiefly 
intended  for  protection  from  a  charge  of  cavalry,  and, 
happily,  the  history  of  the  movement  does  not  record  the 
use  of  these  weapons  in  actual  conflict.  That  the  men 
who  bore  them  were  resolute  admits  of  little  question, 
notwithstanding  the  many  stories  current  to  the  contrary. 
It  has,  for  instance,  bean  alleged  that  on  slight  occasion 
panic  prevailed,  and  that  they  were  then  in  the  condition 
of  Falstaff  and  his  army- 
Scattered  and  possessed  with  fear 

So  strongly  that  they  dare  not  meet  each  other ; 

Each  takes  his  fellow  for  an  officer. 

But  the  men  of  Winlaton  were  no  such  cowards  when 
they  appeared  as  a  community  in  arms.  Their  prepara- 
tions were  made  with  the  calmest  care,  and  were  planned 
with  all  the  forethought  of  a  well  disciplined  organiza- 
tion. Every  man  had  his  post,  knew  his  instructions, 
and  was  exercised  in  the  use  of  his  means  of  defence. 
That  this  was  the  case  is  shown  by  an  episode  in  which 
the  agitation  may  be  said  to  have  culminated.  It  has 
been  described  as  "A  Memorable  Night  at  Winlaton," 
and  has  been  so  graphically  told  by  one  who  was  there 
that  it  must  be  given  in  his  own  words. 

The  narrator  is  Mr.  Isaac  Jeavons,  the  respected  secre- 
tary of  the  Blacksmiths'  Friendly  Society.  "Late  at 
night,  or  at  early  morning,"  Mr.  Jeavons  relates,  "two 
of  the  Newcastle  Chartists  arrived  at  Winlaton. 
They  brought  news  that  cavalry  were  coming  to 
search  the  village  for  arms.  The  fife  and  drum 
immediately  went  round  the  town  to  arouse  the  inhabit- 
ants. The  patereeries,  fourteen  in  number,  were  fired 
with  blank  cartridge,  then  loaded  with  grape  shot,  and 
planted  on  the  Sandhill  ready  for  action.  Men  were  told 
off,  in  twos  and  threes,  to  all  the  roads  leading  into  the 
village.  Each  party  had  a  gun,  and  their  orders  were 
that,  if  they  should  see  or  hear  the  approaching  cavalry, 
the  gun  had  to  be  fired.  This  was  the  signal  for  all  out- 
lying sentinels  to  fall  back  and  take  up  their  places 
in  the  town.  Two  of  the  Winlaton  leaders  being 
marked  by  the  authorities,  were  advised  to  keep  out  of 
the  way.  One  of  them 
was  Edward  Summer- 
side,  who  had  been  in- 
carcerated for  selling 
unstamped  newspapers; 
the  other  was  Ellison 
Clark.  Men  with  fowl- 
ing-pieces loaded  with 
ball  took  up  allotted 
positions,  each  man  in 
his  place.  Hand  gren- 
ades and  crow  feet  were 

all  planted  ready  for  action.  All  pikes  and  spear 
heads  not  required  for  immediate  use,  were  stowed 
away  and  hidden.  The  places  of  the  two  leading 
Chartists,  who  had  been  urged  away,  were  taken 

"A  OEAA  poor." 



I  April 
I    1989. 

by  earnest  men  who  were  seen  going  about  from  place 
to  place  conversing  in  undertones  with  the  men  at 
their  various  posts.  Happily,  the  news  brought  from 
Newcastle  proved  to  be  a  false  alarm,  and  the  excitement 
subsided  as  daylight  appeared.  The  episode,  however, 
formed  a  turning  point  in  the  history  of  the  movement  at 
Winlaton,  for  after  this  some  of  the  Chartists  there  began 
to  lose  faith  in  the  Newcastle  branch,  and  the  agitation 
gradually  began  to  subside. " 

Mr.  Jeavons  well  remembers  two  of  the  general 
leaders  of  the  Chartist  movement.  "During  the  agi- 
tation," he  says,  "  Mr.  George  Julian  Harney  used 
to  stop  in  Winlaton  for  weeks  together.  Mr.  Harney 
was  well  known  and  greatly  respected  among  the  men  for 
his  genial  conversation  and  manners.  His  buoyant  youth, 
his  hearty  laugh,  his  favourite  song,  and  the  very  tone 
and  accent  of  his  voice  are  recollected.  The  great 
Chartist  lecturer,  Dr.  Taylor,  was  for  some  time  concealed 
here,  when  there  was  a  warrant  out  for  his  apprehension ; 
L~t  it  began  to  be  suspected  that  he  was  in  Winlaton,  and 
he  was  in  consequence  sent  away  to  Alston  or  its  neigh- 
bourhood, where  soon  after  he  was  apprehended  and  im- 

This  narrative  of  an  eye-witness  enables  ns  to  realize 
vividly  how  near  to  our  own  days  and  to  our  own  doors 
the  peril  of  a  civil  war  was  laid,  and  it  gives  a  reality  to 
the  memento  of  the  times  preserved  in  this  Chartist 

(Svfftttf  Hufte  iJuftrrlffd  at 

ilHEN  the  allied  sovereigns  visited  England 
after  the  overthrow  of  Napoleon,  Alexander 
I.,  the  Emperor  of  Russia,  was  accompanied 
by  his  brother  Nicholas,  afterwards  destined  to  become 
Emperor  himself.  The  Grand  Duke  Nicholas  (for  such 
was  his  then  rank),  anxious  to  see  something  of  the 
method  of  working  coals  in  this  country,  came  down 
to  the  North  to  acquire  the  knowledge  he  needed. 

Among  the  prominent  people  to  whom  he  was  furnished 
with  letter?  of  introduction  was  the  Rev.  Dr.  Gray,  then 
Rector  of  Bishopwearmouth,  afterwards  Bishop  of  Bris- 
tol. Dr.  Gray  introduced  him  to  Dr.  Clanny,  showed  him 
the  bridge  over  the  Wear,  and  entertained  him  to 
lunch  in  the  Rectory.  Subsequently,  the  Grand  Duke, 
in  company  with  his  suite,  which  consisted  of  Sir  William 
Congreve,  the  inventor  of  the  Congreve  rocket,  and 
some  half  dozen  Russian  noblemen  in  military  uniform, 
set  out  for  Newcastle.  Here  he  visited  the  Royal 
Jubilee  School,  through  which  he  was  shown  by  the 
Rev.  William  Turner,  the  celebrated  Unitarian  minister. 
Here  likewise  he  inspected,  with  much  curiosity  and 
interest,  several  beautiful  specimens  of  wood  engraving 

laid  before  him  by  Mr.  Thomas  Bewick.  The  Grand 
Duke  was  invited  by  the  Mayor  (Sir  Thomas  Burdon)  to 
partake  of  the  hospitalities  of  the  town,  but  these  were 
courteously  declined  on  the  plea  of  other  engagements. 
Afterwards  he  paid  a  visit  to  Alnwick  Castle. 

The  "illustrious  stranger"  arrived  at  Wallsend  on 
December  16,  1816.  Mr.  John  Buddie,  the  viewer  of  the 
colliery,  had  received  instructions  to  show  his  Highness 
all  that  was  to  be  seen,  both  above  and  below  ground, 
and  make  him  fully  acquainted  with  the  mode  of  winning 
and  working  the  coal,  ventilating  the  pits,  &c.  He  was 
taken  to  Mr.  Buddie's  residence,  which  was  situated 
in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  the  principal  pit  ;  and  there 
he  was  politely  asked  to  take  off  his  glittering  uniform 
and  orders,  and  put  on  the  dress  worn  by  a  deputy-over- 
man, consisting  of  thick  flannel  trousers  and  a  jacket  of 
the  same.  This  metamorphosis  he  accordingly  under- 
went, and  was  then  escorted  to  the  mouth  of  the  pit 
down  which  he  was  to  be  lowered. 

As  almost  all  our  readers  doubtless  know,  the  pits  are 
round  holes,  of  about  10  feet  in  diameter,  sunk  into  the 
earth  to  the  depth  in  some  cases  of  300  fathoms,  nearly 
one-third  of  a  mile,  and  divided  by  a  wooden  partition  or 
brattice  the  whole  way  down,  so  as  to  form  two  shafts, 
one  known  as  the  upcast  and  the  other  the  downcast. 
Before  the  general  adoption  of  Fourdrinier's  apparatus, 
the  mode  of  descending  a  shaft  was  either  by  entering  a 
large  basket  or  corve  used  for  hauling  up  the  coals,  or  by 
putting  one  leg  through  a  large  iron  hook  at  the  end  of 
the  rope  and  clinging  by  the  hands  to  the  chain  to  which 
it  was  appended.  The  latter  mode,  contrary  to  what 
might  be  imagined,  was  the  best  and  safest,  and  for  this 
reason,  that  the  basket  was  liable  to  catch  the  sides  of  the 
pit,  and  be  thus  turned  upside  down.  Each  person  was 
provided  with  a  short  stick  to  keep  himself  from  grazing 
the  black  and  dripping  walls  as  he  proceeded  downwards, 
and  the  rapidity  of  the  descent  was  such  as  to  render  this 
precaution  highly  expedient. 

Wallsend  pit  was  at  that  period  in  the  full  enjoyment 
of  its  fame  as  sending  up  the  finest  coals  in  the  world,  and 
on  this  account  it  had  been  selected  to  give  the  Russian 
prince  the  best  possible  idea  of  what  a  coal  pit  was  like, 
and  how  it  was  worked  so  profitably  as  to  nett  its  owners 
an  annual  income  of  fifty  or  sixty  thousand  pounds. 
There  were  no  coal  mines  of  any  consequence  then 
in  Russia,  and  Nicholas  had  never  seen  one  in  his 
life.  What  idea  he  had  formed  in  his  own  mind 
of  a  coal  pit  it  is  impossible  to  say  ;  but  it  is  to  be  pre- 
sumed that  he  had  either  thought  little  about  the  matter 
or  been  very  wrongly  informed  on  the  subject.  For  when 
Mr.  Buddie  escorted  him  up  the  ladder  leading  to  the 
platform  of  the  pit-mouth,  and  introduced  him  to  the 
scene  of  operations,  he  stopped  suddenly  short,  and 
asked  with  alarm  whether  that  was  really  the  place  to 
which  he  had  been  recommended  to  come.  Upon  being 
assured  that  such  was  actually  the  case,  he  went  forward 



to  the  very  edge  of  the  pit,  and  attempted  to  look  down 
into  the  Tartarean  abyss,  up  which  a  blinding  smoke  was 
rising ;  then,  stepping  precipitately  back,  and  holdincr  up 
his  hands  in  horrified  amazement,  he  exclaimed  in 
French,  "Ah!  my  God,  it  is  the  mouth  of  hell! — none 
but  a  madman  would  venture  into  it ! "  After  uttering 
these  words,  he  hastily  retreated,  made  his  way  back  to 
Mr.  Buddie's  house,  and  there,  slipping  off  his  coarse, 
vulgar  flannels  as  quickly  as  he  could,  again  assumed  his 
splendid  uniform  of  a  Russian  general,  with  the  badges 
of  half  the  military  orders  in  Europe  hung  about  him. 
Then,  without  a  minute's  delay,  he  left  Wallsend  Colliery 
far  behind  him,  never  to  attempt  the  exploration  of 
another  coal  mine. 

(JAMES  HOGG,  the  Ettrick  Shepherd,  though 
not  a  native  of  the  district,  was  more 
familiar  with  every  part  of  the  Border 
country  south  of  the  Cheviots  than  any  person  to  the 
manner  born.  His  capital  story  of  "The  Long  Pack," 
which  is  re-printed  in  the  Monthly  Chronicle,  vol.  i.,  p. 
250,  is  enough  to  entitle  him  to  rank  among  the  literary 
lions  of  Northumberland.  Hogg  was  in  the  habit  of 
singing  the  following  song  to  the  tune  of  "The  Laird  o' 
Cockpen, "  when  on  a  visit  to  his  friends  in  Reedsdale : — 

O  the  de'il's  in  the  lasses,  they  taigle  us  sae, 
They're  sweet  as  the  hawthorn— they're  sour  as  the  slae  ; 
Though  their  souls  seem  as  pure  as  the  down  on  the  swan, 
They  would  gan  to  auld  Nick  for  a  gallant  young  man. 
There  were  three  bonny  lasses  that  wonn'd  in  a  glen, 
They  wanted  for  naething  but  gallant  young  men  ; 
They  had  gowd  in  their  coffers,  and  dwelt  in  a  ha', 
But  they'd  nae  ane  to  lie  between  them  and  the  wa'. 
Now  the  brown  leaves  were  strewn  upon  Otterburn  lea, 
And  the  robin  was  pourin'  his  plaint  fra  the  tree  ; 
And  the  wood  flowers  that  late  were  sae  blopmin'and  gay, 
Drooped  lowly  and  breathed  their  sweet  spirits  away, 

While  these  three  dainty  dames  sat  alone  in  their  ha', 
Wi'  their  cheek  on  their  hand,  like  arose  'mang  the  snaw ; 
O  there's  fifty  braw  fallows  would  hae  mounted  and  run 
Had  they  ken'd  what  thae  lasses  were  thinkin'  upon. 

Then  out  spoke  wee  Annie,  the  youngest  of  a' — 
Like  the  dew  frae  young  rosebuds  her  accents  did  fa' — 
"  Charlie  says  that  he  loves  me,  but  does  na  he  ken 
That  I've  seen  the  bud  blossom  these  aught  years  and  ten?" 

Then  Marion  whisper'd— I  ne'er  could  tell  what, 
Twas  something  'bout  Sandy,  the  Laird  o'  Dunlat ; 
And  Jean  shook  down  a  shower  o'  loose  ringlets  like  gowd, 
And  said  Robin  was  free,  baith  to  them  and  the  snood.* 

Thae  lasses  were  mad  each  to  hae  a  gudeman, 

Their  aiths  they   hae  pledged— they  hae  plighted  their 


They  have  trysted  to  meet  at  the  mirk  hour  o'  twar, 
And  to  learn  the  hail  truth— tho'  they  wrench'd  it  frae 


They  met,  and  their  deevilish  cantrips  they  tried, 
Wi'  each  a  lang  rowan  treet  wand  by  her  side ; 

*  The  snood,  or  snudge,  was  a  fillet  or  ribbon,  the  wearing  of 
which  was  the  mark  of  maidenhood. 

t  The  rowan,  roun,  roan,  or  royne-tree,  the  mountain  ash,  was 
believed  to  be  a  sure  preservative  against  witchcraft 

They  shiver'd,  and  summon'd  the  spirits  below 
To  say  gin  they  e'er  sud  be  wedded  or  no. 

When,  dreadfu"  to  sing  o',  three  demons  appear, 
Wi'  a  black  hairy  hide  frae  their  hoof  to  their  ear, 
And  a  tail  playin'  plisk  their  rough  hurdies  between, 
As  deevils  o'  credit  hae  always  been  seen  ! 

"  We  ken  what  ye're  seekin',"  ae  deevil  did  say, 

But  Jeanie  and  Annie  had  clean  swarf'd  away, 

When  twa  o'  the  demons  sprang  out  wi'  a  yell, 

And  caught  the  poor  things  to  their  breasts  ere  they  fell. 

O  wha  ever  heard  o'  sic  deevils  as  mine  ? 
They  leapt  frae  their  hides  in  a  moment  o'  time ; 
Each  mounted  his  bride  on  a  braw  mettled  steed, 
And  awa'  for  the  Border  at  top  o'  their  speed. 

Now  at  Gretna  thae  damies  awoke  the  next  morn, 
What  had  passed  in  the  mirk  hours  I  never  could  learn ; 
But  when  Phcebus  keek'd  into  their  chamber,  he  saw 
That  they'd  somebody  laid  between  them  an'  the  wa' ! 


j]MMORTALISED  by  Scott  in  the  stirring 
rhythm  of  "Marmion,"  depicted  with 
wondrous  beauty  and  effect  by  Turner's 
magic  touch,  and  filling  many  a  page  of 
history  with  all  the  charm  of  romance,  "Norham's 
castled  steep,"  as  it  stands  beetling  over  "Tweed's  fair 
river  broad  and  deep,"  is  an  ideal  scene  of  the  Borderland. 
Its  stern,  embattled  front  tells  the  story  of  much  strife 
and  trouble,  and  still  we  see  the  "  loophole  grates  "  where 
captives  were  wont  to  weep ;  but  times  have  changed 
since  the  real  Marmion  with  his  golden  helm  rode 
single-handed  into  a  throng  of  hostile  Scots,  "all 
for  the  love  of  his  ladye."  Norham  was  then 
deemed  "  the  daungerest  place  in  England  " ;  it  is  now  a 
peaceful  pastoral  scene,  and,  under  the  softening  hand  of 
Time,  the  old  keep  attracts  no  more  attention  than  as  a 
monument  of  a  martial  period. 

Even  since  Turner  painted  his  famous  picture  of 
"Norham  Castle,"  in  which  in  imagination  we  can 
see  the  turrets  shining  "in  yellow  lustre,"  the  aspect  of 
the  keep  has  altered,  for  trees  are  gradually  spreading  up 
the  slope  of  the  hill,  and,  viewed  from  the  Village 
Cross,  half  a  mile  away,  the  square  tower  is  half 
hidden  by  its  umbrageous  robes.  Into  one  of  the 
flanking  walls,  too,  a  gardener's  cottage  has  been 
built,  and  visitors  from  far  and  near— by  road,  rail, 
or  river — can  bear  testimony  to  the  excellence  of  the 
gardener's  fruit,  and  the  choice  flavour  of  his  goodwife's 
tea,  when  served  in  the  romantic  shelter  of  the  Marmion 
Arch.  Through  this  archway,  it  is  supposed,  Sir  William 
Marmion  rode  full  tilt  at  his  enemies ;  and  through  this 
archway  also,  in  ascending  the  hill,  the  visitor  obtains  a 
pretty  glimpse  in  perspective  of  the  keep  within.  Our 
view  given  in  the  larger  illustration — taken  from  a  water- 
colour  drawing  by  Mr.  C.  X.  Sykes— is  that  selected  by 
Landseer  for  his  painting  of  the  Castle,  his  standpoint 
being  on  a  mound  a  little  to  the  right  of  the  Marmion 



Arch.  The  smaller  illustration  presents  the  southern 
view  of  the  keep,  and  the  door  to  be  seen  at  the  bottom 
of  the  building  affords  access  to  the  dungeon. 

The  Castle  grounds  are  now  kept  with  great  care. 
Thanks  to  the  artistic  taste  of  Mr.  H.  E.  H.  Jerningham 
— Mrs.  Jerningham,  of  Longridge  Towers,  being  the 
proprietrix — rustic  gates  have  been  fixed  in  various  por- 
tions of  the  ruins,  and  advantage  has  been  taken  of  an 
outstanding  portion  of  the  works  on  the  northern  side  to 
erect  a  grassy  platform  which  commands  a  view  of 
th»  interior  of  the  keep  as  well  as  of  the  valley 
of  the  Tweed.  In  the  gardener's  cottage  will  be 
found  a  visitors'  book,  which  bears  many  notable 
signatures,  including  the  caligraphy  of  Count 
Herbert  von  Bismarck  and  M.  Gambetta.  The 
latter,  however,  wrote  an  assumed  name.  Mr.  Jerning- 
ham, we  need  hardly  say,  is  the  author  of  the  most  reliable 
work  to  be  had  on  Norham  Castle.  The  book,  which  also 
deals  with  early  Christianity  in  the  North,  is  written  in  a 
graceful  and  picturesque  style,  and  is  published  in  a 
tasteful  form  by  Mr.  William  Paterson,  of  Edinburgh. 

Camden  describes  the  Castle  as  having  "  an  outer  wall 
of  great  compass,  with  many  little  towers  in  the  angle 
next  the  river,  and,  within,  another  circular  wall  much 
stronger,  in  the  centre  whereof  rises  a  loftier  tower." 
Part  of  the  ruins  have  been  undermined  by  the 
river,  and  little  remains  except  the  great  keep 

tower,  70ft.  high,  and  the  double  gateway,  which  led  to 
the  bridge  over  the  ancient  moat,  now  a  green  hollow. 
The  Castle  was  originally  built  by  Ralph  Flambard  in 
1121,  but  was  taken  and  partially  destroyed  by  David, 
King  of  Scots,  in  1138.  It  was  subsequently  restored  by 
Bishop  Pudsey,  who  built  the  great  tower  in  1154.  King ' 
John  had  three  conferences  here  with  William  the  Lion  of 
Scotland — one  in  1203,  another  in  1209,  and  yet  another 
two  years  later.  That  in  1209  was  respecting  a  castle 
at  Tweedmouth,  which  John  had  twice  tried  to  build, 
and  William  had  as  often  pulled  down  ;  and  at  the 
meeting  in  1211  peace  was  ratified  by  the  interven- 
tion of  Queen  Ermengard  of  Scotland.  In  1215  King 
John  besieged  Norham  to  revenge  the  homage  paid 
by  the  Northumbrian  barons  to  Alexander  of  Scotland  ; 
but,  being  unsuccessful,  he  was  obliged  to  raise  the  siege 
in  40  days.  In  1286  Edward  I.  met  the  Scottish  noblea 
at  Norham,  and  afterwards  called  a  parliament  at 
Upsetlington,  on  the  other  side  of  the  Tweed,  to  settle 
his  claims  to  the  throne  of  Scotland.  John  Baliol  swore 
fealty  in  Norham.  In  1318  the  Castle,  then  governed  by 
Sir  Thomas  Gray,  was  besieged  by  the  Scots,  but  without 
effect,  in  spite  of  two  forts  which  they  raised  against  it 
at  Norham  and  Upsetlington.  In  1322  it  was  taken  by 
the  Scots,  but  retaken  by  Edward  after  a  ten  days'  siege. 
On  the  night  of  Edward  III. 'a  coronation,  the  Scots 
again  besieged  it,  and  took  it  in  the  following  year.  In 

CastU    from    Thi   WcsT.  SK-r^-^-Jv—S—SL—  -_---rr-_-J^-.^    r--~~~-~-.~-^-—^=~~==^:~~- 



1355  it  was  again  taken  and  plundered.  In  the  time  of 
Henry  VII.  it  was  besieged,  but  was  relieved  by  Fox, 
Bishop  of  Durham,  and  the  Earl  of  Surrey.  It  was 
finally  assaulted  just  before  the  battle  of  Flodden  Field, 
and  was  taken  through  the  advice  of  a  traitor,  who  urged 
the  Scots  to  descend  from  Ladykirk  Bank  to  Gin  Haugh, 
a  flat  ground  by  the  river,  and  thence  to  throw  down  the 
north-east  corner  of  the  wall  with  their  cannon : — 

So  when  the  Scots  the  walls  had  won, 

And  rifled  every  nook  and  place. 
The  traitor  came  to  the  king  anon, 

But  for  reward  met  with  disgrace. 

"Therefore  for  this  thy  traitorous  trick 

Thou  shalt  be  tried  in  a  trice ; 
Hangman,"  therefore  quoth  he,  "be  quick  ; 

The  groom  shall  have  no  better  price." 

—Ballad  oj  Flodden. 

In  1603  Bishop  Mathew  devised  the  Castle  to  the 
Crown.  Dr.  George  Carleton,  the  biographer  of  Bernard 
Gilpin,  was  born  here,  while  his  father  was  keeper  of  the 
Castle.  "It  were  a  wonderful  processe,"  says  Leland, 
"  to  declare  what  mischefes  cam  by  hungre  and  asseges 
by  the  space  of  eleven  yeres  in  Northumbreiand  ;  for  the 
Scottes  became  so  proude  after  they  got  Berwick,  that 
they  nothing  esteemid  the  Enelischmen. " 

An  incident  occurred  at  Norham  which  was  not  only 
woven  by  Bishop  Percy  into  his  ballad  of  the  "  Hermit  of 
Warkworth,"  but  also,  perhaps,  guided  Sir  Walter  Scott 
in  the  choice  of  Marmion  as  his  hero.  Leland  tells  that 
in  the  time  of  Edward  II.  a  great  feast  was  made  in 
Lincolnshire,  at  which  a  maiden  brought  a  helm  of  gold 
to  Sir  William  Marmion,  "with  a  letter  of  commaunde- 
ment  of  her  lady,  that  he  should  go  into  the  daungerest 
place  in  England,  and  there  let  his  heualme  to  be  aeene 
and  knowne  as  famous."  "  So,"  continues  Leland,  "he 
went  to  Norham,  whither,  withyn  four  dayes  of  cumming, 
cam  Philip  Moubray,  Gardian  of  Berwike,  having  in  his 
band  140  men  of  armes,  the  very  flowr  of  men  of  the 
Scottisch  marches.  Thomas  Gray,  Capitayne  of  Norham, 
seying  this,  brought  his  garison  afore  the  bariers  of  the 
castel,  behynd  whom  cam  William  Marmion,  richely 
arrayed,  as  all  glittering  in  golde,  and  wearing  the 
heualme  as  his  lady's  present.  Then  said  T.  Gray  to 
Marmion,  '  Sir  Knight,  ye  be  cum  hither  to  fame  your 
heualme :  mount  upon  yor  horse,  and  ride  like  a  valiant 
man  to  yon  army,  even  here  at  hand,  and  I  forsake  God 
if  I  rescue  not  thy  body,  deade  or  alyve,  or  I  myself  wyl 
dye  for  it.'  Whereupon  he  took  his  cursore,  and  rode 
among  the  throng  of  enemyes  :  the  which  layd  sore  stripes 
on  him,  and  pullid  hym  at  the  last  oute  of  his  sadel  to  the 
ground.  Then  T.  Gray,  with  the  whole  garrison,  lette 
pryk  yn  emong  the  Scottes,  and  so  wonded  them  and 
their  horses  that  they  were  overthrowen,  and  Marmion, 
sore  beten,  was  horsid  agayn,  and  with  Gray  perseuid 
the  Scottes  in  chase.  There  was  taken  50  horses  of  price ; 
and  the  women  of  Norham  brought  them  to  the  footemen 
to  follow  the  chase." 

Though  several  villas  have  sprung  up  of  late,  the  village 

of  Norham  consists  chiefly  of  a  single  wide  street,  with  a 
green,  in  the  centre  of  which  stands  a  queer  pyramidal 
cross.  It  was  anciently  called  Ubbanford,  and,  being  the 
capital  of  the  district  of  Norhamshire,  was  the  place 
where  the  bishops  of  Durham  exercised  justice  and  held 
their  exchequer.  The  Culdees,  missionaries  from  lona, 
are  said  to  have  first  preached  the  gospel  in  Northumber- 
land in  this  place.  Gospatrick,  Earl  of  Northumberland, 
died  here,  and  was  buried  in  the  church  porch. 

A  church  was  built  here  by  Egfrid,  Bishop  of  Lindis- 
farue,  and  dedicated  to  St.  Peter,  St.  Cuthbert,  ind  St. 
Ceolwulf,  and  hither  Egfrid  caused  the  remains  of  the 
Royal  Ceolwulf  (to  whom  Bede  dedicated  his  church 
history)  to  be  brought  from  Lindisfarne.  Ceolwulf's  feast 
was  kept  with  much  solemnity,  and  the  country  people 
used  to  come  on  that  day  to  make  offerings  at  his  shrine. 

The  feast  of  the  translation  of  St.  Cuthbert's  body  was 
also  observed  here  with  great  splendour  on  the  first 
Sunday  and  Monday  after  the  4th  of  September.  A 
stone  discovered  in  Norham  bears  the  effigies  of 
St.  Peter,  Cuthbert,  and  Ceolwulf.  The  present  Church  of 
St.  Cuthbert  is  a  handsome  building,  having  a  massive 
tower,  with  Norman  zigzag  arches.  It  was  modernized 
1846-52,  and  restored  at  the  instance  of  the  Rev.  Canon 
Waite  about  five  years  ago.  The  nave  has  a  Norman 
arcade  of  five  bays.  The  church  is  Norman,  but  the  east 
end  is  Early  Decorated.  It  contains  the  figure  of  a  knight 
under  a  bold  Decorated  canopy ;  also  the  effigy  by  Lough 
11857)  of  a  former  rector,  Dr.  Gilly,  author  of  the  "  His- 
tory of  the  Waldenses."  The  stained  glass  is  by  Ballan- 
tine.  The  church  had  formerly  three  chantries,  and  pos- 
sessed the  privilege  of  37  days'  sanctuary. 
There  is  a  pleasant  walk  by  the  riverside.  On  the  oppo- 



site  bank  are  the  woods  of  Ladykirk,  with  the  church, 
dedicated  by  Jamea  IV.  to  the  Virgin  in  gratitude  for 
having  been  preserved  from  drowning  in  a  dangerous 
passage  of  the  Tweed. 

j]R.  THOMAS  SOPWITH,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  was 
born  in  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  on  January  3rd, 
1803,  his  father  being  a  large  cabinetmaker 
and  joiner  in  the  town.  To  this  trade  he  was  first 
apprenticed  ;  but  the  bent  of  his  mind  was  altogether  in 
the  direction  of  literary  and  scientific  pursuits,  and  he 
soon  gave  up  the  practical  part  of  his  father's  business. 

When  he  had  finished  his  apprenticeship,  he  left  the 
cabinetmaker's  bench,  and  studied  land  and  mining  sur- 
veying under  Mr.  Dickinson  at  Alston  Moor.  In  these 
branches  he  became  so  competent  and  useful  that  Mr. 
Dickinson  took  him  into  partnership.  He  remained  at 
Alston  four  years,  and  prepared,  in  conjunction  with  his 
partner,  all  the  plans  and  sections  of  the  lead  mines  in 
Alston  belonging  to  the  Greenwich  Hospital.  About  the 
same  time,  also,  he  was  employed  in  similar  work  for 
the  Corporation  of  Newcastle  and  others.  He  found 
time,  too,  to  publish  an  account  with  plans  of  the  interior 
of  All  Saints'  Church,  Newcastle-on-Tyne.  The  etched 
plans  and  sections  of  the  great  Hudgill  Burn  Lead  Mine, 
having  been  seen  by  the  learned  Dr.  Buckland,  professor 
of  geology,  led  to  an  intimacy  between  the  two  gentlemen 
which  ended  only  with  the  doctor's  death.  It  was  during 
his  residence  at  Alston  that  he  made  the  friendship  of 
Mr.  Hugh  Lee  Pattinson.  Mr.  Sopwith,  though  still  a 
young  man,  was  now  beginning  to  make  a  reputation  in 
the  profession  he  had  adopted  ;  and  in  1830  we  find  him 
established  in  Newcastle  as  a  civil  and  mining  engineer, 
where  he  soon  formed  an  excellent  and  lucrative  business. 
Amongst  other  important  matters,  he  surveyed  and 
levelled  a  new  road  between  Newcastle  and  Otterburn, 
and  he  began  to  be  consulted  by  many  of  the  leading 
county  gentry  on  matters  affecting  their  estates.  In 
1832,  Mr.  Sopwith  entered  upon  offices  in  the  then  newly- 
built  Royal  Arcade,  where  he  continued  until  the  year 
1845,  in  which  year  he  received  the  valuable  appointment 
of  agent  to  the  W.B.  Lead  Mines  of  Northumberland 
and  Durham. 

During  the  thirteen  years  preceding  his  entrance  upon 
this  most  important  post,  Mr.  Sopwith  was  concerned  in 
very  many  great  undertakings.  He  made  and  prepared 
sections  and  surveys  of  the  Forest  of  Dean,  and  showed  the 
beds  of  coal  and  workings  therein,  afterwards  reporting  to 
the  Woods  and  Forests  Department  of  the  Government. 
He  was  also  occupied  professionally  with  many  great  rail- 
ways—the Newcastle  and  Berwick,  London  and  Brighton, 
Newcastle  and  Carlisle,  and  the  Sambre  and  Mouse  in 
Belgium;  likewise  with  works  connected  with  the  im- 

provement of  the  River  Tyne,  &c.  Whilst  thus 
engaged  he  could  scarcely  help  coming  in  contact 
with  many  eminent  engineers,  and  he  thus  formed 
friendships  with  Brunei,  Rendel,  Buddie,  the  Ste- 
phensons,  Nicholas  Wood,  and  several  other  gentle- 
men of  position  in  the  engineering  and  scientific 
world.  Besides  these,  he  numbered  among  his  intimate 
friends  such  men  as  Professors  Sedgwick  and  Faraday, 
Sir  Roderick  Murchison,  the  Brothers  Chambers,  of 
Edinburgh,  and  indeed  nearly  all  the  more  celebrated 
men  of  science  of  the  last  fifty  years.  When  the  British 
Association  first  met  in  Newcastle  in  1838,  Mr.  Sopwith 
contributed  no  less  than  six  papers  on  various  subjects  ; 
and  on  the  second  visit,  in  1863,  he  was  one  of  the 
secretaries  of  the  Geological  Section,  besides  contributing 

For  the  first  years  of  his  appointment  as  Mr. 
Beaumont's  agent,  Mr.  Sopwith  resided  at  Allenheads, 
taking  great  interest  in  the  welfare  of  his  workpeople, 
and  especially  in  the  education  of  the  children.  About 
1857,  he  went  to  reside  in  London,  and  in  the  year  1871 
he  resigned  the  office  of  chief-agent  of  the  W.B.  Mines, 
which  he  had  held  for  the  long  period  of  26  years.  He  at 
the  same  time  retired  from  the  engineering  profession,  in 
which  he  had  been  engaged  for  fully  half-a-century. 


The  many  honours  Mr.  Sopwith  gained  in  science  and 
art  must  not  be  forgotten.  He  was  a  Fellow  of  the 
Royal  Society,  a  Fellow  of  the  Society  of  Arts,  and  a 
member  of  the  Institute  of  Civil  Engineers.  His  largest 
work,  that  on  "Isometrical  Drawing,"  went  through 
several  editions.  "An  Account  of  the  Mining  Districts 
of  Alston  Moor,  Weardale,  and  Teesdale,"  had  also  a 
large  sale.  He  was  a  frequent  contributor  to  newspapers 



and   magazines,    and   wrote  several  educational  works, 
books  of  travel,  &e. 

Mr.  Sopwith  died  at  his  residence  in  London,  16th 
January,  1879,  aged  76  years.  Up  to  within  a  short  time 
of  his  death,  he  had  always  enjoyed  the  best  of  health.  A 
writer  to  whom  we  have  been  much  indebted  for  a  great 
deal  of  the  information  here  given  says  of  him : — "With 
his  natural  flow  of  high  spirits,  conversational  powers,  and 
well-stored  and  retentive  memory,  he  was  a  genial  com- 
panion and  a  good  friend,  and  will  be  long  remembered 
with  feelings  of  satisfaction  by  those  whose  advantage  it 
was  to  have  the  pleasure  of  his  acquaintance."  The 
same  authority  gives  us  this  interesting  piece  of  informa- 
tion : — "He  was  a  ready  and  precise  writer,  as  is  proved 
by  his  journal,  which  consists  of  168  volumes,  containing 
descriptions  of  places  and  people,  and  numerous  and 
amusing  pen  and  ink  sketches,  which  would  do  credit  to 
a  professional  artist.  This  journal  was  begun  when  he 
was  eighteen  years  of  age,  and  continued  to  within  a  fort- 
night of  his  death,  a  period  of  fifty-eight  years." 

ililltllt.-uir  SFntrft,  C0b«tatttn- 
atttr  JFxvnuv. 

JIT  is  simply  a  record  of  history  that  James 
I.  of  England,  his  son,  and  his  two  grand- 
sons, laboured  assiduously  to  overturn  the 
Presbyterian  government  of  the  Scottish 
Church.  Charles  II.,  when  he  had  sought  refuge  with 
the  Scots,  signed  the  famous  Covenant  which  bound  all 
subscribers  to  defend  the  true  religion,  to  oppose  all 
errors  and  corruptions,  to  unite  for  the  defence  of  the 
king  and  his  authority,  and  for  the  preservation 
of  the  religion,  laws,  and  liberty  of  his  kingdom. 
But,  with  that  want  of  sincerity  which  was  a  prominent 
feature  of  the  Stuart  kings,  he  used  to  observe  that 
" Presbyteriauism  was  not  a  religion  for  a  gentleman." 
The  religious  persecution  which  ensued  as  a  natural  result 
of  the  king's  determination  to  establish  Episcopacy  by 
force  led  to  a-serious  insurrection.  The  people,  following 
their  own  pastors,  celebrated  divine  worship  in  the  fields 
or  glens  of  their  native  country  ;  while,  on  the  other  side, 
severe  penalties  were  enacted  against  all  who  attended 
these  meetings  or  conventicles. 

Many  ministers,  distinguished  for  real  courage  and 
sincere  piety,  sacrificed  their  interests  to  their  religious 
principles  ;  and  amongst  the  most  persecuted  of  these 
was  William  Veitch,  the  subject  of  this  sketch.  His 
father,  John  Veitch,  was  minister  of  Roberton,  near 
Lanark,  for  45  years,  and  William  was  born  there  in 
1640.  John,  the  second  son,  was'minister  of  Westruther, 
in  Berwickshire,  for  54  years;  James  was  ordained 
minister  of  Mauchline  in  1656 ;  and  David  was  minister 
of  Govan. 

William  took  his  degrees  at  Glasgow  University  in  1650. 
Owing  to  appearances  that  Episcopacy  was  apparently 
to  be  the  established  religion  of  the  kingdom,  he  resolved 
to  pursue  the  practice  of  physic.  This,  however,  he  was 
dissuaded  from  following,  through  the  advice  of  Mr. 
Livingstone,  minister  of  Ancrum,  who,  showing  the  great 
esteem  in  which  his  brothers  were  held  in  the  Church, 
besought  him  to  follow  in  their  steps.  In  1663  he  became 
chaplain  to  Sir  Hugh  Campbell,  of  Calder,  in  Moray- 
shire,  but  was  forced  to  leave  about  September,  1664, 
for,  according  to  law,  none  were  permitted  to  be 
chaplains  in  families,  to  teach  any  public  school, 
or  to  be  tutors  to  the  children  of  persons  of  quality 
without  the  license  of  the  Episcopal  Bishop  of  the 
diocese.  He,  therefore,  returned  home  to  his  father,  who 
had  been  ejected  from  his  living,  and  had  taken  up  his 
residence  at  Lanark,  and  while  staying  under  the  parental 
roof  he  became  acquainted  with  Marion  Fairlie  (born 
1638),  whom  he  made  his  wife  in  November,  1664. 

Scarcely  had  two  years  of  married  life  passed  over  their 
heads  when  the  first  blast  of  persecution  fell  upon  them. 
He  was  persuaded  by  the  Rev.  John  Welch,  minister  of 
Irongray,  to  join  that  party  of  Covenanters  which,  after 
having  raised  1,500  men,  fell  upon  Sir  James  Turner's 
western  forces,  and  made  their  commander  prisoner. 
Their  spirits  having  by  this  enterprise  been  con- 
siderably elevated,  the  Covenanters  resolved  to  march 
on  to  Edinburgh  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining 
reinforcements  and  provisions.  From  Bathgate  they 
went  to  Collington,  where  Veitch,  who  was  a 
daring  man,  was  selected  to  enter  Edinburgh  to 
consult  with  Sir  James  Stuart  respecting  the  assistance 
and  supplies  they  stood  so  much  in  need  of.  He  was 
captured  and  conveyed  to  Lord  Kingston.  Policy 
prompted  him  to  offer  himself  as  a  volunteer  in  King- 
ston's front  rank  to  march  against  the  Covenanters,  and 
thus  he  found  an  opportunity  to  escape.  Not  easily 
turned  from  his  purpose,  he  now  entered  the  city,  where 
his  errand  proved  fruitless,  and,  after  being  nearly  cap- 
tured by  Dalziel's  horse,  he  returned  to  Collington. 

An  encounter  in  which  the  Covenanters  were  defeated 
by  Dalziel  took  place  on  Wednesday,  the  28th  November, 
1666,  at  Rullion  Green,  near  the  Pentland  Hills,  and  here 
Veitch  had  another  narrow  escape  from  being  captured. 
Falling  in  with  a  company  of  the  enemy's  horse,  he  was 
carried  along  with  them — they  not  knowing  who  he  was. 
While  descending  a  hill  he  made  his  escape,  and  found 
refuge  in  a  shepherd's  cottage  on  Dunsyre  Common,  not 
far  from  his  own  house.  Here  he  remained  in  hiding 
for  some  days,  when  he  managed  to  escape  to  Newcastle, 
where  he  took  the  name  of  William  Johnstone. 

At  Newcastle  he  contracted  a  dangerous  illness,  after 
recovering  from  which  he  returned  at  great  risk  to  Scot- 
land to  see  his  wife,  whom  he  advised  to  retire  to  Edin- 
burgh, in  order  to  avoid  the  annoyance  she  was  subjected 
to  by  the  soldiery  who  were  in  quest  of  him.  During 



this  visit  to  the  West  Hills  of  Dunsyre,  he  had  another 
narrow  escape,  but  contrived  to  return  safely  to  New- 

Proceeding  soon  afterwards  to  London,  he  preached 
frequently  there,  and  was  on  one  occasion  only  saved 
from  an  exasperated  audience  by  the  intervention  of 
Colonel  Blood,  of  crown-jewel  fame.  He  returned  to 
Northumberland  and  settled  at  Fallowlees,  in  Rothbury 
parish,  in  1671.  Here  he  combined  farming  with  his 
religious  labours  ;  and,  indeed,  it  was  absolutely  neces- 
sary that  something  should  be  done  for  the  support  of  his 
family,  as  the  fifth  child  made  its  appearance  on  the 
19th  of  July,  1672. 

The  persecution  he  suffered  here  induced  him  to  retire 
to  Harnham  Hall,  where  many  attended  his  preach- 
ings. The  mansion  house  of  Major  Eabington  was  given 
him  as  a  residence,  and  part  of  it  was  used  as  a  place  of 
worship.  The  township  of  Harnham  is  about  one  and  a 
half  miles  south-west  of  Bolam,  in  which  parish  it  is 
situated.  The  village  stands  on  the  summit  of  a  huge 
sandstone  ridge,  which  in  ancient  times  was  crowned  by 
a  small  fort.  The  manor  was  held  in  capite  by  Bernard 
de  Babingtou  in  1272,  but  the  antiquity  of  this  family  in 
Britain  may  be  traced  back  as  far  as  the  Conquest.  Major 
Philip  Babington  was  owner  of  the  estate  during  Veitch's 
residence  there.  His  wife,  Catherine,  was  the  widow  of 
Colonel  George  Fenwick,  of  Brinkburn,  some  time 
Governor  of  Berwick-on-Tweed,  and  eldest  daughter  of 
Sir  Arthur  Heselrigg,  of  Nosely,  in  Leicestershire.  On 
her  death  at  Harnham,  which  took  place  some  time  after 
June,  1670,  she  was  refused  Christian  burial,  because  she 
had  died  under  sentence  of  excommunication  for  not 
giving  due  regard  to  ecclesiastical  rule.  This  uncharit- 
able treatment  perhaps  embittered  the  soul  of  Major 
Babington  against  Episcopacy,  and  may,  in  a  great 
measure,  explain  the  hospitality  he  displayed  towards 
the  persecuted  Covenanter. 

Veitch  was,  however,  not  suffered  even  here  to  reside 
in  peace,  for  the  clergy  persuaded  one  Justice  Lorraine, 
of  the  Kirkharle  family,  to  issue  warrants  for  his  appre- 
hension. Previous  to  putting  this  into  effect,  the  justice 
broke  his  leg  in  a  drunken  fit,  and  was  deterred  from  his 
purpose.  For  four  years  Veitch  resided  at  Harnham 
Hall,  but,  the  estate  having  fallen  into  other  hands 
through  the  death  of  his  patron,  the  new  landlord  refused 
to  continue  Veitch  as  a  tenant. 

Pvemoving  now  to  Stanton  Hall,  in  Longhorsley  parish, 
in  May,  1676,  he  fell  under  more  persecution,  especially 
from  Thomas  Bell— a  Scotchman — who  had  been  educated 
out  of  charity  by  the  brother  of  Veitch.  This  ungrateful 
countryman  now  occupied  the  curacy  of  Allinton,  and, 
in  revenge  for  an  affront  put  upon  him  by  the  minister  of 
Westruther,  he  omitted  no  chance  of  destroying  the 
prospects  of  William  Veitch,  until,  at  his  instigation, 
Major  Oglethorpe  apprehended  Veitch  on  Sunday, 
January  19,  1679,  and  carried  him  prisoner  to  the  town 

of  Morpeth,  where  he  was  detained  twelve  days. 
During  the  eleventh  day  of  his  imprisonment  he  wrote  a 
letter  to  his  wife,  stating  amid  the  few  comforting  assur- 
ances he  could  (rive  her,  that  an  order  from  Council  com- 
manded him  to  proceed  to  Edinburgh  for  examination  as 
to  his  alleged  misdemeanours.  On  receipt  of  this  letter 
his  heroic  wife  set  out  with  a  man-servant  through  a 
storm  of  snow,  for  perhaps  a  last  look  on  her  hus- 
band, and  had  but  a  short  interview  with  him  before  the 
drums  summoned  the  guard  which  was  to  escort  him  to 
Edinburgh.  The  townspeople  in  Morpeth,  Alnwick, 
Belford,  and  Berwick,  we  are  told,  "  from  curiosity  ran 
after  him  to  gaze." 

On  the  fifth  day  after  Veitch  left  Morpeth,  Thomas 
Bell  met  his  death  in  a  peculiar  manner.  He  had 
been  at  Newcastle,  and  called  at  the  residence  of  the 
curate  of  Ponteland  while  on  his  road  home.  The 
night  was  dark,  the  river  Pont  was  swollen,  yet 
Bell  was  not  to  be  turned  from  his  resolve  to  reach 
Allinton  that  night.  Two  days  afterwards  he  was  found, 
shoulder  deep,  frozen  in  the  river  Pont,  his  boots  and 
gloves  much  cut  by  struggling  in  the  ice. 

The  examination  of  Veitch  took  place  before  the  Council 
on  February  22,  and,  although  nothing  criminal  could 
be  proven  against  him,  he  was  kept  in  prison.  Shortly 
afterwards  an  order  came  from  the  king  ordering  him  to  be 
handed  over  to  the  Criminal  Court  which  met  in  July, 
in  order  that  sentence  of  death  upon  the  old  charge  of 
treason  might  be  passed  upon  him.  Through  influence  at 
Court,  he  obtained  his  liberation,  with  banishment  into 

For  some  time  afterwards  he  continued  to  conduct  ser- 
vices through  the  western  parts  of  Northumberland.  In 
December,  1681,  he  was  at  Berwick,  but  the  town  was  in 
great  uproar  through  the  news  of  the  Earl  of  Argyle's 
escape  from  Edinburgh  Castle,  and  Veitch  deemed  it  ad- 
visable to  retire  to  Bowsden,  near  Lowick,  where  lived 
his  friend  Luke  Ogle,  the  ejected  minister  of  Berwick. 

While  there  he  dreamed  that  his  house  at  Stanton  Hall 
was  on  fire,  and  awoke  in  great  consternation,  with 
the  resolve  to  go  home  in  the  morning.  Falling 
asleep,  he  dreamed  the  same  again ;  and  so  im- 
pressed was  he  that  all  at  home  was  not  right,  that 
he  immediately  set  off.  When  within  two  miles  of  his 
own  house  he  was  met  by  his  man-servant,  who  told  him 
that  search  had  been  made  for  him  for  two  days,  as  a 
stranger  had  made  his  appearance  seeking  shelter.  The 
stranger  was  Argyle ! 

After  consultation  with  Argyle,  the  two  set  off  for  Lon- 
don, the  earl  travelling  as  Mr.  Hope.  They  reached 
Millburn  Grange,  eleven  miles  north-west  of  Newcastle, 
where  Veitch  was  to  preach  that  Sabbath,  and  on 
the  Monday  they  proceeded  to  a  friend's  house  near 
Newburn,  where  Veitch  left  Argyle  in  order  to  go  to 
Newcastle,  where  he  bought  three  horses  for  the  journey 
at  his  own  expense.  After  reaching  London,  Argyle  went 

April  1 



to  join  Monmouth  and  other  friends  in  Holland,  where 
they  were  shortly  afterwards  joined  by  Veitch  himself, 
who  was  "  wanted  "  in  England  for  the  share  he  had 
taken  in  Argyle's  escape. 

The  English  and  Scotch  refugees  in  Holland,  having 
received  offers  of  support  from  England  and  Scotland, 
determined  to  attempt  the  overthrow  of  the  Government 
of  James  II.,  and,  for  this  purpose,  the  Duke  of  Mon- 
mouth was  to  invade  England,  while  the  Earl  of  Argyle 
landed  in  Scotland.  Veitch  was  deputed  by  the  refugees 
to  instruct  their  friends  on  the  borders  of  England  and 
Scotland  of  their  intentions ;  but  he  was  obliged  to  hide 
in  the  Reedsdale  district  till  after  the  execution  of  Mon- 
mouth and  Argyle,  whose  scheme  had  utterly  failed.  In 
a  wood  near  Newcastle,  he  remained  in  concealment  for 
some  time,  and  then  ventured  into  the  town  to  see  his 
wife,  who  had  removed  thither. 

Veitch's  career  until  the  king's  indemnity  was  pub- 
lished was  full  of  narrow  escapes.  He  then  ministered 
at  Beverley  for  a  short  time ;  but,  receiving  a  call  to 
Peebles,  he  preached  there  from  September,  1690,  to  1694-, 
when  he  removed  to  Dumfries.  Here  he  continued  to 
minister  till  his  death,  which  occurred  May  8,  1722,  at 
the  age  of  eighty-two.  The  partner  of  all  his  joys  and 
sorrows,  the  mother  of  his  five  sons  and  five  daughters, 
died  the  day  before  him,  aged  eighty-four  years.  They 
had  been  married  fifty-eight  years,  and  were  both  in- 
terred in  the  same  grave  in  the  old  church  at  Dumfries. 

E.  J.  WILSON. 

jjNE  of  the  few  spas  in  the  county  of  Durham— 
that    of   Dinsdale-on-Tees — reaches    the  cen- 
tenary   of    its  existence   this  year.      It  was 
quite  by  accident  that  the  spa  was  first  discovered. 

Some  workmen  were  excavating  in  search  of  coal  in 
1789.  When  at  a  depth  of  72  feet  in  the  whinstone  rock, 
they  came  upon  a  spring,  which  burst  forth  with  a  strong 
smell  of  sulphur,  accompanied  with  a  great  deal  of 
smoke.  This  unexpected  flow  of  water,  as  might  be 
expected,  compelled  the  men  to  relinquish  their  boring 
operations.  However,  they  dug  a  hole  in  the  channel 
made  by  the  rushing  water,  so  as  to  form  a  sort  of  bath — 
a  very  primitive  one  as  we  may  easily  imagine.  Never- 
theless, it  answered  its  purpose,  and  the  bath  was,  down 
to  1797,  greatly  appreciated  by  the  neighbouring 
villagers.  Then  a  bathing  house  was  constructed  for  the 
use  of  visitors,  the  majority  of  whom  lodged  in  the 
village  of  Middleton  near  at  hand. 

When  it  became  known  that  sulphur  water  was  good 
for  rheumatic  complaints  and  similar  maladies,  the  fame 
of  Dinsdale  soon  spread  throughout  the  district.  The 
first  to  receive  relief  in  this  respect  was  a  man  who,  it  is 

said,  had  been  afflicted  for  many  years  with  chronic 
rheumatism.  After  judiciously  drinking  the  water  from 
the  spring,  and  using  the  bath,  he  began  gradually  to  get 
renewed  power  in  his  limbs,  and,  finally,  was  completely 
restored.  So  we  are  told. 

The  claims  of  the  sulphur  spring  at  Dinsdale  were 
brought  to  the  notice  of  the  general  public  at  the  beginning 
of  the  present  century  by  Dr.  John  Peacock,  of  Darlington, 
and  Dr.  Thomas  Walker,  of  Hurworth.  Dr.  Peacock, 
who  published  his  Observations  in  1805,  thought  that 
the  sulphur  water  was  most  beneficial  in  chronic  affections, 
particularly  of  a  rheumatic  and  dyspeptic  character, 
diseases  of  the  liver  and  spleen,  and  "a  whole  host  of 
cutaneous  disorders." 

Although,  however,  Dinsdale  Spa  has  many  advan 
tages,  very  few  people  visit  the  place  now.  Indeed,  it 
was  more  appreciated  half  a  century  ago  than  it  is  at  the 
present  day,  notwithstanding  the  apparent  inclination  of 
well-to-do  folks  to  seek  rest  and  quietness  in  the  vicinity 
of  sulphur  springs. 

An  interesting  article  in  Diet  and  Hygiene  gives 
some  information  anent  the  village  of  Dinsdale  itself, 
including  the  owners  of  the  estate.  From  this  periodical 
we  make  the  following  extract : — "  Very  extensive 
Roman  remains  have  been  unearthed  in  the  imme- 
diate vicinity  of  the  manor  house,  and  it  is  not 
improbable  that,  nearly  eighteen  centuries  ago,  Roman 
warriors  availed  themselves  of  the  facilities  for  bathing  in 
the  water  derived  from  the  Dinsdale  sulphur  springs.  At 
the  side  of  the  road  leading  toward  the  manor  house, 
there  is  an  ancient  elm  tree,  said  to  be  700  years  old, 
the  survivor  of  two  which  formerly  stood  in  that  position, 
known  as  the  Abbot's  elms.  The  church  of  Dinsdale 
is  very  ancient,  and  has  of  late  years  undergone  com- 
plete restoration.  The  church  and  lands  connected  with 
it  were  given  by  one  Ralph  Surtees  and  his  wife  to 
provide  lights  for  the  altar  of  St.  Cuthbert.  The  manor 
and  estate  of  Dinsdale  are  still  in  the  hands  of  the 
Surtees  family,  who  have  been  connected  with  Dinsdale 
since  the  Norman  period.  The  family  name  is  itself 
derived  from  the  banks  of  the  river  on  which  the  estate 
is  situated.  In  old  chronicles,  we  find  the  name  of 
Ralph  Dittensdale,  also  described  in  the  bad  Latin  of 
that  date  as  Ralph  de  Super-Teysam— Ralph  of  On-Tees ; 
otherwise,  in  Norman  French,  Surteys,  which  has 
become  modernised  into  Surtees." 

Dinsdale  Hall,  which  was  erected  fifty  years  ago,  or 
thereabouts,  by  the  first  Earl  of  Durham,  at  a  cost  of 
£35,000,  is  a  large  mansion,  and  was  formerly  used  as 
an  hotel,  when  it  numbered  among  its  distinguished 
patrons  the  Duke  of  Wellington  and  the  Baroness 
Burdett  Coutts. 

An  amusing  story,  printed  in  the  magazine  quoted 
above,  shows  the  effect  of  the  sulphur  vapour  upon 
metals,  especially  gold  and  silver.  A  gentleman,  so 
the  story  runs,  divesting  himself  of  his  clothing  for  the 



f  April 

purpose  of  taking  a  sulphur  bath,  hung  his  silver  watch 
on  a  peg  in  the  bath-room  of  the  Spa  Hotel.  After 
dressing,  he  went  away  in  the  direction  of  his  lodgings, 
but,  discovering  that  he  had  left  his  watch  behind, 
quickly  retraced  his  steps.  Upon  the  attendant  fetching 
the  watch  and  chain  from  the  bath-room,  the  gentleman 
indignantly  declared  thaf  they  were  not  his  property, 
strongly  asserting  that  his  were  made  of  silver.  It  was 
only  when  he  was  shown  the  maker's  name  on  the  watch, 
and  the  uncommon  pattern  of  the  chain  attached  to  it, 
that  he  could  be  convinced  of  his  error.  E.  W.  A. 

Jptrcettf  at 

/lortl)ttmberlanb  jstmt  ant)  ttjs 

tically, a  continuation  of  Pilgrim  Street  ; 
but  the  difference  in  the  name  is  easily 
^^-"  enough  accounted  for  when  we  remember 
tliat  the  ancient  Gate  (figured  in  vol.  ii.,  page  81)  frowned 
equally  on  both  in  former  days.  We  take  our  start  from 
the  point  where  the  old  Gate  once  stood. 

And  first  we  are  detained  for  a  moment  on  our  left 
hand  by  Northumberland  Court.  This  small  court  has 
little  to  stay  our  progress  to-day  ;  and  yet  it  has  its  item 
of  interest  all  the  same.  Some  thirty-seven  years  ago, 
one  William  Glover  occupied  the  upper  room  in  a  tene- 
ment house  here.  He  missed  articles  from  his  room,  and 
these  disappearances  waxed  frequent.  So  he  devised  a 
plan  by  which  all  unauthorised  intrusion  on  his  premises 
should  be  stopped  for  the  future.  And  this  was  his  plan. 
He  obtained  a  large  horse-pistol,  loaded  it  with  slugs,  and 
then  attached  the  trigger  to  the  door  of  his  room  in 
such  a  way  that  anyone  entering  would  cause  the  pistol 
to  explode,  not,  of  course,  to  the  intruder's  benefit.  But 
how  did  he  protect  himself  ?  Well,  he  was  able  to  (tain 
admission  safely  enough  by  previously  pulling  a  string 
which  passed  through  the  frame  of  the  door.  Unfor- 
tunately, on  the  evening  of  December  6th,  1852,  he 
entered  his  guarded  room  without  observing  this  neces- 
sary precaution.  Result  :  the  pistol  went  off,  and  its 
contents  killed  him  instantaneously. 

On  the  same  side  of  the  way  is  Brunswick  Place,  at  the 
end  of  which  is  the  Wesleyan  Chapel  of  that  name. 
This  building  may  be  considered  the  headquarters  of  the 
Wesleyan  body  in  Newcastle.  It  was  opened  for  public 
service  in  February,  1821,  when  the  preachers  were  the 
Revs.  Messrs.  Newton,  Atherton,  and  Wood.  Its  ex- 
terior is  plain  even  to  barrenness  ;  its  interior  commo- 
dious enough  to  accommodate  two  thousand  persons. 
Some  notable  men  have  held  forth  here  now  and  again. 

Dr.  Morley  Punshon  won  his  rhetorical  spurs  in  his 
early  years  as  a  stationed  -minister  in  Newcastle,  and  in 
after  years  few  towns  were  visited  by  him  with  greater 
pleasure.  Other  Presidents  of  the  Wesleyan  Conference 
besides  Dr.  Punshon  have  occupied  the  pulpit  of  Bruns- 
wick Place.  More  than  once  the  Conference  itself  has 
met  in  Newcastle.  One  of  these  meetings  was  held  in 
the  summer  of  1840,  when  Robert  Newton  was  president, 
and  Dr.  Hannah  secretary.  Two  Ashantee  princes  were 
present  on  that  occasion ;  but  the  local  interest  attaching 
to  this  particular  meeting  comes  to  this,  that  Mr.  H.  P. 
Parker,  one  of  the  foremost  local  artists  of  his  day,  pre- 
sented the  body  with  a  large  picture  representing  the 
rescue  of  Wesley  from  the  fire  of  his  father's  rectory. 
The  painting  was  afterwards  engraved,  and  became 
widely  known. 

Passing  on,  let  us  pause  for  a  moment  at  the  Orphan 
House  Wesleyan  School.  The  stranger  may  note  the 
date  on  che  front  of  the  building — 1857.  Right :  and 
wrong.  Right,  for  it  was  in  that  year  that  the  schools  of 
to-day  were  opened  for  educational  purposes.  But  wrong 
in  this  wise :  they  stand  on  the  site  of  the  old  Orphan  House 
founded  by  John  Wesley,  the  foundation  stone  of  which 
he  laid  on  the  20th  December,  1742.  (Monthly  Chronicle, 
vol.  ii.,  pages  504,  570.)  The  Methodists  occupied  this 
building  until  Brunswick  Place  Chapel  was  finished. 

On  this  same  side  of  the  street  we  come,  next  to  Mack- 
ford's  Entry,  so  named  after  its  builder.  Across  the  road 
is  a  small,  quiet  place,  called  Lisle  Street,  and  then,  a 
little  higher  up,  we  come  to  Saville  Row,  so  named  in 
honour  of  Sir  George  Saville,  Baronet,  who,  during  the 
years  1776  and  1777,  resided  here  as  colonel  of  the  West 
York  Militia.  Ellison  Place  is  a  continuation  of  this 
street ;  and  here  we  find  the  modern  Mansion  House — 
more  precisely,  the  Judges'  Lodgings  at  assize  time. 

Singleton  House  we  arrive  at  next,  formerly  the  resi- 
dence of  the  Rev.  Richard  Clayton,  by  virtue  of  his 

position  as  Master  of  the  Mary  Magdalen  Hospital ;  sub- 
sequently occupied  by  Sir  John  Fife ;  then  transformed 
into  an  academy ;  and  now  the  photographic  studio  of 
Mr.  Lydell  Sawyer,  and  the  centre  of  a  series  of  tem- 
porary shops. 



We  are  now  opposite  Prudhoe  Street.  On  that  side  of 
the  street,  a  step  takes  us  to  the  doors  of  the  Victoria 
Blind  Asylum.  Pause  we  a  moment  here,  for  a  more 
deserving  charitable  institution  there  is  not  in  Newcastle ; 
and  that,  remember,  is  saying  a  good  deal.  Victoria  ? 
Why  the  name?  The  explanation  is  simple  enough. 
The  Asylum  was  built  in  honour  of  the  Queen's  corona- 
tion, in  lieu  of  squandering  money  over  illuminations  and 
the  like ;  and  surely  none  can  say  that  our  city  fathers  were 
wrong  in  that  idea.  The  determination  to  establish  an 

James's  Chapel,  St.  George's  Hall,  Cambridge  Hall, 
and  the  College  of  Medicine. 

St  George's  Hall  has  been  erected  for  the  purposes  of 
local  volunteers,  as  has  also  its  neighbour,  Cambridge 

Dame  Allan's  charity  is  attached  to  the  parishes  of  St. 
Nicholas  and  St.  John.  The  school  was  founded  by 
Eleanor  Allan,  of  Newcastle,  who,  in  1705,  assigned  for 
its  support  a  farmhold  and  tenant-right  in  Wallsend 
parish.  The  farm,  held  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of 

institution  of  this  sort  was  formed  in  the  month  of  Feb- 
ruary, 1838 ;  bufr  in  the  first  instance  premises  were 
obtained  in  the  Spital,  whence  the  establishment  was 
removed  to  the  existing  building  in  1841.  Behind  the 
asylum  there  was  once  a  Bowling  Green,  after  the  Forth 
had  disappeared. 

Across  the  road,  again,  we  have  Bath  Road,  so  named 
by  reason  of  its  association  with  the  Northumberland 
Baths.  These  baths  owe  their  origin  to  a  meeting  con- 
vened on  November  3,  1836,  by  the  Mayor  (Mr.  C.  J. 
Bigge),  whereat  Dr.  Head  lam  and  others  supported  the 
proposal  that  a  lease  should  be  obtained  of  about  twelve 
acres  of  ground  lying  to  the  north  of  Saville  Row,  and 
that  a  company  to  consist  of  three  hundred  shareholders, 
at  £20  each,  should  be  established  for  carrying  out  the 
undertaking.  The  proposal  was  warmly  taken  up,  and 
on  June  24,  1839,  the  baths  were  formally  opened.  They 
were  built  from  a  design  by  Mr.  Dobson,  and  the  cost 
of  their  erection  and  fitting  up  was  nearly  £8,000. 

Contiguous  to  the  baths  was  a  once  rather  favourite 
cricket  ground,  now  the  site  of  Dame  Allan's  Schools,  St. 

Durham,  contained  about  131  acres ;  and  when  first 
assigned  it  brought  in  an  annual  rental  of  £61  19s.  5d. 
In  1708  this  good  lady  died ;  and  in  the  next  year  the 
school  was  opened  in  trust  for  forty  boys  and  twenty  girls, 
the  parishioners  agreeing  to  subscribe  annually  for  the 
clothing  of  the  scholars.  Other  donations  towards  in- 
creasing the  benefits  of  the  charity  came  in  afterwards. 
In  1723,  Gilbert  Campel,  "innholder,"  left  it  £20,  and 
Samuel  Nicholas,  organist,  £10.  Mrs.  Chisholm,  a  clergy- 
man's widow,  of  Wooler,  contributed  £500  later  on ; 
and  in  1733,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Rogers,  of  Newcastle,  left  it 
£50.  In  1738,  £250  was  left  by  John  Hewitt,  or  Huet, 
goldsmith,  also  of  Newcastle.  A  good,  sound,  useful 
education  is  understood  to  be  given  to  the  scholars  of 
Dame  Allan's  School.  The  new  building  is  ornamented 
with  a  medallion  of  the  benevolent  founder. 

A  view  of  the  College  of  Medicine,  the  foundation  stone 
of  which  was  laid  by  the  Duke  of  Northumberland  on 
November  5,  1887,  appears  on  page  46,  vol.  ii. 

St.  James's  Chapel,  a  spacious  building,  has  sometimes 
been  called  by  its  supporters  the  Cathedral  of  theCongre- 
gationalists  of  the  North.  We  have  spoken  of  this  body 
when  dealing  with  Blackett  Street,  and  need  not  repeat 
the  story  here. 

We  may  now  return  to  Northumberland  Street  by  way 
of  Ridley  Place,  a  quiet  street  running  parallel  to  Bath 
Road.  Of  Ridley  Place  there  is  nothing  particular  to  be 
said,  save  that  it  was  built  by  one  Mr.  Grey,  and  by  that 
Mr.  Maskford  whose  name  we  have  already  found  asso- 
ciated with  an  entry  a  little  way  from  the  present  spot. 

Next  to  Ridley  Place  is  Vine  Lane,  at  the  end  of  which 
stand  St.  Thomas's  Schools.  Some  good  work  has  been 



I  Ap 

1    •& 

done  here.  Amongst  old  scholars  in  the  boys'  depart- 
ment may  be  mentioned  Mr.  J.  J.  Pace,  the  borough 
treasurer  of  Newcastle ;  Mr.  Ralph  Willoughby,  the 
energetic  superintendent  of  the  Ragged  and  Industrial 
Schools  in  the  New  Road;  Mr.  T.  Albion  Alderson, 
organist  and  composer  :  the  late  Mr.  William  Mitche- 
son,  for  many  years  the  head  master  of  St.  Andrew's 
School ;  Mr.  Andrew  Beat,  long  the  Workhouse  school- 
master ;  and  others  that  might  easily  be  named.  These 
were  all  pupils  of  the  late  Mr.  Henry  Page,  for  more  than 
twenty  years  the  master  of  the  boys'  school,  and  a  self- 
made  mau.  Commencing  life  as  a  working  joiner,  he 
became  a  certificated  master  by  dint  of  hard  private 
study.  Even  his  recreations  were  intellectual.  He  took 
to  the  solution  of  mathematical  posers  as  the  duck  takes 
to  water  ;  in  a  game  of  chess  he  was  a  formidable  oppo- 
nent ;  and  music  was  the  solace  of  his  lighter  moments. 
He  ended  his  days  in  Newcastle  as  the  pensioned  ex- 
master  of  the  Victoria  Blind  Asylum.  At  St.  Thomas's 
School  he  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  John  Coulson,  another 
self-made  man,  who  from  St.  Thomas's  went  to  Durham 
University,  with  the  object  of  entering  the  ministry  of  the 
Church  of  England.  In  due  course  he  was  ordained  ;  he 
was  further  successful  enough  to  win  the  prize  of  a  fellow- 
ship of  his  University,  and  became  afterwards  the  vicar  of 
Holy  Trinity,  South  Shields. 

We  are  now  nearly  at  the  end  of  Northumberland 
Street,  so  far  as  our  right  hand  is  concerned.  We  are 
quite  at  the  end  of  it  when  we  come  to  St.  Mary's  Place. 

But  before   quitting  it  for  good,    let   us    record   one 
of  its  traditions.       Seventy    years  ago,    one   Alexander 
Adams,  who  lived  in  Northumberland  Street,  bequeathed 
a  fortune  amassed  in  commerce  to  his  natural  son,  then  a 
resident  in  India.     The  devisee  soon  after  died  in  Cal- 
cutta,  a  bachelor,   and  left  all  he   had  to   his  cousin, 
Thomas  Naters,  who   was    set- 
tled   in     New     York,    in     the 
United    States.       In    October, 
1836,    Naters    died    in   Switzer- 
land,    and     left     his     fortune, 
amounting  to  between  £200,000 
and  £300,000,   to  a  respectable 
builder    in    Newcastle,    named 
William    Mather.      The    Swiss 
authorities     were    very  loth  to 
part     with     it,     and      claimed 
£50,000   as  legacy   duty.     The 
British  Government  remonstra- 
ted, arguing  that  Naters  was  not 
a  naturalised  subject  of  Switzer- 
land.   The  controversy  went  on 
for  some  time;   but  eventually 
the  claim  was  settled  by  Mather 
consenting   to    pay  the    Swiss 

One  more  note  we  ought  to 

make  also,  namely,  that  the  houses  terminating  the 
north-west  side  of  Northumberland  Street  were  for- 
merly called  Pedlar,  or  Pether  Row,  as  having  been 
built  by  one  who  laid  the  foundation  of  his  fortune  by 
hawking  or  peddling. 

Before  us  we  have  now  the  beautiful  church  of  St. 
Thomas  the  Martyr.  An  old  chapel  of  the  same  name 
stood  for  nearly  six  hundred  years  at  the  Newcastle  end 
of  Tyne  Bridge.  In  the  ninth  year  of  the  reign  of  James 
I.  (June  12,  1611),  this  old  foundation  was,  by  Royal 
Charter,  annexed  to  another  venerable  institution — the 
Leper  Hospital,  dedicated  to  St.  Mary  Magdalen.  The 
time  came  when  the  ancient  chapel,  obstructing  the  traffic 
over  the  Bridge  and  blocking  up  the  end  of  the  Sandhill, 
had  to  be  removed.  It  was  pulled  down,  and  in  1829  the 
present  edifice,  from  designs  by  Mr.  John  Dobson,  was 
erected  in  the  Magdalen  Field — the  place  whereon  the 
Magdalen  Hospital  formerly  stood.  Our  drawing,  which 
originally  appeared  in  Richardson's  "Table  Book,"  repre- 
sents the  church  as  it  appeared  about  1840.  The  ministers 
of  St.  Thomas's  are  Masters  of  the  Hospital.  One  of  the 
most  popular  of  them  was  the  Rev.  Richard  Clayton,  and 
at  his  death,  in  1856,  it  was  considered  that  the  time  had 
come  when  the  institution  should  be  re-organized.  Many 
were  the  heartburnings  and  squabbles  over  the  matter, 
and  needless  is  it  to  recall  them  now.  Suffice  it  that  a 
majority  of  the  Corporation  appointed  as  Mr.  Clayton's 
successor  the  Rev.  Clement  Moody,  Vicar  of  Newcastle, 
on  the  understanding  that  he  was  to  accept  such  altera- 
tions in  the  constitution  of  the  charity  as  might  be 
adopted.  The  minority  wanted  an  investigation  into  the 
state  of  the  hospital  by  the  Charity  Commissioners ;  the 
congregation  desired  the  appointment  of  the  Rev.  T.  D. 
Halsted,  Mr.  Clayton's  assistant,  whose  Evangelicalism 
had  made  him  popular.  A  split  was  the  result  of  the 


April  1 



appointment,  with  the  consequence  that  the  Clayton 
Memorial  (now  usually  called  Jesmond)  Church  was 
built  by  the  dissatisfied  members. 


JlAMBTON  CASTLE,  the  seat  of  the  Earl  of 
Durham,  situate  upon  an  imposing  eminence 
rising  boldly  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Wear, 
about  two  miles  from  Chester-le-Street,  in  the  county  of 
Durham,  occupies  the  site  of  Harraton  Hall,  formerly  the 
seat  of  the  D'Arcys.  The  original  building  was  in  the 
style  of  a  manor  house  of  the  date  of  1600.  Considerable 
additions  have  since  been  made.  The  exterior  presents  a 
singular  mixture  of  styles,  the  north  front  being  Norman, 
and  the  other  parts  of  the  building,  including  the  original 
portion,  being  Tudor  and  castellated,  with  ornamental 
turrets  and  embrasures.  A  terrace  wall  of  considerable 
length  and  height  faces  the  south.  The  whole  is  of  varied 
outline,  and  produces,  with  its  flag  tower,  an  imposing 
and  picturesque  effect. 

The  principal  part  of  the  interior  has  been  fitted  up  in 
the  Italian  style.     The  drawing-room,  library,  and  other 

apartments  are  richly  decorated,  whilst  the  walls  are 
adorned  with  the  choicest  specimens  of  ancient  and 
modern  art.  Many  of  the  more  important  pictures  were 
on  view  at  the  Newcastle  Exhibition  in  1887.  Amongst 
these  were  a  portrait  of  Lady  Hamilton,  by  Sir  Joshua 
Reynolds ;  a  portrait  of  Master  Lambton,  by  Sir  Thomas 
Lawrence,  P.R.A. ;  and  portraits  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gar 
rick,  by  J.  Zoffany,  R.A. 

In  1854,  the  greatest  fear  and  alarm  were  entertained 
as  to  the  safety  of  this  costly  and  magnificent  mansion. 
The  coal  underneath  the  site  of  the  building  was  ex- 
tracted as  early  as  1600.  The  old  mode  of  working  coal 
was  by  narrow  drifts,  leaving  small  pillars  to  support  the 
roof,  and  these  were  sufficient  at  the  time  to  bear  the 
weight  of  the  building  above  :  but  the  upper  seams,  it 
appears,  had  only  a  covering  of  fire-clay,  which,  in  course 
of  time,  decomposed.  This,  together  with  the  additional 
weight  put  upon  the  surface  by  the  enlargement  of  the 
mansion,  caused  the  building,  in  1854,  to  crack  and  shrink 
in  several  parts,  rendering  it  unsafe  and  dangerous  as  a 
residence.  Mr.  John  Dobson,  the  well-known  architect 
of  Newcastle,  was  consulted  upon  the  subject.  He  im- 
mediately introduced  iron  ties,  so  as  to  prevent  the 
building  from  further  separating.  The  mines  under- 
neath were  examined,  and  the  old  workings  filled  up  with 




solid  brickwork.  These  and  other  precautions  have  been 
found  effectual,  and  the  mansion  was  afterwards  put  into 
complete  repair. 

We  are  greatly  indebted  to  Dr.  Robert  Hogg,  proprietor 
of  the  Journal  of  Horticulture,  for  the  loan  of  the  en- 
graving of  Lambton  Castle. 

at  Jtftarfe 


?n  JUcijarb  SiEelfort. 

JOHN  BUDDLE  was  born  at  Kyo,  near 
Tanfield,  in  the  Durham  coalfield,  in  the 
year  1773.  His  father  was  a  schoolmaster  of 
repute,  a  contributor  to  the  Diaries,  a  corres- 
pondent of  Emerson,  Hutton,  and  other  eminent  mathe- 
maticians, and  the  editor  and  annotatorof  a  reprint  of  the 
Marquis  of  Worcester's  "  Century  of  Inventions,"  with  an 
appendix  "containing  an  historical  account  of  the  fire 
engine  for  raising  water.''  Living  amongst  men  whose 
chief  pursuits  were  the  winning  and  working  of  coal,  the 
elder  Buddie  became  intimately  acquainted  with  the 

business.  His  colliery  friends,  most  of  whom  worked 
largely  by  "  rule  of  thumb,"  found  him  of  great  assistance 
in  making  their  calculations,  and  thus  he  obtained  a 
knowledge  of  colliery  operations  which  was  afterwards 
instrumental  in  raising  him  from  the  humble  position  of  a 
village  dominie  to  the  more  exalted  post  of  colliery 

manager.     His  first  appointment  in  that  capacity  was  at 
Greenside,  near  Ryton ;  his  next  and  last  at  Wallsend. 

Buddie  the  elder  died  in  1806,  and  Buddie  the  younger, 
having  been  his  father's  assistant  for  several  years,  was 
unanimously  appointed  to  the  management  of  Wallsend 
Colliery.  He  was  then  upwards  of  thirty  years  old,  had 
acquired  considerable  reputation,  and  was  regarded  as  the 
most  promising  viewer  in  the  North-Country.  He  made 
experiments  and  introduced  improvements  at  which  the 
old  viewers  in  the  district  shook  their  heads,  as  old  men 
always  do  when  an  innovator  appears.  But  the  un- 
doubted success  of  his  schemes  extorted  from  them  an 
unwilling  recognition  of  his  wisdom,  and  admiration  of 
hi?  skill.  The  owners  of  Wallsend  allowed  him  free 
scope  for  the  exercise  of  his  ingenuity,  and  he  rewarded 
them  by  making  their  colliery  the  most  successful  in  the 

One  of  his  first  improvements  was  the  substitution  of 
cast  iron  tubbing  in  shafts  for  the  old  and  inefficient 
protection  of  wood.  The  heavy  expense,  and  the  fear 
that  iron  tubbing  could  not  be  made  water-tight,  or,  if 
tight,  that  it  would  soon  wear  away  by  oxidisation,  had 
deterred  the  old  viewers  from  using  it ;  but  Mr.  Buddie 
and  his  father  adopted  the  metal,  and  it  answered  their 
fullest  anticipations.  There  was  one  drawback  to  its 
usefulness,  however,  which  had  to  be  overcome.  The 
tubbing  was  cast  in  large  circular  bands  the  size  of  the 
shaft,  and  these  banda  were  naturally  of  great  weight, 
and  therefore  difficult  to  deal  with.  To  remedy  this 
defect  Mr.  Buddie  suggested  that  the  bands  should  be 
cast  in  segments,  and  fitted  together  in  the  shaft.  The 
segments  were  tried  and  succeeded  admirably.  When 
placed  in  position  and  properly  wedged,  they  formed  an 
irresistible  barrier  to  the  passage  of  water. 

In  1809  Mr.  Buddie  successfully  wrought  out  an  idea 
to  which  he  had  devoted  much  anxious  thought.  His 
practical  mind  had  long  chafed  at  the  difficulties  ex- 
perienced in  effecting  thorough  ventilation.  He  had 
experimented  in  vain  with  steam,  with  heated  cylinders, 
and  with  the  air  pump,  and  now  he  turned  his  attention 
to  the  furnace  system,  seeking  to  increase  its  efficiency 
and  minimise  its  dangers.  Combined  with  this  object 
was  another,  namely,  to  prevent  the  loss  of  coal  involved 
in  leaving  huge  pillars  to  support  superincumbent  strata, 
and  to  stop  the  "  creeps, "  with  their  attendant  crushing 
and  breakage,  which  followed  attempts  to  reduce  the  size 
of  the  pillars.  He,  therefore,  divided  the  workings  into 
districts  or  panels,  separated  from  each  other  by  ribs  or 
barriers  of  solid  coal,  and  ventilated  by  distinct  currents 
of  air.  By  this  means  coal  was  obtained  whole,  the  area 
of  waste  to  be  aired  and  travelled  was  reduced,  "creeps," 
were  seen  in  time  and  stopped,  accidental  fires  were 
localised,  and  the  workmen  were  supplied  with  purer  air, 
and  thereby  rendered  less  liable  to  disease,  disablement, 
and  death. 

Mr.   Buddie   contributed    in  no  small  degree  to    the 



introduction  and  perfecting  of  the  safety  lamp.  He  had 
had  sad  experience  of  the  want  of  such  an  invention  at 
Wallsend,  where,  between  the  years  1782  and  1803,  there 
were  no  fewer  than  eight  explosions,  in  which,  altogether, 
thirty-five  persons  lost  their  lives.  At  other  collieries, 
too,  his  services  had  been  frequently  called  into  requisition 
by  accidents  of  a  similar  nature.  Year  after  year  the 
holocaust  of  the  mine  destroyed  its  victims,  till  1812, 
when  public  attention  was  roused  into  action  by  a 
disastrous  explosion  at  Felling  Colliery,  in  which  ninety- 
two  persons  lost  their  lives.  Out  of  that  calamity  rose  a 
"Society  for  Preventing  Accidents  in  Coal  Mines."  Six- 
teen days  after  the  association  was  established,  Mr. 
Buddie  indited  a  letter  to  Sir  Ralph  Milbanke,  the 
president,  explaining  the  systems  of  ventilation  then  in 
operation,  asserting  that  the  limit  of  mechanical  agency 
towards  preventing  explosions  had  been  attained,  and 
declaring  that  it  was  to  scientific  men  only  that  the  trade 
and  the  community  must  look  for  assistance  in  providing 
a  cheap  and  effectual  remedy.  Before  the  month  was 
out,  Dr.  Clanny,  of  Sunderland,  had  invented  a  "safety 
lamp,"  and  exhibited  it  to  the  society.  In  less  than  two 
years  from  the  publication  of  Mr.  Buddie's  letter  the 
inventions  of  Sir  Humphre}- Davy  and  George  Stephenran 
were  made  known,  and  the  objects  of  the  society  were 
accomplished.  Sir  Humphrey  was  in  constant  communi- 
cation with  Mr.  Buddie  while  his  experiments  on  the 
nature  and  properties  of  flame  were  in  progress;  and 
when  his  lamp  had  been  tested  in  some  of  the  most  fiery 
mines  of  the  Northern  coal-field,  it  was  to  Mr.  Buddie's 
hands  that  Sir  Humphrey  committed  it,  as  the  best 
medium  of  making  its  benefits  known  to  the  mining 

Mr.  Buddie  was  one  of  the  first,  if  not  the  first,  coal- 
viewer  in  the  North  of  England  who  made  any  noticeable 
addition  to  the  literature  of  the  coal  trade.  He  was  a 
lucid  and  careful  writer,  and  his  pen  made  the  driest 
details  attractive.  When  th«  Natural  History  Society  of 
Newcastle  was  founded,  Mr.  Buddie  was  one  of  its 
principal  supporters,  and  to  the  proceedings  of  that 
learned  body  he  contributed  several  valuable  papers. 
One  of  the  best  of  them  is  a  "Synopsis  of  the  Newcastle 
Coalfield,"  written  in  1830.  On  the  visit  of  the  British 
Association  to  Newcastle,  in  1838,  Mr.  Buddie  read  a 
similar  but  extended  paper,  the  sections  and  ingenious 
model  accompanying  which  were  deposited  in  the  New- 
castle Museum.  • 

The  importance  of  preserving  mining  records  was 
earnestly  advocated  by  Mr.  Buddie  throughout  his  career. 
He  read  an  essay  on  this  subject  to  the  local  Natural 
History  Society  in  1834,  brought  the  question  before  the 
members  of  the  British  Association  assembled  in  New- 
•  castle,  and  n:ade  out  so  good  a  case  that  Parliament 
authorised  the  establishment  of  the  present  Mining 
Record  Office,  and  the-  Crown  appointed  him  one  of  the 
commissioners  under  the  Dean  Forest  Mining  Act. 

The  fan-.e  of  Mr.  Buddie's  achievements  led  to  his  being 
employed  largely  as  a  consulting  viewer.  The  third  Mar- 
quis of  Londonderry  rested  entirely  upon  his  judgment  in 
the  management  of  his  vast  mineral  property.  It  was  he 
who  advised  the  marquis  to  make  a  seaport  town  on  his 
own  estate,  in  order  to  facilitate  the  exportation  of  his 
coals.  On  the  28th  of  November,  1828,  his  lordship  laid 
the  foundation  stone  of  the  docks,  with  which  the  under- 
taking was  commenced ;  and  close  by,  his  son,  Lord 
Seaham,  performed  a  similar  ceremony  at  the  first  house 
of  a  town  to  be  called  Seaham  Harbour.  Beneath  the 
dock  stone  was  deposited  a  plate  bearing  an  inscription, 
which,  amongst  other  things,  stated  that  "in  this  under- 
taking the  founder  has  been  chiefly  advised  by  the  tried 
experience  and  indefatigable  industry  of  his  valued  friend 
and  agent,  John  Buddie,  Esq.,  of  Wallsend." 

As  an  employer  Mr.  Buddie  was  very  popular  amongst 
the  pitmen.  He  paid  the  highest  wages  in  the  trade,  and 
was  liberal  in  his  assistance  to  old  pit  acquaintances  and 
deserving  objects  of  charity.  When  an  accident  occurred 
he  descended  the  pit  with  the  men,  sharing  their  hard- 
ships and  encouraging  them  in  their  exertions.  He 
made  great  efforts  to  establish  a  fund  to  provide  for  the 
widows  and  orphans  of  those  who  lost  their  lives  in 
collieries,  and  for  the  support  of  such  as  were  maimed 
and  disabled,  but  did  not  succeed  in  realising  the  project. 
The  education  of  the  colliery  population  was  also  an 
object  of  his  constant  care.  He  contributed  largely  to  the 
support  of  schools  in  the  villages  attached  to  the  pits 
placed  under  his  supervision,  and  was  instrumental  in 
in  inducing  other  coalowners  or  agents  to  follow  his 

In  politics  Mr.  Buddie  was  a  Liberal — a  supporter  of 
Earl  Grey  and  the  Reformers.  His  religious  views  were 
of  the  same  advanced  character.  He  was  a  member  of 
the  Unitarian  congregation  which  worshipped  in  Hanover 
Square  under  the  personal  superintendence  of  the  Rev. 
William  Turner,,  as  were  most  of  the  leaders  of  thought 
and  opinion  in  Newcastle  at, that  time.  But  his  sym- 
pathies and  his  charities  were  not  limited  to  this  or 
that  particular  denomination.  He  gave  to  all  freely, 
judiciously,  and  without  ostentation.  When  his  useful 
and  laborious  life  came  somewhat  suddenly  to  an  end 
(October  10th,  1843)  it  was  in  a  churchyard  which  he  had 
himself  presented  to  the  suburb  of  Benwell  that  his 
remains  were  buried. 

Mr.  Buddie  was  a  magistrate,  and  commander  of  the 
Wallsend  Rifle  Corps,  enrolled  on  the  1st  June,  1803,  and 
numbering  151  men.  He  died  unmarried,  and  left  no  one 
to  inherit  his  name.  But  the  inheritance  of  his  example, 
of  his  energy,  his  skill,  and  his  boundless  enterprise, 
descending  to  men  who  caught  their  early  inspirations  at 
his  feet,  has  exalted  the  practice  of  mine  engineering  to 
the  foremost  rank  among  scientific  avocations.  Whenever 
the  history  of  the  Northumberland  and  Durham  Coal 
Trade  shall  be  written  by  a  qualified  penman,  a  high 




place  must  be  assigned  to  the  man  who,  converting  the 
old  colliery  viewer  into  the  mining  engineer,  minimised . 
the  hazard  of  subterranean  exploration,  and  introduced 
comparative  certainty  and  safety  into  the  great  mineral 
industry  of  the  United  Kingdom. 

A  correspondent  enables  us  to  add  to  the  foregoing 
sketch  a  statement  that  Mr.  Buddie,  in  his  youth,  was 
an  ardent  student  of  the  violin  ;  but,  as  his  duties  in  the 
mines  increased,  he  gave  it  up,  preferring  to  work  out 
problems  for  the  benefit  of  the  miners  to  the  gratification 
of  his  own  private  pleasure.  After  twenty  years'  holiday 
he  tried  his  violin  again,  but  found  that  his  hand  had  lost 
its  cunning.  He  therefore  adopted  a  larger  instrument, 
a  contra,  or  double  bass,  founded  a  musical  party  of 
amateur  gentlemen,  and  kept  them  together  for  many 
years.  This  was  about  1825,  and  the  society  continued 
until  1840.  The  gentlemen  who  formed  the  party 
were  Mr.  Atkinson,  his  nephew ;  Mr.  John  Cockrill, 
solicitor ;  Mr.  Burnip,  solicitor ;  Dr.  Paul  Glenton,  an 
excellent  player  and  judge  of  violins ;  Mr.  Barnett, 
ilautiat ;  Mr.  Robert  Elliott  Huntley,  of  Earsdon  j  his 
lirother,  Dr.  G.  H.  Huntley,  of  Howdon  Lodge;  and 
Mr.  W.  S.  B.  Woolhouse,  now  living.  At  the  sale  of  his 
instruments,  some  thirty  years  ago,  a  beautiful  Guarnerius 
and  a  viola  were  not  sold.  The  late  Mr.  Moses  Pye  was 
the  auctioneer,  and  he  was  most  particular  to  have  them 
kept  out  of  the  sale.  A  beautiful  instrument  was  bought 
by  Mr.  McQuade,  of  Fellside.  A  Ruggerius,  for  which  it 
was  said  Mr.  Buddie  paid  £170,  fell  to  Mr.  Thomas 
Hudson,  South  Preston,  North  Shields.  The  contra  or 
double  bass  mentioned  before  has  quite  a  history  of  its 
own  locally.  It  was  either  made  by,  or  more  probably 
bought  from,  Mr.  Corsby,  of  London,  a  celebrated  maker 
and  dealer.  It  passed  to  the  late  Mr.  Morland,  musical 
instrument  dealer,  Collingwood  Street,  Newcastle,  whose 
shop  is  now  occupied  by  Mr.  Preston,  hia  successor.  At 
the  sale  of  Mr.  Morland's  effects,  the  late  Mr.  Alfred 
Fox,  furrier,  Northumberland  Street,  secured  it,  and  it  is 
now  ably  performed  upon,  nightly,  by  Mr.  Robert 
Preston,  in  the  orchestra  of  the  Theatre  Royal,  Newcastle. 



The  establishment  of  the  Shakspeare  Press  was  unques- 
tionably an  honour,  both  to  the  founders  in  particular, 
and  to  the  public  at  large.  Our  greatest  poet,  our  greatest 
painter,  and  two  of  our  most  respectable  publishers  and 
printers,  were  all  embarked  in  one  common  white-hot 
crucible  ;  from  which  issued  so  pure  and  brilliant  a  flame, 
<»r  fusion,  that  ic  gladdened  all  eyes  and  hearts,  an